The Complete Bhagavad Gita
A slightly modified and extracted version of a work by Sivananda (1887-1963) of Divine Life Society in the Himalayas. His work is for free distribution. The Sanskrit of the verses is retained along with an English translation.
Still, I have modified it: updated and simplified the web design, the headings, and the language of the work somewhat. The spelling and capitalisation of some words are also slightly modified in some places to make the main content stand out readily. Sivananda's commentaries and introductory matters are dropped for similar reasons. His very good work is online here: [◦Gita]
DHRITARASHTRA and Pandu were brothers and local kings in ancient India. Pandu, married to Kunti and Madri, was cursed for a sin while hunting. Kunti begot three children, Yudhisthira, Bhima and Arjuna. Madri had twins, Nakula and Sahadeva. Pandu passed away and his sons, the Pandavas, were brought up by the blind Dhritarashtra along with his sons known as Kauravas.
Dhritarashtra had a hundred and one children by his wife Gandhari.
The Pandavas and Kauravas grew up together, but the Kauravas were unable to tolerate the Pandavas. At last a war was at hand. When both sides were prepared to commence the battle, the sage Veda Vyasa approached Dhritarashtra and said,
"If you wish to see this terrible carnage with your own eyes I can give you the gift of vision."
The king replied, "I have no desire to see this slaughter with my own eyes, but I should like to hear all the details of the battle."
Then Vyasa conferred divine sight on a man called Sanjaya, and told the king, "Sanjaya will describe to you all the incidents of the war. He will directly see, hear or otherwise come to know everything exactly as it happens."
After the ten days of continued war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, when
the great warrior Bhishma was thrown down from his chariot by Arjuna, Sanjaya told
the news to Dhritarashtra. In agony the king asked Sanjaya to narrate the full details of
the previous ten days war, from the very beginning and in all detail as it happened.
"Bhagavad Gita" means the song of the Lord, the words of the Lord, the words of the Blessed One, and so on. The Gita is a part of the very long Mahabharata epic. Some words in it are translated differently, among other reasons because they can mean several things.
Krishna is called Bhagavan, or "the blessed or fortunate one". The Sanskrit word comes from the noun from the noun bhaga, which means "fortune, wealth". Added meanings are "owning fortune, blessed, prosperous, illustrious, divine, venerable, holy".
"Blessed Lord" and so on are translations of Bhagavan, and so is "The Supreme Personality of the Godhead", which Prabhupada uses a lot in his translation.
Bhagavan may take on different means to different people and in different traditions. In some Hindu traditions it is used to indicate the Supreme Being having a personal side (a personal God). Used in this way, Bhagavan is quite similar to a Christian understanding of God. Bhagavan may also be used as a title of veneration, often translated as "Lord", as in "Bhagavan Krishna". Buddha is also venerated with this title, which is often translated into "the Blessed One".
"Loka", realm, plane, planes of existence, is another term worth telling of. Prabhupada translates it into "planet", while Sivananda tends to use "world" and "worlds" for it. The central meaning of the term is "realm", through. For example, swargaloka is heaven (swarga = heaven, loka = plane, realm).
Dharmakshetre kurukshetre samavetaa yuyutsavah;
1. What did the sons of Pandu and also my people do when they had assembled together, eager for battle on the holy plain of Kurukshetra, Sanjaya?
Drishtwaa tu paandavaaneekam vyudham duryodhanastadaa;
2. Having seen the army of the Pandavas drawn up in battle array, King Duryodhana then approached his teacher (Drona) and spoke these words:
Pashyaitaam paanduputraanaam aachaarya mahateem chamoom;
3. "Behold, Teacher, this mighty army of the sons of Pandu, arrayed by the son of Drupada, your wise disciple!
