I keep six honest serving-men
The interrogative pronouns what, why, when, how, where and who form a handle that helps you to be good journalist and a writer that covers the basics of a topic well. If you can find good answers to all of these pronouns (and a few more questions), you should have covered the basics of that topic.
For literary study some acronyms may be much better, by jogging the memory and thereby helping analyses. A few of them are given further down. Acronyms work like handles that can be used over and over for different issues that more is hitched to. For example, the A in AIR-BOC is the first letter in 'author' in that acronym. Once you recall what the A and the five other letters stand for, you could be on your way to quickly get to some basics about a poem, a novel, a movie, or real-life happenings, and on your way to getting amply rewarded. Different acronyms tell of varying approaches concerningliterature analysis in general. They serve like handles - also called memory pegs -, to adequated coverage of important sides to lots of texts.
The acronyms above derive from key points of well established criticism. So what you derive from getting into the acronyms that follow, will serve as your bundle of memory devices that can greatly help you to get a grip on literary work - understanding, discussing, and analysing both poetry and prose.
The AIR-BOC item should perhaps be learnt first of the listed memory handles (acronyms) on top of the page. And the approaches that they stand for, is fit for studying films and living persons too.
If you can, have a heart and maintain calm, enough zest or a joyous spirit as you go about. Thereby your heart finds learning in many a field all right for you. It can be good for the evolving individual to learn with some measure of joy intact. If not that: calmness with sane attention to getting details better, improving things - then some measure of gladness and content may rise inside you, because mastering things gives rise to joy. There may be other reasons too. Study techniques may be tentatively, individually assessed by such measures. Being "in the flow" speaks for it too. Thus: adhere to calm and even zest whenever you can. As a result, you may not stop delighting in learning even in school. It remains to be seen.
Learn by heart by spacing out repetitions
Learning is had by cramming. Cramming counteracts forgetting. There is some drill involved, and what is to be learnt by heart, has to be tackled - but not furiously. One of the secrets is repetition. Another is calm. A third is the help that glad interest gives almost automatically.
Such facets of our study work may be studied further. For example, studies have shown that about 80% of the study time should be repetition work: that yields better results [see Ams, His] One reason for repeating the essence of what you have studied is that mamory may fail you later. Both interest, overlearning (a technical term) and repeating things may help. How do do it? By repeating wisely and well.
When you space out your repetitions according to plan, you gain more by less efforts, and it helps in the long run. We give such hints on other pages.
Base your learning on what helps. In some waters (terrains) what you need first and foremost, is to remember good points. If so, be allied with knowledge of how memory works. There are good methods.
Good acronyms offer help down memory lane
Acronyms (words made of letters from other words) should be worth studying, for (a) they condense highly useful information in a handy manner and make it quite easy to get to it again. Examples:
Radar: radio detecting and ranging (made up in 1941)
Nato: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (signed on April 4, 1949 and entered into force on August 24, 1949)
Laser: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (made up in 1960)
If you put yourself into it, you may find out more about each, the radar and laser.
Learn the secrets of O TAKQ-SPIR
O TAKQ-SPIR is the "shorthand" that refers to a basic study technique that may bring real help. [LINK]
If you learn it, you have a grasp of a fit, neat and much all-round study
technique, and will know what steps are involved, who comes first, and then you won't
deceive yourself or anyone else into thinking you have studied well if you have not.
What does O TAKQ-SPIR mean? The acronym surely carries good meaning in Norwegian: 'Tak' means roof and 'spir' is a steeple, a spire.
Learn to visualise. Mind images is what the bulk of learning is made up of. We can remember astoundingly much through mental images. Think that you stand beside the cathedral in Trondheim and look up. Because you bend your neck, the first word becomes 'takq' - it's a little joke.
Have a look at the picture of a landmark building in a Norwegian university town. It has a roof and a spire - O TAKQ-SPIR. The basic study technique that is shown through it, is described here: [Link]
First try to learn the acronym that sums up the most important parts of what you study. Then link up to its letters one by one. In just one day you may have learnt top things (top subjects) without much cramming. That's when the fun begins: you are ready to expand your learning. Adjoin the key phrase(s) or key words and learn them well. Then you may wake up one morning and remember it all. That means you have gained mastery of elementals, probably.
