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Patanjali's Yoga Sutras Explained - TEXT Patanjali's terse Yoga Sutras (sutra: thread (of thought), i.e., aphorism) is an influential work on yoga philosophy and practice.

The text is attributed by some to the sage Patanjali (held to have lived in the first century BCE). One indologist, Axel Michaels, thinks the text is a collection of fragments and traditions of texts stemming from the 100s and 200s CE. Gavin Flood suggests the text was composed between 100 BCE and 500 CE. The first three parts of the text may be from the 200s BCE.

The Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy and also show an influence of Upanishadic and Buddhist thought. Karel Werner writes, "Patanjali's system is unthinkable without Buddhism. As far as its terminology goes there is much in the Yoga Sutras that reminds us of Buddhist formulations." And Robert Thurman writes that Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system.

In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali talks for eight "limbs" (Sanskrit: ashtanga) or steps that together makes for "Ashtanga Yoga". The division into the Eight Limbs may remind of Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path. Yoga Sutra 1:33 also indicate Buddhism's influence on parts of the Sutras.

Patanjali's work does not cover the many types of Yogic practices that have become prevalent. Yet it is pressed into service by a variety of schools of Yogic thought.

Commentaries have been published by many yoga teachers, as well as by academicians seeking to clarify issues. What some Sanskrit words and phrases may mean, remains a matter of some dispute.

Patanjali divided his Yoga Sutras into 4 chapters or books (Sanskrit pada):

  1. Samadhi refers to a blissful state where the yogi is absorbed into the One.
  2. Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Karma Yoga (Kriya Yoga, Action Yoga) and Ashtanga Yoga (Eightfold or Eightlimbed Yoga). Ashtanga Yoga describes the eight limbs that together constitute Raja Yoga.
  3. Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". 'Supra-normal powers' (Sanskrit: siddhi) are acquired by the practice of yoga.
  4. Kaivalya literally means "isolation", but stands for emancipation, liberation and used interchangeably with moksha (liberation), which is the goal of Yoga.

The Eight Limbs

The eight "limbs" or steps prescribed in the second pada of the Yoga Sutras are: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.

  1. Yama refers to five things to abstain from. These are the same as the five vows of Jainism. (1) Ahimsa: non-violence, inflicting no injury or harm to others or even to one's own self, in thought, word and deed. (2) Satya: truth in word and thought. (3) Asteya: non-covetousness, and hence non-stealing. (4) Brahmacharya: celibacy in case of unmarried people and monogamy in case of married people - with fitly clearn thoughts in general. (5) Aparigraha: non-possessiveness.
  2. Niyama refers to five things to observe (do): (1) Shaucha: cleanliness of body and mind. (2) Santosha: satisfaction. (3) Tapas: austerity and associated observances for body discipline. (4) Svadhyaya: study of the Vedic scriptures to know about God and the soul, which leads to awakening to the soul too. (5) Ishvarapranidhana: surrender to (worship of) God.
  3. Asana: Postures for preserving vital energy and harmonising body and mind, if that can be. Fit postures for meditation.
  4. Pranayama: control of breath is conducive to concentration of the mind.
  5. Pratyahara: withdrawal of the mind from the senses somehow.
  6. Dharana: concentration.
  7. Dhyana: steady meditation.
  8. Samadhi: the crown of meditation. There is conscious samadhi.
[A source of the above: Wikipedia]

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1.  Patanjali yoga

Devote yourself to Mantrayanic study and practice. - Milarepa, [Tm 234]

A swift and deep-going mantra practice, mantrayana, may be ranked above far less effective and helpful methods [◦Compare]. Various steps or measures from Patanjali's yoga can be added to such practice later. And gentle, safe, and pleasant yoga postures along with the mantra way are recommended. - TK


A. Condensed style

THE following goes into Vivekananda's commentary on the Yoga Sutras [in Via]. The sutras are extremely terse.

THE TITLE of the work is Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, at times translated as The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali. (The stress is on the second syllable, thus: 'pa-TAN-jali', with 'a' as in 'father'.)