Atra shooraa maheshwaasaa bheemaarjunasamaa yudhi;
4. "Here are heroes, mighty archers, equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna, Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, of the great car (mighty warriors),
Dhrishtaketush chekitaanah kaashiraajashcha veeryavaan;
5. "Drishtaketu, Chekitana and the valiant king of Kasi, Purujit, and Kuntibhoja and Saibya, the best of men,
Yudhaamanyushcha vikraanta uttamaujaashcha veeryavaan;
6. "The strong Yudhamanyu and the brave Uttamaujas, the son of Subhadra (Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna), and the sons of Draupadi, all of great chariots (great heroes).
Asmaakam tu vishishtaa you taan nibodha dwijottama;
7. "Know also, best among the twice-born, the names of those who are the most distinguished among ourselves, the leaders of my army! These I name to you for your information.
Bhavaan bheeshmashcha karnashcha kripashcha samitinjayah;
8. "Yourself and Bhishma, and Karna and Kripa, the victorious in war; Asvatthama, Vikarna, and Jayadratha, the son of Somadatta.
Anye cha bahavah shooraa madarthe tyaktajeevitaah;
9. "And also many other heroes who have given up their lives for my sake, armed with various weapons and missiles, all well skilled in battle.
Aparyaaptam tad asmaakam balam bheeshmaabhirakshitam;
10. "This army of ours marshalled by Bhishma is insufficient, whereas their army, marshalled by Bhima, is sufficient.
Ayaneshu cha sarveshu yathaabhaagam avasthitaah;
11. "Therefore, all of you, stationed in your respective positions in the several divisions of the army, protect Bhishma alone".
Tasya sanjanayan harsham kuruvriddhah pitaamahah;
12. His glorious grandsire (Bhishma), the eldest of the Kauravas, in order to cheer Duryodhana, now roared like a lion and blew his conch.
Tatah shankhaashcha bheryashcha panavaanakagomukhaah;
13. Then (following Bhishma), conches and kettle-drums, tabors, drums and cow-horns blared forth quite suddenly (from the side of the Kauravas); and the sound was tremendous.
Tatah shvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau;
14. Then also, Madhava (Krishna), and the son of Pandu (Arjuna), seated in their magnificent chariot yoked with white horses, blew their divine conches.
Paanchajanyam hrisheekesho devadattam dhananjayah;
15. Krishna (Hrishikesa) blew the Panchajanya and Arjuna blew the Devadatta, and Bhima, the doer of terrible deeds, blew the great conch Paundra.
Anantavijayam raajaa kunteeputro yudhishthirah;
16. Yudhisthira, the son of Kunti, blew the Anantavijaya; and Sahadeva and Nakula blew the Manipushpaka and Sughosha conches.
Kaashyashcha parameshwaasah shikhandee cha mahaarathah;
17. The king of Kasi, an excellent archer, Sikhandi, the mighty car-warrior, Dhristadyumna and Virata and Satyaki, the unconquered,
Drupado draupadeyaashcha sarvashah prithiveepate;
18. Drupada and the sons of Draupadi, Lord of the Earth, and the son of Subhadra, the mighty-armed, all blew their respective conches!
Sa ghosho dhaartaraashtraanaam hridayaani vyadaarayat;
19. The tumultuous sound rent the hearts of Dhritarashtra's party, making both heaven and earth resound.
Atha vyavasthitaan drishtwaa dhaartaraashtraan kapidhwajah;
20. Then, seeing all the people of Dhritarashtra's party standing arrayed and the discharge of weapons about to begin, Arjuna, the son of Pandu, whose ensign was that of a monkey, took up his bow and said the following to Krishna, Lord of the Earth!
Senayor ubhayormadhye ratham sthaapaya me'chyuta.
21-22. Please place my chariot, Krishna, in the middle of the two armies, so that I may behold those who stand here, desirous to fight, and know with whom I must fight when the battle begins.
Yotsyamaanaan avekshe'ham ya ete'tra samaagataah;
23. For I desire to observe those who are assembled here to fight, wishing to please in battle the evil-minded Duryodhana.