When you master basic parts of what you're into, you may try to make money, if you adjust to rulers.
What we give, is great help to come a long way in getting to grips with the essentials, the bare bones of subjects. Then you are on your own.
First remember things, then seeing on top of that
You see, the memory phrase (acronym) is like a handle fixed to something bigger. It is much easier to remember the big subject if you have a well organised handle to catch and hold on to it by. That's why we present these teachings. They may help both students and youngsters into better performance.
Learning is had down memory lane in the first place. The other aspects of knowing and accomplishing come on top of recall, ie memory. Have a go. You may find this training funny. And you may be surprised at how easy it is to remember through handy helpers.
This study is help for holding better parts of a study well in mind in mind. The acronyms we go into below, if well remembered, give surveying help and assist summary making. Most important, they serve the memory in a life and can do the same on exams. They may assist or even bring confidence by letting you know you are not totally unprepared.
Literary study made really easy
The proverbs indicate that to succeed when you comment, analyse, expose or interpret a text, sane moderation could be welcome. It's often wise to go for that, and not overstretch in any major way, at least.
On the other hand, you may have to go further and explore things a bit or a lot on your own. There may be dangers in that. Divers could have to withstand more pressure than others. It depends on the agreements you get, perhaps.
This saying is about method. After all, there may be more than just one. It should be good to bear that in mind, to avoid getting one-sided or biased around the bend.
Below is great help for generalised literary study, rooted in a nice little primer
for university students and perhaps some others too [See Gls]. The
acronyms that are found, have been added. They are based on findings of how memory works,
among other things. Good use of them could make learning and expressing easier and more fun.
Good luck with that.
AIR-BOC is for approaching a text or film at first, and tentatively. According to this, you may approach and study a text somewhat tentatively in relation to such as:
The letters of the acronym AIR-BOC need to be read, understood and next remembered. Overlearning helps it, and memorisations. These two work together. Good acronym 'pegs' like this one can and should make learning and express writing more fun. And you should memorise them so well that they can last a life-time. It's easy once you know how.
Good acronyms belong to memory items that can serve as handles: they may afford hard, good grips, ie mastery of basic presentation. That's what we're into on this page.
Welcome or even dear criticism links up the parts of criticism to the whole somehow, and attains a fine organic wholeness on its own, in its own right. Some may also gain an artistic presentation in so doing. It depends on what is welcome and called for, among other things. You should play safe unless explorations and deviations are very welcome - that's in the real world.
To criticise or bring critique can be done on many levels and through a lot of angles. Before you form a judgement (evaluation), analyse and assess to avoid blunders and scapegoating. This implies you are to handle important facets of the content and perhaps language too - it depends. There are settings where an impressionistic criticism may be called for. That means you take your impressions as a base. There are others where the author's intentions are in focus, and so on. Bear in mind:
"What the author actually did counts, maybe not what he tried to do."
You could try to get to a point of view that helps you to illuminate the form (how the text is written), the setting and important themes. You may vent some opinions after you have built such a platform. Vent some opinions as to the artistic wholeness, for example.
There are other elements to go into than the ones below, but we have sought to make a fair key selection, all in all. And remember that the listing may be expanded. You or a fictional character may be characterised. In fiction it may be through elements like these:
We find that characters may be marked by voluntary actions or assembled routines which they may find themselves fixed in. Such hallmarks may be more valid than airy or good-looking statements brought about.
Texts may be novels, short stories, dramas, poems and blends among them. Below is a menomonic phrase and key-words to it. If you apply yourself to the strong points and learn them better and better in time, you could end up wiser in many ways.
SKIP LIR, VIS MEA
SOME KNOWLEDGE of Celtic myth and Latin will help:
The Poseidon of the [ancient Celtic] Tuatha De Danaan Pantheon was called Lir [Lyr], but we hear little of him in comparison with his famous son, Manannin, the greatest and most popular of his many children. [Charles Squire, Mythology of the Celtic people, p 60]
The following tale is to see to that the name Lir is easily recalled:
The Children of Lir
LIR, THE father of the sea-god, had married two sisters in succession. The second of them was named Aoife. [Pronounced "Eefa"] She was childless, but the former wife of Lir had left him four children. Lir loved them so intensely that the step-mother became jealous. In the end she resolved to destroy them.
