O TAKG-SPIR(R), SQ4R AND PQRST Study Helps
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Improve both comprehension and grades by the fit study strategy. Here are three or four of them brought together into one, so you can benefit from all three (four). They are PQRST, SQ3R, SQ4R and O TAKG-SPIR. You may not have heard of the last one, but it is the most comprehensive of them, and hardly controversial. The names are acronyms, which, by the way, help learning.
Sound and fair education tends to counteract racism, narrowed mentality and some effects of sectarian upbringing. Good learning helps young and old ones further. It comes by stages, as hinted at in Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of learning, which is much worth, because it reveals there are stages of learning som that you can adjust to higher levels of learning in time, if you care. And why shouldn't you?
O TAKG-SPIR and PQRST are acronyms for two study methods that actually are excellent helpers for learning. The acronyms will be explained below. Also, regular calm observation can help in many walks of life. It can be trained and schooled, and probably refined too. Very much Buddhist meditation revolves around observing things, actually. There may be many important lessons to be learnt by careful observation over time, and also meditation methods of Tantra aim at it.
O TAKG-SPIR was devised by Tony Buzan, who is known for mind mapping and comprehensive study methods. PQRST with variants stems from Francis P. Robinson's SQ3R, and is used for text study too.
Interests, overlearning, and repetitions count too
It often shows up that delving deep within (meditating) for answers is at times not quite enough . . . But deep meditation along with studies is fine. And contemplating aptly on sceneries, animals and pictures should not be counteracted, for they may enrichen and enliven us. Such approaches form part of certain forms of study, such as architecture.
No matter who or what you study and learn from, it may not be good enough to find some important message or three either. For you should bring what you've learnt into the light of day so that you can benefit - and breathe more freely in time. Study methods offer helps to this end. Apart from (1) building on genuine interests, one is (2) a bit overlearning, and (3) still another is sensibly spaced out repetitions to counteract blatant forgetting (memory losses).
Good learning helps excellence. However, much education is pressed onto young ones, and they may get a gloomy outlook on learning much ever since, because learning was turned into something compulsive surrounded by grades and nervousness for exams and so on. As Noam Chomsky put it,
Typically they [the students] come in interested, and the process of education is a way of driving that defect out of their minds. [sarcastically]
You find the annotations on a Chomsky page.
But adequate learning discipline can be a good help. It is not as much outer-directed as adjusting to how learning grows and how what is learnt is recalled better. You have to allot time for these finer processes to get higher than the "donkey smart". And what is good in this learning terrain, needs to go against massive Unlust too. If you dislike school for many fit reasons, still try to combat disinterest in subjects by learning a bit about them, preferably out of school context. They you are not compelled by others and may get out of compulsive schooling less beleidigt, i.e., less scathed. Interests may be grown, and thus love of learning. Every little helps. By adjusting to one's basis of knowledge and the ways that good learning works and is grown, ways one may get less dull and slack. And if genuine interests are incorporated and brought to flourish, so much for the better.
Ideally, at least, you are not getting an education solely for the sake of the large society and its public schooling pawn. Try to rise to the occasion and surf on the wave by knowing how to study, so as to get more out of the experience than being washed over by waves and brines repeatedly. Some study on top of interests and thereby realise parts of themselves somewhat. It is an open-ended process.
One does well to consider much in the light of the potential of one's self. For "at the end of the day" the self is yourself. Good learning tends to the becoming of it. At any rate, it is possible and likely that you may grow to enjoy learning if you master the lovely "rules of the game". It pays to be smart. Good learning skills helps smartness on and up, and further. And as hinted at already, success as a learner depends in part on what you have been brought up to enjoy, and maybe more on human-adapted study skills such as the PQRST and SQ3R techniques of portioning out chapters of textbooks etc. (below). The acronyms represent basic way to increase the profit from time spent on learning. It is very good to know about them at least. And yes, with these serving-tools in your hands, academic learning may still be hard work.
O TAKG and SPIR(R), an easy survey
To relate knowledge signifies, first, relating it inwardly, for example to former experience, to close ones, and further. We relate inwardly by associative thinking (mulling over things) perhaps to find and see other sides to events, or how to go for possibly intrinsic and rewarding relationships. A good way to bring learnt items into the Long-Term Memory (LTM) is by decent rehearsals. A rewarding way of doing it is here: [Rehearsals].
Second, we relate outwardly by applying the learnt stuff with care in relaxed ways, favourable ways, and can eventually establish richer outer associations (connections). This is had by well applied knowledge to promote proficiency (skills). Things we master with proficiency or skills, should next "settle" as know-how that we may or may not get established by in time "if things are good". The outwardly applied 'relating' may be of mastery pertaining to talk, of judicious work, or both.
The word 'relate' can mean many things, including recite and rehearse. 'rehearse, recite, describe, recount, tell orally or in writing, narrate, report, detail, link, connect, correlate, unite, apply'. To apply what is learnt is a crucial factor. It may take on inward forms through mental associations and clues; bring about language skills; knowledge of relating with others, and other forms of hard-won know-how.
The last R (for relate) has been put into the SPIR(R) above by me. Now, perhaps we should bring SPIR(R) together with PQRST, SQ3R, and SQ4R and unify all of them in one cogent scheme, for there are only small differences between them.
SPIR, PQRST and SQ3R brought togetherGood study methods can be rather compatible:
These methods are not as mechanical as it may seem. And we can get valuable help from using a learning system.
Did you know that outcomes of American studies suggest that as much as 80% of the text study time is best used on memorisation? [Cf Aktinson 1987: appendix, Robinson 1962, 1971 etc.] Idea maps are great for it, in that they help us see the essential and connections between key parts much easier. Apart from that, you may see that SPIR (PQRST) - is good help for reading and studying with skill.
Interest is normally fine too. It helps a lot in sound surroundings and among friends, for example.
How to survey
SURVEY, PERUSE - gather and formulate interesting goals.
There are suggested books among the references. - TK
Atkinson, Richard, et al. Introduction to Psychology. 9th ed. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1987.
Buzan, Tony. Make the Most of Your Mind. Rev. ed. London: Pan, 1988 (last edition so far: 2000).
Buzan, Tony. The Memory Book: How to remember anything you want. Harlow: BBC Active / Person, 2010.
Buzan, Tony, and Barry Buzan. The Mind Map Book: Unlock your creativity, boost your memory, change your life. Harlow: BBC Active / Pearson, 2010.
Buzan, Tony. The Speed Reading Book: Read more, learn more, achieve more. Harlow: BBC Active / Pearson, 2010.
Buzan, Tony. Use Your Head. Harlow: BBC Active / Pearson, 2010.
Gross, Ronald. Peak Learning: A Master Course in Learning How to Learn. Rev. ed. New York: J. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999.
Gross, Ronald. Socrates' Way: Seven Master Keys to Using Your Mind to the Utmost. Rev. ed. New York: J. Tarcher/Putnam, 2002.
Malone, Samuel A. Mind Skills for Managers. Aldershot: Gowers, 1997.
Robinson, Francis P. Effective Reading. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.
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