Evamukto hrisheekesho gudaakeshena bhaarata;
24. Being thus addressed by Arjuna, Lord Krishna, having stationed that best of chariots, Dhritarashtra, in the middle of the two armies,
Bheeshmadronapramukhatah sarveshaam cha maheekshitaam;
25. In front of Bhishma and Drona and all the rulers of the earth, said: "Arjuna, behold now all these Kurus gathered together!"
Tatraapashyat sthitaan paarthah pitrin atha pitaamahaan;
26. Then Arjuna beheld there stationed, grandfathers and fathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons and friends, too.
Shvashuraan suhridashchaiva senayorubhayorapi;
27. (he saw) fathers-in-law and friends also in both armies. The son of KuntiArjunaseeing all these kinsmen standing arrayed, spoke thus sorrowfully, filled with deep pity.
Drishtwemam swajanam krishna yuyutsum samupasthitam.
28. Seeing these, my kinsmen, Krishna, arrayed, eager to fight,
Seedanti mama gaatraani mukham cha parishushyati;
29. My limbs fail and my mouth is parched up, my body quivers and my hairs stand on end!
Gaandeevam sramsate hastaat twak chaiva paridahyate;
30. The (bow) "Gandiva" slips from my hand and my skin burns all over; I am unable even to stand, my mind is reeling, as it were.
Nimittaani cha pashyaami vipareetaani keshava;
31. And I see adverse omens, Kesava! I do not see any good in killing my kinsmen in battle.
Na kaangkshe vijayam krishna na cha raajyam sukhaani cha;
32. For I desire neither victory, Krishna, nor pleasures nor kingdoms! Of what avail is a dominion to us, Krishna, or pleasures or even life?
Yeshaam arthe kaangkshitam no raajyam bhogaah sukhaani cha;
33. Those for whose sake we desire kingdoms, enjoyments and pleasures, stand here in battle, having renounced life and wealth.
Aachaaryaah pitarah putraastathaiva cha pitaamahaah;
34. Teachers, fathers, sons and also grandfathers, grandsons, fathers-in-law, maternal uncles, brothers-in-law and relatives,
Etaan na hantum icchaami ghnato'pi madhusoodana;
35. These I do not wish to kill, Though they kill me, Krishna, even for the sake of dominion over the three worlds, leave alone killing them for the sake of the earth!
Nihatya dhaartaraashtraan nah kaa preetih syaaj janaardana;
36. By killing these sons of Dhritarashtra, what pleasure can be ours, Janardana? Only sin will accrue by killing these felons.
Tasmaan naarhaa vayam hantum dhaartaraashtraan swabaandhavaan;
37. Therefore, we should not kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, our relatives; for, how can we be happy by killing our own people, Madhava (Krishna)?
Yadyapyete na pashyanti lobhopahatachetasah;
38. Though they, with intelligence overpowered by greed, see no evil in the destruction of families, and no sin in hostility to friends,
Katham na jneyam asmaabhih paapaad asmaan nivartitum;
39. Why should not we, who clearly see evil in the destruction of a family, learn to turn away from this sin, Janardana (Krishna)?
Kulakshaye pranashyanti kuladharmaah sanaatanaah;
40. In the destruction of a family, the immemorial religious rites of that family perish; on the destruction of spirituality, impiety overcomes the whole family.
Adharmaabhibhavaat krishna pradushyanti kulastriyah;
41. By prevalence of impiety, Krishna, the women of the family become corrupt and, women becoming corrupted, Varsneya (descendant of Vrishni), there arises intermingling of castes!
Sankaro narakaayaiva kulaghnaanaam kulasya cha;
42. Confusion of castes leads to hell the slayers of the family, for their forefathers fall, deprived of the offerings of rice-ball and water.
Doshair etaih kulaghnaanaam varnasankarakaarakaih;
43. By these evil deeds of the destroyers of the family, which cause confusion of castes, the eternal religious rites of the caste and the family are destroyed.
Utsannakuladharmaanaam manushyaanaam janaardana;
44. We have heard, Janardana, that inevitable is the dwelling for an unknown period in hell for those men in whose families the religious practices have been destroyed!
