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Learning by Keynotes and Extracts

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RESERVATIONS COLLECTION  

Summaries and other Convential Features to Enhance Learning

One step at a time helps in climbing and walking along.

Net sites deal with publishing, and publishing is helped by features involved in the learning (assimilation) experience. Straight processing of information and adjustments to the cognitive processes needed for learning assist learner control. Many study methods aim at it in their ways too, for example the PQRST or SQ4R takes. [Link]

In a discourse, markers may be put to use to show what part of the text we are in, to help overview and a basic grasp. Schematas are schemes that assist thinking. As such they are basic structures with quite similar helpful properties. We use such helpful features to show things with more clarity.

Some textbooks use introductions, headings, in-text summaries and end summaries to show how the ideas are sorted, for example the textbook Social Psychology. In its preface its authors tell how the text is organised, and what features are included to enhance learning. Among the organisational features - which we deal with - each chapter opens with an outline of the main headings, introduces key problems and topics, and so on. Further, each major section within the chapter begins with a short preview of what is coming, an advance organiser. Graphical features are used too, and many words are explained. [Sop xxi-xxiii]

Getting a first overview by browsing the headings, making use of the standard features that are there, and the summaries, if any, are standard ways of approaching a text to maximise the learning. Atkinson and Hilgard's 14th edition of Introduction to Psychology stress they have used such pedagogical features as chapter outlines and chapter summaries along with figures to assist learning. In the recommended Mind Map Book by Tony and Barry Buzan chapters are designed much similarly, but also include a terse foreword after the chapter outline (preview). These and many other features help learning by offering pegs to remember and associate interesting content with as you read along. [Hi ix-x; Mmb 20-21]

Help yourself by surveying a chapter before you read into it. Look at the headlines, the over-all grasp of the content as revealed in section headings and design markers. The summary may show if the topics and presentation angle is of interest to you, and that is the kind of motivation you should ask for, because genuine interest and methods of study help you so that your learning process does not flounder, but remains with you though life, explanding too. That is natural, and learning may be a delighting experience. Studies of infants show that exploring is fun. Too bad most conformist schooling works at its loss by punishments, nervous strain, and not a lax, congenital group.

A hundred or so of our text have a basic devise at bottom, a "frieze table" as we call it. That bottom table is essential (existential) and related to winning Tao(s), general procedures of research and its presentations, and much else. The structural take has a wide range of application. It allows for essay compositons and blank verse, and helps learning by many features built into it, including signs (markers) of section and the like.

There is an attached program (not shown) that enables yet more use of it, apart from the regular, stepwise training programs evolved on top of the summaries.

It also helps to arrange your keynotes and use a visual display (scenery), not just carefully stratified levels or sequences of adjustments as fits. Maybe you like it.

In using it or parts of it as you like, never make light of or disregard the individual(s) at stake; his family and rooting, including hereditary fitnesses as found and national advancements. Rather, blend and cultivate the best of them.

Much depends on the culture, its set-up ways and expectations; much depends on admissions and what has been allowed, what is allowed to go on, and what could become all right "around the bend or corner" somehow. Judge well, emulate others, and play safe. Risk nothing as you develop your winning streaks (Taos), learn to evaluate, to look before you leap.

And just accept that fools may counteract your progress; for it serves them. Look to the associates, the circumstances, the lay of the land, the weather and the slippery roads at hand and make your best choices.

The general style of our discourses may be poignant due to built-in standards marked by the separate reservation set also. Maintain integrity as you go on.. - TK

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Aid Recall

To understand and recall ar two different things and call for different adjustments, with due consideration to each. Buzan and memory researches have shown that understanding and remembering are much different features of the mind. A study is good when content is put into the Long Term Memory (LTM), which can be done in different ways. Most common are interest, overlearning, and repetitions (memorisations), and practical use.

It has shown up that you may read a text and understand it, but in the end you recall maddeningly little. Why? Because many study approaches ignore how human memory works, and just what goes into transferring "memory items" of various sorts into the LTM (Long Term Memory).

Study sessions need to be about half of the academic hour, maybe even briefer with age. Pauses have to be integrated also.

Memorisation of key points (pegs) have best effect if they set in a quarter after the learning session or lecture, at night the first or second day, after a half-week, a week, a month, and five-six months, for example. Buzan specifies it very well. [Uy; Tor].

Spaced memorisations do not have to take long. They are to refresh already established patterns of associations, including ideas. Ten minutes each memorisation may be more than enough, if you have arranged your key words and key phrases so that you do not have to spend nine out of ten minutes reading unrwarding stuff, but is free to focus on keys and their networks of associations - to themselves and also what they may mean to yourself.

