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Ways of Referring

Adhere to the ways of citing or referencing in your own learning institution's style guide. For the lack of such a guide, it might help to know what different style guides tell. However, different style guides offer different guidelines, and are slowly or more abruptly changing with new editions.

Naming an author on the Gold Scales: In the end part of a page is something like "© 20072018, Tormod Kinnes". You can build on that:

Introductions to collections and series are by Tormod Kinnes unless otherwise stated.

Pages with tales, quotations or proverbs in them, have been selected and probably edited by Tormod Kinnes. Begin a bibliography reference to such a page with Kinnes, Tormod, ed.

To cite or refer more fully to any page on the Gold Scales, here is something very short from what widely used style guides have established:

A. How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style (Author-Date)

In-text citations of a page listen in your bibliography: Author's last name and year of last modification.

Example: (Kinnes 2018)

In footnotes and endnotes (first appearance): Author's first and last name, "Title of Article or Page," Title of Website.

Example: Tormod Kinnes, "Danish Tales: Opening," The Gold Scales.

In the bibliography: Last name, First name. Year of last modification. "Title of Article or Page." Title of Website. url

Example: Kinnes, Tormod. 2018. "Danish Tales: Opening". The Gold Scales.

SOME MORE ON NOTES: If your work includes a bibliography, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. However, if a bibliography is not included with your work, the first note for each source should include all relevant information about Gold Scales source: author's full name, source title, and facts of publication.

Now, if you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, such a note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s). However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation is repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.

B. How to Cite a Web Page using MLA

The most common way to cite a page on a website:

Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there is not an author listed, start the citation with the title.

Put the title of the individual page in quotation marks, followed by a period.

Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma.

If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the publisher's information in the citation.

The date the page or website was published comes next.

End the citation with the url. When including the url, remove http:// and https:// from the URL.


Last name, First name of author. "Title of Web Page." Title of Website. Publisher. Date published. URL.

Example: Kinnes, Tormod. "Danish Tales: Opening." The Gold Scales, T. Kinnes, 2018,

(When citing websites in the MLA way, just remove http:// and https:// from the url.)

C. How to Cite a Web Page using APA

Recipe for E-Books Found on a Website:

Author Last Name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader version]. or Retrieved from http://xxxx


Kinnes, T. (2018) Danish Tales: Opening. Retrieved from


referring, Literature  

Breen, Michelle, Aoife Geraghty and Pattie Punch. Guide to Harvard Referencing Style, Cite It Right. University of Limerick's Referencing Series. 2nd ed. Limerick: Gluckman's Library, University of Limerick, 2007.

Lipson, Charles. Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles – MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2006. ⍽▢⍽ Counsel for students and researchers on a wide range of citation styles. Professor Lipson explains the main citation styles students and researchers are likely to encounter in their academic work. He does so simply and clearly with examples. The book is said to cover the basics. A second edition from 2011 has also come.

Modern Humanities Research Association. MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors and Editors. 3rd ed. London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2013. ⍽▢⍽ A good book of reference in the humanities. 126 pages.

Modern Language Association of America (MLA). 2016. The MLA Handbook. 8th ed. New York: MLA.

Pears, Richard, and Graham Shields. Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide. New ed. Whickham, Newcastle upon Thyne: Pear Tree Books, 2008.

Rampolla, Mary Lynn. A Pocket Guide to Writing History. 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin's, 2004 (and later).

Ritter, Robert M. The Oxford Guide to Style. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002. ⍽▢⍽ A 642 pages large companion to the Chicago Manual of Style, outlining the British way of doing things into 2002. The University of Oxford website also provides a useful on-line style document, "University of Oxford Style Guide" (2016, so far).

Skills for Learning. Quote, Unquote: A Guide to Harvard Referencing System. 2nd ed. Leeds: Leeds Beckett University, 2014. ⍽▢⍽ A guide to 'Harvard' referencing, that is, author-date referencing. The advice in the booklet conforms to British Standards until 2014.

Spatt, Brenda. Writing from Sources. 8th ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2011. ⍽▢⍽ This guide to source-based writing covers the steps of research, writing, and documentation through 576 pages. There are examples, exercises, and guidance.

The University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. London: The University of Chicago Press, 2010. ⍽▢⍽ 1026 pages. A 17th edition is not published. There are marked changes in it. Have a look as you like: ◦Changes in the 17th edition (PDF)]

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