Aho bata mahat paapam kartum vyavasitaa vayam;
45. Alas! We are involved in a great sin in that we are prepared to kill our kinsmen through greed for the pleasures of a kingdom.
Yadi maam aprateekaaram ashastram shastrapaanayah;
46. If the sons of Dhritarashtra, with weapons in hand, should slay me in battle, unresisting and unarmed, that would be better for me.
Evamuktwaa'rjunah sankhye rathopastha upaavishat;
Tam tathaa kripayaavishtam ashrupoornaakulekshanam;
1. To him who was thus overcome with pity and who was despondent, with eyes full of tears and agitated, Krishna or Madhusudana (the destroyer of Madhu), spoke these words.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Kutastwaa kashmalam idam vishame samupasthitam;
The Blessed Lord said:
2. From where is this perilous strait come upon you, this dejection which is unworthy of you, disgraceful, and which will close the gates of heaven upon you, Arjuna?
Klaibyam maa sma gamah paartha naitat twayyupapadyate;
3. Yield not to impotence, Arjuna, son of Pritha! it does not befit you. Cast off this mean weakness of the heart. Stand up, scorcher of foes!
Katham bheeshmamaham sankhye dronam cha madhusoodana;
4. How, Madhusudana, shall I fight in battle with arrows against Bhishma and Drona, who are fit to be worshipped, destroyer of enemies?
Guroon ahatwaa hi mahaanubhaavaan
Shreyo bhoktum bhaikshyam apeeha loke;
Bhunjeeya bhogaan rudhirapradigdhaan.
5. Better it is, indeed, in this world to accept alms than to slay the most noble teachers. But if I kill them, even in this world all my enjoyments of wealth and desires will be stained with (their) blood.
Na chaitad vidmah kataran no gareeyo
Yadwaa jayema yadi vaa no jayeyuh;
Te'vasthitaah pramukhe dhaartaraashtraah.
6. I can hardly tell which will be better: that we should conquer them or they should conquer us. Even the sons of Dhritarashtra, after slaying whom we do not wish to live, stand facing us.
Pricchaami twaam dharmasammoodha chetaah;
Shishyaste'ham shaadhi maam twaam prapannam.
7. My heart is overpowered by the taint of pity, my mind is confused as to duty. I ask you: tell me decisively what is good for me. I am your disciple. Instruct me who has taken refuge in you.
Na hi prapashyaami mamaapanudyaad
Yacchokam ucchoshanam indriyaanaam;
Raajyam suraanaam api chaadhipatyam.
8. I do not see that it would remove this sorrow that burns up my senses even if I should attain prosperous and unrivalled dominion on earth or lordship over the gods.
Evam uktwaa hrisheekesham gudaakeshah parantapah;
9. Having spoken thus to Hrishikesa (Lord of the senses), Arjuna (the conqueror of sleep), the destroyer of foes, said to Krishna: "I will not fight," and became silent.
Tam uvaacha hrisheekeshah prahasanniva bhaarata;
10. To him who was despondent in the middle of the two armies, Sri Krishna, as if smiling, Bharata, spoke these words!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Ashochyaan anvashochastwam prajnaavaadaamshcha bhaashase;
The Blessed Lord said:
11. You have grieved for those that should not be grieved for, yet you speak words of wisdom. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead.
Na twevaaham jaatu naasam na twam neme janaadhipaah;
12. Nor at any time indeed was I not, nor these rulers of men, nor verily shall we ever cease to be hereafter.
Dehino'smin yathaa dehe kaumaaram yauvanam jaraa;
13. Just as in this body the embodied (soul) passes into childhood, youth and old age, so also does he pass into another body; the firm man does not grieve thereat.
Maatraasparshaastu kaunteya sheetoshnasukhaduhkhadaah;
14. The contacts of the senses with the objects, son of Kunti, which cause heat and cold and pleasure and pain, have a beginning and an end; they are impermanent; endure them bravely, Arjuna!
Yam hi na vyathayantyete purusham purusharshabha;
15. That firm man whom surely these afflict not, chief among men, to whom pleasure and pain are the same, is fit for attaining immortality!