Overlearning can be assisted by asking one another questions in a lax, congenital atmosphere, and repeating it. Otherwise, when you learn the meaning of, say, ten words, in three minutes, go on for another three or four minutes to "cement" the memory patterns ("mental tracks"). Then you will be able to recall more, through overlearning. It should be perhaps 30 percent.

American studies show that for best results, memorisation should take up over three fourths (80%) of the study time; that makes the study most effective. But once you have memorised and overlearnt material enough, it "sits", and then a fresh-up every half-year or so may suffice if you mean to retain the best fruits of your study labour. If not, there is evidence that many make horribly ineffective use of their study time and efforts by cramming for exams and dumping most of the content in a few months afterwards.

A study at NTNU by Jarand Rystad shows how extreme such forgetting is at NTNU. A group of 17 - half of them graduate students, half of them researchers, attended a basic exam in mathematics on a lower level without preparing for it. All of them flunked. The implications are quite stunning and the findings are hard to get to, after being published in Adresseavisen and Universitetsavisa and commented on in various other places.

By faster learning and better recall, more can be done and won. By learning key words and memorising them, much of the content they were taken from, is made to sit. You can also knit some of the keys together to form strings of thought, lovely acronyms too.

"The shorter the better" tends to work for study notes if they are duly memorised. There is an art to it. It stands to reason that the sweet and short phrase is far easier to learn and recall than the longwinded one. There is room for arranging items in special ways in addition to that. That is what we're into. [More]

Also, many poetic elements helps recall too, as documented. Hovering mental images is an aid to recall in Tony Buzan's mind-map system. Imagery forms part of poetic expressions. Vivid mental images are related to poetry in itself. Terseness is part of some poetic ways of expression. Our novel grid-rooted metres are systemic-rooted and work according to plan, as neat, added outcomes of the overarching design.

Perhaps the memory-helping assistance that Tony Buzan mentions and makes use of, should be moderate. Some more fine elements can surely be added to his lists. We are not all alike. Some appear to remember much by other means than Buzan explores and exposes. [Bhb kk]

Learning your way aided by detailed study methods that help recall. The end is to get main content, gist, into your head and maybe work on from there.

Quoting and not quoting or both -

Leave out parts of a period and two things happen: The meanings change or they do not change. If you are a good reviser, your task is to abbreviate to the latter end: no changes of meaning.

If you form gist from key words and key phrases (keynotes), your business is different. What you're up to is to 'glue' elements together by nearness in space (juxtaposition). The results may seem odd or freakish to others, so feel allowed to insert as much padding, fyllekalk, as is acceptable. To simplify with care is fit for approaching success. Training programs are for that.

On this site we place select keynotes and other titbits into a well defined and described preformatted assemblage pattern, all according to an overall plan. From it we arrive at short and crisp, lucid and well-arranged crummy sentences, maybe some have a fun look too. That could be welcome in some settings, not all of them. People are different, settings are different, and styles of writig have to follow suit unless you stand up as a poet, who is given freer ranges of expression. It helps to express yourself poignantly; that is all. And well meted out "sagacity" in these waters makes the difference between promiscuous quotes and maturer, advanced renditions of many kinds.

It helps assimilation (learning) if we peel off verbiage to ensure more proficient tools for learning. Buzan and Buzan show that for recall, ninety percent of the text is not needed, and key words and phrases are needed. Structures or links between some of them help further, as it helps building bulks of memory associations in the mind.

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Going for Excellence

Those who deviate in nice, suitable ways for individualised attainments and yet succeed, may say you need boldness for it.

The style on this site implies and presupposes a handy selection of pre-set reservations and moderators as spelt out and with links to it on practically every page. In scientific and scholarly writing, few things are as bad as over-stretching a statement, making it over-bold, over-assertive, biased, foolish to look at, and so on.

Some of the regular text icons we have put to use are standard markings to show just what sort of rendition we deal with. These markers help you to identify central ideas, at least to us.

Text icons are handy if carefully meted out. It serves your processing of data and your memory also. It is also true that conventional and other markers (signs) seldom intrude a lot on the gist of the content, but they may implicate what "wavelengths" we operate on, for example pure quotation, twisted quotation, abbrevated, assorted, shuffled, spoonerised, and so on.

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Assembling Items

Art is made by assembling select items and composing them. In some cases art is just the intention that something is art.

The art of writing is many-sided, not only many-hued.

"Either-or" is often insufficient

Writing ought either to be the manufacture of stories for which there is a market demand - or it should be an art and have nothing to do with standardized values. [With Willa Cather]

COMMENT. That is her opinion. Opinions may be normative; speculative; attempts at explaining what is going on, and so on.

Brightness (inherent intelligence) could rise on top of well selected, assembled and composed items. Mind mapping is just that - a part of the art of study. By help of it you can get more out of the time and efforts you spend over books and the like. There is a chance you can identify and remember and accomplish far better in time too. [Cf Mum; Tor]

Values are rather standardised anyhow

"Writing ought either to be the manufacture of stories for which there is a market demand ... or it should be an art ... and have nothing to do with standardized values."