SUTRA means 'thread', literally. In this context it means thread of thought, which may also be translated into 'aphorism'. A sutra is generally a condensed statement. If condensed, it may be cryptic, or tricky. If cryptic, most persons need commentaries to derive benefits from it as intended. Traditional mentions and expert commentaries supply information that may be very helpful, and that is in fact what much of the sutra-related tradition is about.

B. Kingly yoga, raja yoga

THERE are many yoga-forms, and raja-yoga is one of the demanding ones. [See Via 578] If demanding, it may exhaust and may do havoc. If exhausting, personal interests may suffer as a result - Kingly yoga thus implies depletion of some kinds, and regular training in athletics do the same. It may not be so bad - if there is a balance between "in and out" in a "sustainable growth," broadly understood.

SOME think the Yoga Sutras are the highest authority on Raja-yoga. [Cf. Via 578] That stand should be debated. One reason is that the thinking of Patanjali compartmentalises steps and builds that sort of thinking into a process that may not be just like that for most part. For example, novices who learn Transcendental Meditation (TM), think one sound at first, and dispense with many of the half-ritualised things of the Patanjali yoga in their training. And that is beneficial. But the second initiation (stage) of TM makes use of Patanjali topics again. Thus, the Yoga Sutras are like a menu in some respects, and one may compose a fair amount of dishes (ways) from it. ◊

D. Sutra renditions

VIVEKANANDA’S version is a quite free translation of the aphorisms (sutras) of Patanjali. He also supplies a running commentary, strives to avoid technicalities and tries to keep to a free and easy style of conversation.

OTHERS have supplied other translations and commentaries, revealing differences of understanding, of interest, and of allegiances. There are many of them.

E. Yoga philosophy vs Samkhya-philosophy

THE SYSTEM of Patanjali is based on the traditional (trivial?), very old philosophical system of Samkhya. The points of difference are very few. The most important difference is that Patanjali admits the Personal God in the form of Ishvara, while old Samkhya is without a God-concept. [Cf Wo; Via 578] ◊

GURUS may warn against practising many of the things Patanjali goes into: "With few exceptions, Raja-yoga can be safely learnt only by direct contact with a teacher." [Via 578] It means for most people that one should let it be if unaided.

ANOTHER problem is the hoary ritualism surrounding or reaching into the practice. It may be overly dogmatic in some places.

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2.  Some first steps

A. Reflect on the demanding practice in the beginning

FOR ORDINARY PURPOSES there is inward nature and outward nature. In higher awareness than normal you have to be keen to note a difference. Quote: "Sangsara is Nirvana, and Nirvana is Sangsara". [A key dictum of Mantrayana Buddhism]. Some aphoristic expressions or teachings in the Tibetan Mahamudra School of Buddhism and Zen, can be traced back to the doctrine of the identity of the Sangsara [phenomenal world and Nirvana [realm beyond]. [Cf Tiy xxxviii]

The study of Raja-yoga may take much time and practice. "A part of this practice is physical, but in the main it is mental. As we proceed we shall find how intimately the mind is connected with the body." [Via 583] ◊

THE yogi proposes to attain that fine state of perception in which he can perceive [reflect as well] different mental states. [Via 585]

B. Learn to bring analysis to inward states

A YOGI must avoid [extreme] austerity. [Via 585]

The power of attention, when properly guided and directed toward the internal world, will analyse the mind . . . As for the powers of the mind, concentrated they illumine. [Via 581]

The goal of all of [Raja-yoga's] teaching is to show how to focus the mind and make it unionised through that. Thus the inward rises into attention. The later rising into broad, significant conclusions - some don't do it. [Via 582]

Raja-yoga proposes to put before humanity a practical and scientifically worked out method of reaching . . . its own method of investigation . . . A certain method must be followed . . . prescribed. [Via 580-81]

VIVEKANANDA suggests, "First observe facts, then generalise, and then draw conclusions or formulate principles. [Develop] the power of observing . . . in order to have a real science." [Via 581]

In the study of Raja-yoga no faith or belief is necessary. Believe nothing until you find it out for yourself; that is what it teaches us. [Via 582]

YOU may need more than ordinary staying power to stick to the training for a long time.