Naasato vidyate bhaavo naabhaavo vidyate satah;
16. The unreal hath no being; there is no non-being of the Real; the truth about both has been seen by the knowers of the Truth (or the seers of the Essence).
Avinaashi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam tatam;
17. Know That to be indestructible, by whom all this is pervaded. None can cause the destruction of That, the Imperishable.
Antavanta ime dehaa nityasyoktaah shareerinah;
18. These bodies of the embodied Self, which is eternal, indestructible and immeasurable, are said to have an end. Therefore, fight, Arjuna!
Ya enam vetti hantaaram yashchainam manyate hatam;
19. He who takes the Self to be the slayer and he who thinks he is slain, neither of them knows; he slays not nor is he slain.
Na jaayate mriyate vaa kadaachin
Naayam bhootwaa bhavitaa vaa na bhooyah;
Na hanyate hanyamaane shareere.
20. He is not born nor does he ever die; after having been, he again ceases not to be. Unborn, eternal, changeless and ancient, he is not killed when the body is killed,
Vedaavinaashinam nityam ya enam ajam avyayam;
21. Whoever knows him to be indestructible, eternal, unborn and inexhaustible, how can that man slay, Arjuna, or cause to be slain?
Vaasaamsi jeernaani yathaa vihaaya
Navaani grihnaati naro'paraani;
Nyanyaani samyaati navaani dehee.
22. Just as a man casts off worn-out clothes and puts on new ones, so also the embodied Self casts off worn-out bodies and enters others that are new.
Nainam cchindanti shastraani nainam dahati paavakah;
23. Weapons cut it not, fire burns it not, water wets it not, wind dries it not.
Acchedyo'yam adaahyo'yam akledyo'shoshya eva cha;
24. This Self cannot be cut, burnt, wetted nor dried up. It is eternal, all-pervading, stable, ancient and immovable.
Avyakto'yam achintyo'yam avikaaryo'yam uchyate;
25. This (Self) is said to be unmanifested, unthinkable and unchangeable. Therefore, knowing This to be such, you should not grieve.
Atha chainam nityajaatam nityam vaa manyase mritam;
26. But, even if you think of it as being constantly born and dying, even then, mighty-armed, you should not grieve!
Jaatasya hi dhruvo mrityur dhruvam janma mritasya cha;
27. For, certain is death for the born and certain is birth for the dead; therefore, over the inevitable you should not grieve.
Avyaktaadeeni bhootaani vyaktamadhyaani bhaarata;
28. Beings are unmanifested in their beginning, manifested in their middle state, Arjuna, and unmanifested again in their end! What is there to grieve about?
Aashcharyavat pashyati kashchid enam
Aashcharyavad vadati tathaiva chaanyah;
Shrutwaapyenam veda na chaiva kashchit.
29. One sees This (the Self) as a wonder; another speaks of it as a wonder; another hears of it as a wonder; yet, having heard, none understands it at all.
Dehee nityam avadhyo'yam dehe sarvasya bhaarata;
30. This, the Indweller in the body of everyone, is always indestructible, Arjuna! Therefore, you should not grieve for any creature.
Swadharmam api chaavekshya na vikampitum arhasi;
31. Further, having regard to your own duty, you should not waver, for there is nothing higher for a Kshatriya than a righteous war.
Yadricchayaa chopapannam swargadwaaram apaavritam;
32. Happy are the Kshatriyas, Arjuna, who are called upon to fight in such a battle that comes of itself as an open door to heaven!
Atha chettwam imam dharmyam samgraamam na karishyasi;
33. But, if you will not fight in this righteous war, then, having abandoned your duty and fame, you shall incur sin.
Akeertim chaapi bhootaani kathayishyanti te'vyayaam;
34. People, too, will recount your everlasting dishonour; and to one who has been honoured, dishonour is worse than death.
Bhayaad ranaad uparatam mamsyante twaam mahaarathaah;
35. The great car-warriors will think that you have withdrawn from the battle through fear; and you will be lightly held by them who have thought much of you.