Aoife went on a journey to a neighbouring Danaan king, Bov the Red, and took the four children with her. When she arrived at a lonely place by Lake Derryvaragh in Westmeath, she ordered her attendants to slay the children. They refused, and rebuked her. Then she resolved to do it herself; but she could not bring herself to do it. Instead of killing the children she changed them into four white swans, and laid on them a curse:
"Three hundred years you are to spend on the waters of Lake Derryvaragh, three hundred on the Straits of Moyle (between Ireland and Scotland), and three hundred on the Atlantic by Erris and Inishglory. After that, "when the woman of the South is mated with the man of the North," this evil spell will end."
When the children failed to arrive with Aoife at the palace of Bov what she had done was discovered, and Bov changed her into "a demon of the air." She flieed forth shrieking, and was heard of no more.
Lir and Bov sought out the swan-children, and found that they had both human speech and could make wonderful music. From all parts of the island companies of the Danaan folk went to Lake Derryvaragh to hear their wondrous music and talk with the four swans. During that time a great peace and gentleness reigned in the whole countryside.
At last it was time for the swan-children to leave the fellowship of their kind and move to the wild cliffs on the rough sea of the northern coast. Here they knew the loneliness, cold, and storm. Forbidden to land, their feathers froze to the rocks in the winter nights, and they were often buffeted and driven apart by storms. Fionuala sang:
Fionuala, the eldest of the four, took the lead in all their doings, mothered the younger children most tenderly, and wrapped her plumage round them on nights of frost.
At last the time came to enter on the third and last period set for them. They took flight for the western shores of Mayo. Here too they suffered much hardship; but a young farmer named on the shores of Erris Bay, found out who and what the swans were, and became their friend. They told their story to him, and through him it is supposed to have been preserved and handed down.
When the final period of their suffering was close at hand they resolved to fly towards the palace of their father Lir, who dwelled at the Hill of the White Field, in Armagh, to see how things have fared with him. They did so; but found nothing but green mounds and whin-bushes and nettles where the palace of their father had been. They could not see it any longer.
On Erris Bay they approach a hermit and make themselves known to him. He instructed them in the Christian faith, and they joined him in the church singing.
Now it happened that a princess of Munster (the "woman of the South") was betrothed to a Connacht chief, and begged him to give her the four wonderful singing swans as wedding gift. He asked them of the hermit, but he refused to give them up. And then the "man of the North" seized them violently by the silver chains that the hermit had coupled them with, and dragged them off to his princess. But the moment they came in front of her, the swan plumage fell off and revealed four withered, snowy-haired, old human beings, shrunken in their vast old age. The princess fled the place in horror, but the hermit prepared to baptise them at once, for the four old people were now about to die.
"Lay us in one grave," said Fionuala, "and place Conn at my right hand and Fiachra at my left, and Hugh before my face, for there they were wont to be when I sheltered them many a winter night on the seas of Moyle."
And the hermit sorrowed for them to the end of his days. As for the rest of the mnemonic phrase we have coined for tackling literate study:
vis is Latin for "power";
mea, is "my, mine", if uttered by a woman, for example as in "mea culpa".
You may see that Lir's swan-children eventually skipped all consideration for and connection with their father, because they were not allowed to find his elfish castle, in time.
His wife skipped all consideration and connection with him too, after being blinded by jealousy and significant power, (her "vis mea").
In the light the tale and the added pinpointing above, the mnemonic phrase SKIP LIR, VIS MEA serves as a comment to recall.
What is given here, is a multi-purpose, open-ended blend. The mnemonic letters in the pale blue boxes (S, I, Li, R, I, E) show elements commonly found in poetry. Firm Criticism has unified them here. Since genres may fuse and blend, it makes good sense to have a close look at:
It's only fair to include them and the others in a survey. And if you mean to learn gist (central items) so that it sticks, think of yourself as one of "the hivernantes" and so on.
This study is much compressed. It needs to be coupled to textbooks or texts to work somewhat as intented.
Ams: Atkinson, Richard et al: Introduction to Psychology. 9th ed. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1987.
His: Atkinson, Rita et al.: Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology. 13th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt College, 2000. —— The sixteenth, revised edition, Atkinson's and Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology, is scheduled to get published in March 2014.
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