C. Practical measures

RAJA-YOGA . . . decrees what to do and not to do. Vivekananda: "We have therefore to take care what sort of food we eat at the beginning; . . . when our practice is well advanced, we need not be so careful in this respect." [Via 585]

"While the plant is growing it must be hedged round, lest it should be injured; but when it becomes a tree the hedges are taken away; it is then strong enough to withstand". [Via 585] The religion that works like some trellis, may be assisting good things. ◊

GARDENING knowledge can be very useful, and general knowledge is often a boon along with culinary yoga training.

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3.  Graded steps

RAJA-YOGA is divided into eight main steps and stages (above). To recap, the first three are:

  1. Yama - non-killing, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, and non-receiving of gifts.
  2. Niyama (things to go for) - cleanliness, contentment, austerity, study, and polite and fit inward-attunement first - the greatest surrender.
  3. Two ways of asana (posture) - Both can be dispensed with, but preferably not: (a) Those for keeping the spine and neck steady and essentially upright during contemplation; (b) Other aiding postures for health or something else.

4. Pranayama

Pranayama, or control of the prana (vital energy): We get that sort of "sap" from the oxygen we breathe, from healthy food, from sun-rays and healthy life-styles. It is fine to conserve one's assets too, if that can be done, going for a much care-free life of less tear and suffering.

Vivekananda and other yogis talk of a set of three vessels tied in with the spine. They are called Ida; Pingala and Sushumna. They are not physically visible. But in certain forms of yoga there is a body of theory concerning them and other vessels called nadis.[Via 600-03; Edit: Claire Myers; Tog]

A current that is said to lie dormant, or coiled at the rear of you (near the scrotum or perineum), may be activated by intense focusing of a sort, and then the serpent power, the "Mother of eternal happiness" stings, so to speak, and in some cases rises through the middling vessel, the Sushumna - partly or completely. In the rare latter case, supersensuous illumination is had, and wisdom, self-realisation, love of God, or awakening. That is roughly how it is explained. [Via 602-03]

With pranayama training, one's face gets calmer. "I never saw a yogi with a croaking voice, " says Vivekananda. He did not meet all of them. [Via 604]

"The door of knowledge will open. No more will you need to go to books for knowledge; your own mind will have become your book, containing infinite knowledge." [Vivekananda, Via 605]. He is too pompous and grandiloquous, to be sure, granted that Vivekananda uses much book knowledge - he was studied and well versed - and not all of his key concepts are in vogue in science. "Ether" (akasha) is one of them.

Historical surveys reveal that many gurus have used different concepts, even contradictive ones. [Britannica Online, s.v. "Vedanta"]

Modern gurus contradict ancient gurus, and may also contradict other modern gurus, even themselves. Self-contradictions are not uncommon. Many such blunders and blunderbuss teachings make rational handling of the essence rather difficult to some.

However, intense focusing in an appropriate yoga way may activate "snake power" in the scrotum area or wherever it is felt at any time, and make for the relief or favourable conditions that may arise. Then "He reveals himself" and "His presence" is due to technicalities, just as Vivekananda is into in the chapter we discuss here. And by the way, for the general public I make do with advocating just technical excellence in meditation and deep study along with proper carefulness in these matters. And do not be goaded by guru authority figures; that could be best for you, as goaded often shows up as misled.

Let us revert to the Sushumna theory once again. In theory, Ida, Pingala and Sushumna "are present in every animal - whatever creature has a spinal column. But the yogis claim that in ordinary beings the Sushumna is closed, its action is not evident", and "for the yogi alone, the Sushumna opens". [Via 605]. Not for the yogi alone - that is dogmatic and misleading, methinks.

You might not expect that Hindu monks teach other than celibacy as regulated in some Hindu way. But being a monk is not needed for yogic attainment, and that is the teaching of Buddha too. Awakening may be had by lay followers too.

"Avoid everyone, however great and good he may be, who asks you to believe blindly.—Beware of everything that takes away your freedom. Know that it is dangerous and avoid it by all the means in your power," says Vivekananda. [Via 608]

Do question teachings that are favouring dogmatic ones, including some gurus - because sometimes their upbringing and their past rigours get the best of them - some turn bossy and wilful over serious matters; maybe greedy too.