Avaachyavaadaamshcha bahoon vadishyanti tavaahitaah;
36. Your enemies also, cavilling at your power, will speak many abusive words. What is more painful than this!
Hato vaa praapsyasi swargam jitwaa vaa bhokshyase maheem;
37. Slain, you will obtain heaven; victorious, you will enjoy the earth; therefore, stand up, son of Kunti, resolved to fight!
Sukhaduhkhe same kritwaa laabhaalaabhau jayaajayau;
38. Having made pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat the same, engage you in battle for the sake of battle; thus you shall not incur sin.
Eshaa te'bhihitaa saankhye buddhir yoge twimaam shrinu;
39. This which has been taught to you, is wisdom concerning Sankhya. Now listen to wisdom concerning Yoga, endowed with which, Arjuna, you shall cast off the bonds of action!
Nehaabhikramanaasho'sti pratyavaayo na vidyate;
40. In this there is no loss of effort, nor is there any harm (the production of contrary results or transgression). Even a little of this knowledge (even a little practice of this Yoga) protects one from great fear.
Vyavasaayaatmikaa buddhir ekeha kurunandana;
41. Here, joy of the Kurus, there is a single one-pointed determination! Many-branched and endless are the thoughts of the irresolute.
Yaam imaam pushpitaam vaacham pravadantyavipashchitah;
42. Flowery speech is uttered by the unwise, who take pleasure in the eulogising words of the Vedas, Arjuna, saying: "There is nothing else!"
Kaamaatmaanah swargaparaa janmakarmaphalapradaam;
43. Full of desires, having heaven as their goal, they utter speech which promises birth as the reward of one's actions, and prescribe various specific actions for the attainment of pleasure and power.
Bhogaishwarya prasaktaanaam tayaapahritachetasaam;
44. For those who are much attached to pleasure and to power, whose minds are drawn away by such teaching, that determinate faculty is not manifest that is steadily bent on meditation and Samadhi (the state of superconsciousness).
Traigunyavishayaa vedaa nistraigunyo bhavaarjuna;
45. The Vedas deal with the three attributes (of Nature); be above these three attributes, Arjuna! Free yourself from the pairs of opposites and ever remain in the quality of Sattwa (goodness), freed from the thought of acquisition and preservation, and be established in the Self.
Yaavaanartha udapaane sarvatah samplutodake;
46. To the Brahmana who has known the Self, all the Vedas are of as much use as is a reservoir of water in a place where there is a flood.
Karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadaachana;
47. Your right is to work only, but never with its fruits; let not the fruits of actions be your motive, nor let your attachment be to inaction.
Yogasthah kuru karmaani sangam tyaktwaa dhananjaya;
48. Perform action, Arjuna, being steadfast in Yoga, abandoning attachment and balanced in success and failure! Evenness of mind is called Yoga.
Doorena hyavaram karma buddhiyogaad dhananjaya;
49. Far lower than the Yoga of wisdom is action, Arjuna! Seek you refuge in wisdom; wretched are they whose motive is the fruit.
Buddhiyukto jahaateeha ubhe sukrita dushkrite;
50. Endowed with wisdom (evenness of mind), one casts off in this life both good and evil deeds; therefore, devote yourself to Yoga; Yoga is skill in action.
Karmajam buddhiyuktaa hi phalam tyaktwaa maneeshinah;
51. The wise, possessed of knowledge, having abandoned the fruits of their actions, and being freed from the fetters of birth, go to the place which is beyond all evil.
Yadaa te mohakalilam buddhir vyatitarishyati;
52. When your intellect crosses beyond the mire of delusion, then you shall attain to indifference as to what has been heard and what has yet to be heard.
Shrutivipratipannaa te yadaa sthaasyati nishchalaa;
53. When your intellect, perplexed by what you have heard, shall stand immovable and steady in the Self, then you shall attain Self-realisation.