COMMENT. Abbreviated quotations may distort the original message or be fair to it by unbiased terseness and so on.

Interestingly, an exact, abbreviated quotation that is technically correct in all respect, may still change the meaning of the content cited by what is left out and how the "glued" (brought together, assembled) segments work together.

A so-called maiming rendition is indeed possible by verbatim segments of the source. It is not fair citing if it is not true to the main thrust of the source statement.

The abbreviated quotation that somehow changes its meaning by being made short or rendered out of its context (setting), may still be useful and entertaining. If so, it can be taken well care of in its own right.

A highlighting rendition may stand on its own feet, and we may signal debt to another source by conventionalsed items (signs) as in the examples - in this case it is to be "with Willa Cather", not "by Willa Cather". If her original message is much altered by ellipses, reduced to a fraction, and added to, we should probably not refer to her at all; that might keep us out of trouble a long time.

Careful, abbreviated renditions can make hard-core scientific presentation easy to grasp with no loss of basic insights, preferably, no loss of insight and clarity. That is what Plain English goes for in its way too, in essence. [Peg].

Artistry can develop on top of basic skills. We should enjoy that.

Note the difference between getting skilled and getting excellent on top of that. Study toward excellence and look for great evidence to hold on to. So we take heed.

Look up to the artist that uplifts. "Every" artist knows that it may pay to deviate from the established ways and renew oneself through it.

Adhering to suitable simplicity and all right conformity, do not go too far. Where standard ways of citing and rendering suffice, let other means and ways rest till later.

Technical markers for expanded citation business was missing earlier. Those artists, businessmen or orgy makers that love excellence for its own sake, may learn handy ways that ride on top of conventionalised ones.

We almost presuppose you know how to handle standard citation business here. Many manuals describe it well. Mary Lynn Rampolla's pocket guide to writing in history is all right. [Wrh].

You slowly help yourself as you learn to focus on the key, pivotal elements, figure out the main themes and also peel away as much as 80-90 percent of the words to help memorisation-aided recall. In so doing you are allied with research.

Watch out for the dimpled lunatic

The father of the man, the growing child, is at times likened to a dimpled lunatic. [With William Wordsworth and Ralph Waldo Emerson]

The medley extract works in its own right, precisely like humour does, by fusing (bringing together) two different planes of reference, just as Arthur Koestler shows in The Act of Creation. He has also written on humour in Encyclopaedia Britannica. [Uka; Ebu]

Wordsworth says, "The child is the father of the man." It is meaningful in one sense. Emerson's notion is, "A child is a curly, dimpled lunatic." To fuse two formerly isolated sayings into one can be compared to bringing forth a hybrid plant. It stands there in its own right at last, a result of some kind of both-and-too in the form of an abstract or modified thought with a bit of Wordsworth and a bit of Emerson - in the end itself.

The fusing of extracts and segments makes for decocted phrases and keynotes. Too long-winded and perhaps unduly exaggerated or incorrect statements may contain something interesting anyhow. Careful modifications of abstracts can retrieve it.

Wordsworth states things about "the father of the man", meaning the growing, coming man. Emerson talks of the dimpled lunatic. This author has assembled his select items for a marked effect that Koestler explains very well.

If the author does not want to acknowledge who he is "stealing" pieces from, the names in brackets may not be there. Instead the unsuspecting reader may thing the memorable quote is original all the way. No, it is only the fusion (assemblage) that is. Do as courtesy and professionalism admits. There is hopefully no pretence in either.

If you go for learning the extended art of extracts and renderings, you may reap more benefits. Also, if we abbreviate university texts by scanning them, sifting out keynotes and forming gist on top of them, then we arrive - but at what? Much depends on selections, quite naturally, but not on excluding fair and fit and substantial research and its dominant findings.

Proficient thinkers may do good. And where we go into statements by various authors, improve on them and fuse them and so on, maybe we have done a good turn.

Where there are variants to choose among, succinct ones may do. This outlook is linked to "Occam's razor", a principle that principle gives precedence to simplicity; of two competing theories, the simplest explanation of an entity is to be preferred, it means. [Ebu "Occam's razor"]

The tick tack toe design is structural from bottom up. It may be tried in fields of business and economy too. Each "Gain Tao" summary may be tried as a groundwork for solid training.

Our existential grounding is (a) much nature-semblance linked. Modified expressions from it are theresponsibility of those who use it.

You do not have to walk tip-toe like diplomats do among real, good friends.

Being Objective

It helps to be sachlich (realistic, factual, matter-of-fact, impartial, straightforward, sober, objective, unbiased) and eminently practical.