5. Pratyahara

Pratyahara is "inwardmaking of the mind", making the mind turn inward. It 'shifts' that way when we fall asleep too. Through training of attentiveness one may get 'in' just by doing a few things unknown to many.

"The first lesson, then, is to sit for some time." [Via 609] As you become aware (again) that your attention has drifted (again), take it back to the practice, the training. That is an important part of progress in these waters.

I suggest: Put the mind on technical practice for many months, two or three times a day. Doing it regularly will help, because setting up a habit of this sort can help.

So, learning a good method of focusing the mind in a right sort of way for making the mind turn inward, is a key to repeated success, dealing with distractions from outside and within is another, and a third lies in regular drill. It is well to look at all of the material that goes along with a good method before you try it out, provided you are well for it.

6. Dharana

Keeping the mind steady in the interiorised position (or mode), perhaps by fixing the mind on some spot or a technical detail.

If you can repeat a well thought mantra about thirty-five times without interruption, your mind could get a bit interiorised. What to do then, is keep the drill going with focus on practice, just that.

7. Deep meditation, that is, dhyana

Attention that is led inward (in the mind), tends to replenish the mind.

Some gurus who claim to help, get notorious in disregarding the dynamics of gliding or inside - they institute rigmarole and even "wail for God Mom" practices and other odd sorts of stuff. It can seriously disturb the fit meditative practice, and may mar the quality time you set off for training. Awareness needs training too. There is no need to undermine it or sidetrack it by shows of devotion and massa figures.

When you remain, dwell, in the pleasant states that elevated attention is wont to bring, who knows, a gate may open next? Fine progress is marked by getting freer and stronger within, happy too - it happens to many who do TM.

8. Samadhi

Some call it superconscious experience. It is not the end of yoga, though. It is a beginning of dangers and riches too. For example, a central concept of the major part of the ancient primer is samyana, 'together-control' - it means holding one's attention steady on something in the superconscious state. And then various distinguished attainments could be reachable. That is part of the general aim of handy yoga. Patanjali devotes much space to enumerating many of these attainments, and how to rise into them (or try for them) effectively.

No goading

SITTING in a good posture could be beneficial. Doing gentle breathing (pranayama) can help too. It is good to let gentle breathing be followed by what normally should take the most time: the meditation training. [Link]

Helping the mind "inward" somehow comes close to falling asleep, but fit training is not for falling asleep, ideally. It may be different if you suffer from insomnia.

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4.  Practice hints

A. Let good study bring handling knowhow

Kurt Lewin is well known for his thought, "There is nothing as practical as a good theory." Best yoga theory can save you much pain and trouble, and you may save time to relax and cope in a good neighbourhood.

Here are three basic beginner steps or measures:

  1. Learn to observe and consider very simply initially. This equals unbiased observation, independent of whatever ideas and notions you may harbour through the efforts of others. [LINK]
  2. Get handy in simple, preferably artistic and cosy enough ways by yourself.
  3. Study facts and consider angles and perspectives, against getting indoctrinated.

B. He found his innermost Self (Chandogya Upanishad)

Success in meditation and yoga rests on skills and regular, cool work, not on stiff demands and cults of belonging and so on. A tale:

A GOD and a demon went to learn about the Self from a sage. They studied with him for a long time. At last the sage told them, "You yourselves are the being you are seeking."

Both of them thought that their bodies were the Self. The demon went back to his people quite satisfied and said, "I have learnt everything that was to be learnt: eat, drink, and be merry; we are the Self; there is nothing beyond us."

The demon never inquired any further, but was perfectly contented with the idea that he was God and that by the Self was meant the body.

The god thought at first, "I, this body, am Brahman; so let me keep it strong and healthy, and well dressed, and give it all sorts of enjoyments."

But soon he found out that that could not be the meaning of the sage; there must be something else to the instruction. So he came back and said: "Did you teach me that this body was the Self? If so, I see that all bodies die; but the Self should not die."

The sage said: "You are that."

Then the god thought that the vital forces which work the body were what he meant by the Self. But after a time he found that if he ate, these vital forces remained strong, but if he starved, they became weak. The god then went back to the sage and said, "Do you mean that the vital forces are the Self?"