Sthitaprajnasya kaa bhaashaa samaadhisthasya keshava;
54. What, Krishna, is the description of him who has steady wisdom and is merged in the superconscious state? How does one of steady wisdom speak? How does he sit? How does he walk?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Prajahaati yadaa kaamaan sarvaan paartha manogataan;
The Blessed Lord said:
55. When a man completely casts off, Arjuna, all the desires of the mind and is satisfied in the Self by the Self, then is he said to be one of steady wisdom!
Duhkheshwanudwignamanaah sukheshu vigatasprihah;
56. He whose mind is not shaken by adversity, who does not hanker after pleasures, and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady wisdom.
Yah sarvatraanabhisnehas tattat praapya shubhaashubham;
57. He who is everywhere without attachment, on meeting with anything good or bad, who neither rejoices nor hates, his wisdom is fixed.
Yadaa samharate chaayam kurmo'ngaaneeva sarvashah;
58. When, like the tortoise which withdraws its limbs on all sides, he withdraws his senses from the sense-objects, then his wisdom becomes steady.
Vishayaa vinivartante niraahaarasya dehinah
59. The objects of the senses turn away from the abstinent man, leaving the longing (behind); but his longing also turns away on seeing the Supreme.
Yatato hyapi kaunteya purushasya vipashchitah;
60. The turbulent senses, Arjuna, do violently carry away the mind of a wise man Though he be striving (to control them)!
Taani sarvaani samyamya yukta aaseeta matparah;
61. Having restrained them all he should sit steadfast, intent on me; his wisdom is steady whose senses are under control.
Dhyaayato vishayaan pumsah sangas teshupajaayate;
62. When a man thinks of the objects, attachment to them arises; from attachment desire is born; from desire anger arises.
Krodhaad bhavati sammohah sammohaat smriti vibhramah;
63. From anger comes delusion; from delusion the loss of memory; from loss of memory the destruction of discrimination; from the destruction of discrimination he perishes.
Raagadwesha viyuktaistu vishayaanindriyaishcharan;
64. But the self-controlled man, moving among objects with the senses under restraint, and free from attraction and repulsion, attains to peace.
Prasaade sarvaduhkhaanaam haanir asyopajaayate;
65. In that peace all pains are destroyed, for the intellect of the tranquil-minded soon becomes steady.
Naasti buddhir ayuktasya na chaayuktasya bhaavanaa;
66. There is no knowledge of the Self to the unsteady, and to the unsteady no meditation is possible; and to the un-meditative there can be no peace; and to the man who has no peace, how can there be happiness?
Indriyaanaam hi charataam yanmano'nuvidheeyate;
67. For the mind which follows in the wake of the wandering senses, carries away his discrimination as the wind (carries away) a boat on the waters.
Tasmaad yasya mahaabaaho nigriheetaani sarvashah;
68. Therefore, mighty-armed Arjuna, his knowledge is steady whose senses are completely restrained from sense-objects!
Yaanishaa sarvabhootaanaam tasyaam jaagarti samyamee;
69. That which is night to all beings, then the self-controlled man is awake; when all beings are awake, that is night for the sage who sees.
Samudram aapah pravishanti yadwat;
Sa shaantim aapnoti na kaamakaami.
70. He attains peace into whom all desires enter as waters enter the ocean, which, filled from all sides, remains unmoved; but not the man who is full of desires.
Vihaaya kaamaan yah sarvaan pumaamshcharati nihsprihah;
71. The man attains peace, who, abandoning all desires, moves about without longing, without the sense of mine and without egoism.
Eshaa braahmee sthitih paartha nainaam praapya vimuhyati;
Jyaayasee chet karmanaste mataa buddhir janaardana;
1. If it be thought by you that knowledge is superior to action, Krishna, why then, Kesava, ask me to engage in this terrible action?
Vyaamishreneva vaakyena buddhim mohayaseeva me;
2. With these apparently perplexing words you confuse, as it were, my understanding; therefore, tell me that one way for certain by which I may attain bliss.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Loke'smin dwividhaa nishthaa puraa proktaa mayaanagha;
The Blessed Lord said:
3. In this world there is a twofold path, as I said before, sinless one,the path of knowledge of the Sankhyas and the path of action of the yogis!