Modify what is needed to remain carefully guarded, and do not overstretch or undermine any significant content by foolishness, including exaggerations.

Do not expect a bias to be solid and of much of use at any time.

Arne Naess explores sachlichkeit in his book En del elementære logiske emner. He shows how certain renditions may be biased, slanting, unfair, and advocates mature fairness foremost. [Cf. Env] [Link]

Tony Buzan too has set up Sachlichkeit items in one of his books. Naess and Buzan offer help against being indoctrinated.

Bulwark

Straight living is also helped by leeways enough and taking into account the unforeseen as a factor in itself - and one has to learn to bulwark in time against much that is unforeseen in the first stages of life. To bulwark carefully against bad ones is needed also. It may or may not related to "Safety first" in any case.

If a statement is accompanied by "with Walt Whitman, Paramahansa Yogananda and Mark Twain", it suggests a fusion of some elements and segments ascribed to those contributing spirits. Each supplies something to the newly made whole to consider. Noting the whole "Gestalt" or overall shape as something more than its isolated parts is a main idea of Gestalt psychology. It may be formulated thus: "The whole is more than the sum of its parts". Just so. In the middle of fragments put together a new meaning or outlook may emerge. It often happens. Many learn in that way.

By presenting things expertly at last, in many fields you may escape revising your writings so often. Revision work is most often an awkward horse-race, says Irwin Yalom in the second edition to a book of his. [Yal: preface]

Let us call it one more breakthrough the day we can.

When we have sorted out what kind of rendition we love the most, we have to assure that it is to the point in one way or other, To be scholarly or sagacious is also to be guarded.

An expert way of doing things tends to be quite economic, easy to identify and not too tedious-looking. And it hardly encumbers higher ideas.

In some ways we prefer terse sayings. They can more readily be assimilated, recalled and brought into personal experience. On many pages we have taken pains to find, digest and adjust famous sayings accordingly. Many of them connect us to long European traditions and those of other good folks.

The wisdom that can be derived from good sayings carefully arranged is against being outsmarted. Studying proverbs helps, and studying anecdotes to get inklings about strategems or rulers and famous guys. [Cf. Fa]

One should not look too smart, says the Norse teaching poem Havamal.

One has to learn to bring learning and personal experiences together, theory and praxis, as some say. What looks like freaking out just a little - we cannot really advocate it. However, Abraham Maslow suggest that there are three fares:

  • Bad deviants;
  • Conform people. Take into account there is very bad conformity; bad conformit; so-so conformity, good and ennobling conformity; and very good and upright conformity too. Parts are found to mix.
  • Plus-deviants. Many of them have an artistic flair. [Pusb] [Cf. Toh, ch. 1]

Carefully arranged insights may amount to theory-making. We have showed it may be done, and documented it lavishly on this site.

"There is nothing so practical as a good theory," said Kurt Lewin. [Psr 21]

In tune with dominant thinking of notables like Abraham Maslow, Carl Jung, and Carl Rogers, we guess that conformity ensures survival, but conform manners, insights and ways of doing things may not be best. Besides, there is good conformity and worse conformity to consider as well. And the very best things are those that geniuses may come up with - and their sense of moral and ways of being may be scorned, publicly ridiculed and much worse, because they may deviate from the average, Maslow finds. There is a problem there.

ARTICLE COLLECTION
Learning by Keynotes and Extracts, END MATTER

Learning by Keynotes and Extracts, LITERATURE  

Cms: The University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. London: The University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Ebu: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2010 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD. London: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2010.

Hi: Smith, Carolyn D., ed, et al. Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology. 14th ed. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth, 2003.

Ltp: Schunk, Dale. Learning Theories. An Educational Perspective. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2004.

Mmb: Buzan, Tony, with Barry Buzan. The Mind Map Book. Rev. ed. London: BBC Books, 1995.

Mlh: Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 5th ed. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1999.

Mum: Buzan, Tony. Make the Most of Your Mind. Rev. ed. London: Pan, 1988.

Peg: Cutts, Martin. The Plain English Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Say: Yogananda, Paramahansa. Sayings of Yogananda. Los Angeles: Self-Realization Fellowship, 1958.

Sop: Smith, Eliot R., and Diane M. Mackie. Social Psychology. 2nd ed. Hove: Psychology Press, 2000.

Tor: Buzan, Tony. Speed Reading. Rev. ed. London: David and Charles, 1988.

Uhm: Ullman, Dana: Discovering Homeopathy: Medicine for the 21st Century. Rev ed. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1991:5.

Uka: Koestler, Arthur. The Act of Creation. New York: Dell, 1967.

Uy: Buzan, Tony. Use Your Head. New, rev. ed. London: BBC Books, 1989.

Wrh: Rampolla, Mary Lynn. A Pocket Guide to Writing History. 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin's, 2004.

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