The sage said: "You are that."

The god returned home once more, thinking that it was the mind, perhaps, that was the Self. But in a short while he saw that his thoughts were so many and diverse - now good, again bad; the mind was too changeable to be the Self. He went back to the sage and said: "I don't think that the surface mind is the Self. Did you mean that?"

"No," replied the sage; "you are that."

The god went home and at last found the true Self, beyond all thought: It was Deep Mind, one and without birth or death, called endless, omniscient, and omnipotent Being - not body or the mind, but beyond them and yet manifesting through these vehicles. [Via 588 - taken from Khandogya Upanishad, 8.7-15]

C. Shield your practice too

Practice in a sensible way, preferably in a clean atmosphere

IT is natural to feel doubtful about things we do not see. [Via 587]

You may start with trying out a little thing first, and if successful, increase and repeat within sane and safe bounds.

Try to keep your body strong and healthy - clean too is neat -; body is the best we can have - you may not be able to live on earth without it - [Via 588-89]

It is quite necessary that we should find a posture in which we can remain for a long time. That posture which is the easiest should be the one chosen. [Via 586] ◊

Good and skilled practice (training) is considered absolutely necessary. [Via 587]

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5.  Prana

A. Evolve skill from meticulous training

Your zest (or vital energy) accomplishes the activity.

IN THE highest state of samadhi (it is pronounced 'sa-MA-di' with 'a' as the first vowel in 'father' and 'i' as in 'distance') we see the real thing. [Via 599]

That which naturally takes a long time to accomplish can be shortened by the intensity of the action. [Via 597] And good luck.

ONE TENDS to good techniques through skills. Skill is the keyword. And by the way, prana is a complex concept, and a sampling concept.

B. Much training makes rigid or motionless

Training that reaches one's vitality may result in being motionless

THE VITAL force in every being is prana. Thought is the finest and highest manifestation of this prana. Conscious thought, again, as we see it, is not the whole of thought. There is also what we call instinct, or unconscious thought, the lowest plane of thought. [Via 593] . . . [R]eason is limited . . . The circle within which it runs is very, very limited. [Via 594]

YOU may remember the celebrated experiment of Sir Humphry Davy, when the laughing-gas overpowered him - how, during the lecture, he remained motionless, stupefied, and how, after that, he said that the whole universe was made up of ideas. For the time being the gross vibrations had ceased and only the subtle vibrations, which he called ideas, were present to him. [Via 594] ◊

However, there are other explanations for the gas-drugged Davy's notions to take into account too, such as "mad persistence due to gas effecting the brain and mind".

C. Good theory is never disturbed -

PRANAYAMA has to do with breathing, but more than that too. [Via 595].

The whole scope of Raja-yoga is really to teach the control and direction of prana [subtle vital energy] in different ways. [Via 597]

Sometimes in your own body the supply of prana gravitates more or less to one part; the balance is disturbed, and when the balance of prana is disturbed, what we call disease is produced. To take away the superfluous prana, or to supply the prana that is wanting, will be to cure the disease. [This is akin to standard acupuncture theory, where what one tries to balance is labelled Ch'i (pronounced 'KI'). - TK] [Via 597]

The most obvious manifestation of prana in the human body is the motion of the lungs. If that stops, as a rule all other manifestations of force in the body will immediately stop. [Via 595]

Prana can be transmitted . . . but for one genuine case there are hundreds of frauds. [Via 596]

IN this universe . . . (each) form represents . . . one whirlpool in the . . . ocean of matter. The whirlpools are ever changing . . . Not one body remains the same. [Via 594]

The I Ching (Book of Changes) is based on a similar idea, that everything changes - except the structure of the I Ching.

Yogis say that . . . the mind can function on a still higher plane, the superconscious. When the mind has attained that state, which is called samidhi - perfect concentration - it goes beyond the limits of reason and comes face to face with facts. [Via 594]

D. Breathing gently can be advocated

BY YOGA we can bring ourselves to the state of vibration of another plane and thus enable ourselves to see what is going on there. [Via 598]

KNOWLEDGE and control of prana is really what is meant by pranayama. [Via 592]

E. The body remembers as the body does -.

EVERY part of the body can be filled with prana, the vital force; and when you are able to do that, you can control the whole body. [Via 596] (5)

That there is organismic recall is often overlooked by some. (9)

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Beginning, adapting quite much - or letting it be

One may try to look into the ancient formulas of a quite discreet art of getting a solid and winning hand. It depends on the individual. And what results might depend on, may be open to debate too - later, perhaps.

Initially we note that the text's claims are many, and that there is a chance for getting screwed up by the largely unverified notions of it. But there are many tips for winning one's way by going within and learn to handle subtle fields of energy or mind. I think study of the text requires calmness and control on your part, not being a freak.

LoDealing with the fantastic to look at

In this matter and other matters, "ancient is no guarantee of correct", as Buddha teaches. Blunt belief in the apparently fantastic and exotic requires some mental work, which Patanjali decrees is not intelligent. Compare: "The mind seems to be intelligent and conscious. Yoga philosophy teaches that it's not." [Yof 12].

Granted Patanjali's premises, learn to let normal mind-work be. But how, in what perfect ways, and so on?

Can you believe the wild fox will be a good shepherd of sheep? Don't.

If you say A (basic premise), B (deduction) follows too. It's very often that way.

Practice of yoga makes one a yogi. There are woman yogis as well. Yet there is more than one yoga, many postures to choose among, many breathing exercises, and many meditation methods to choose among, and many definitions of the concepts dharana, dhyana, and samadhi. Pivoting terms differ from one Indian source of tradition to another, and often there are conflicting meanings, and not only shades and nuances.

What to choose? (1) The ones with the best documented effects; (2) the ones that suit you; (3) and "Nothing too much". If you stand by this general approach in what matters - in what you devote your to, it stands to reason that much should go better than it would otherwise.

LoCater to health. Develop the mind

ACCORDING TO the old teaching stories in the ancient philosophy books we call Upanishads - and in part the Bhagavadgita - what we might call the developed soul can wake up to find oneself within a lot.

Yoga, which means "union", is the Sanskrit equivalent of the English word "yoke." Yoga represents yoking, harnessing, at times, but much else too. ◊

It pays to be aware, circumspect, cautious, especially at the start, before the mind is made used to this and that.

LoYoga

The word 'yoga' means many things in the Indian heritage. On the one hand the word stands for certain disciplines - mental and bodily, and on the other hand the goal of such training. In that case 'union' is one meaning, and "joining", "uniting", "conjunction", and "means" are others. 'Yoga' is also the name of a philosophical system that is akin to Samkhya, another ancient system. Outside India, the term yoga is typically associated with Hatha Yoga.

There are many yoga branches or paths (margas). Among the ones often encountered are Raja Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Hatha Yoga. Patanjali's yoga is raja-yoga, and known just as 'yoga' otherwise in Hindu philosophy.

What to choose among them? The ones that suit you while preserving your freedom, rationality of mind, and having a good time. You probably do yourself a good turn if you look before you leap, if you study the effects of meditation methods and things like that before committing yourself seriously. Patanjali Yoga Sutras explained

Patanjali Yoga Sutras explained - END MATTER

Patanjali Yoga Sutras explained, LITERATURE  

Coco: Leggett, Trevor: The Complete Commentary by Sankara on the Yoga-Sutras. New York: Kegan Paul, 1990.

Edit: Tart, Charles, ed. Transpersonal Psychologies. New York: Harper Colophon, 1977.

Tiy: Evans-Wentz, Walter Yeeling, ed. Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Tm: Evans-Wentz, Walter Yeeling, ed. Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Tog: Woodroffe, Sir John, tr. Tantra of the Great Liberation (Mahanirvana Tantra). New York: Dover, 1972.

Via: Nikhilananda, sw.: Vivekananda. The Yogas and Other Works. Rev. ed. New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda, 1953. On-line.

Wo: Chatterjee, Satischandra, and Dhirendramohan Datta. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. 7th ed. Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1968.

Yof: Isherwood, Christopher and Pranabhananda, sw: How To Know God: the Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali. New York: Mentor, 1969.

Yolt: Johnston, Clive tr: The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. London: Stuart and Watkins, 1968.

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