Na karmanaam anaarambhaan naishkarmyam purusho'shnute;
4. Not by the non-performance of actions does man reach actionlessness, nor by mere renunciation does he attain to perfection.
Na hi kashchit kshanamapi jaatu tishthatyakarmakrit;
5. Verily none can ever remain for even a moment without performing action; for, everyone is made to act helplessly by the qualities born of Nature.
Karmendriyaani samyamya ya aaste manasaa smaran;
6. He who, restraining the organs of action, sits thinking of the sense-objects in mind, he, of deluded understanding, is called a hypocrite.
Yastwindriyaani manasaa niyamyaarabhate'rjuna;
7. But whoever, controlling the senses by the mind, Arjuna, engages himself in Karma Yoga with the organs of action, without attachment, he excels!
Niyatam kuru karma twam karma jyaayo hyakarmanah;
8. Perform your bounden duty, for action is superior to inaction and even the maintenance of the body would not be possible for you by inaction.
Yajnaarthaat karmano'nyatra loko'yam karmabandhanah;
9. The world is bound by actions other than those performed for the sake of sacrifice; do you, therefore, son of Kunti, perform action for that sake (for sacrifice) alone, free from attachment!
Sahayajnaah prajaah srishtwaa purovaacha prajaapatih;
10. The Creator, having in the beginning of creation created mankind together with sacrifice, said: "By this shall you propagate; let this be the milch cow of your desires (the cow which yields the desired objects)".
Devaan bhaavayataanena te devaa bhaavayantu vah;
11. Nourish the gods with this, and may the gods nourish you; thus nourishing one another you shall attain to the highest good.
Ishtaan bhogaan hi vo devaa daasyante yajnabhaavitaah;
12. The gods, nourished by the sacrifice, will give you the desired objects. So, he who enjoys the objects given by the gods without offering (in return) to them, is verily a thief.
Yajnashishtaashinah santo muchyante sarva kilbishaih;
13. The righteous, who eat of the remnants of the sacrifice, are freed from all sins; but those sinful ones who cook food (only) for their own sake, verily eat sin.
Annaad bhavanti bhootaani parjanyaad anna sambhavah;
14. From food come forth beings, and from rain food is produced; from sacrifice arises rain, and sacrifice is born of action.
Karma brahmodbhavam viddhi brahmaakshara samudbhavam;
15. Know you that action comes from Brahma, and Brahma proceeds from the Imperishable. Therefore, the all-pervading (Brahma) ever rests in sacrifice.
Evam pravartitam chakram naanuvartayateeha yah;
16. He who does not follow the wheel thus set revolving, who is of sinful life, rejoicing in the senses, he lives in vain, Arjuna!
Yastwaatmaratir eva syaad aatmatriptashcha maanavah;
17. But for that man who rejoices only in the Self, who is satisfied in the Self, who is content in the Self alone, verily there is nothing to do.
Naiva tasya kritenaartho naakriteneha kashchana;
18. For him there is no interest whatever in what is done or what is not done; nor does he depend on any being for any object.
Tasmaad asaktah satatam kaaryam karma samaachara;
19. Therefore, without attachment, always perform action which should be done; for, by performing action without attachment, man reaches the Supreme.
Karmanaiva hi samsiddhim aasthitaa janakaadayah;
20. Janaka and others attained perfection verily by action only; even with a view to the protection of the masses you should perform action.
Yadyad aacharati shreshthas tattadevetaro janah;
21. Whatever a great man does, that other men also do; whatever he sets up as the standard, that the world follows.
Na me paarthaasti kartavyam trishu lokeshu kinchana;
22. There is nothing in the three worlds, Arjuna, that should be done by me, nor is there anything unattained that should be attained; yet I engage myself in action!
Yadi hyaham na varteyam jaatu karmanyatandritah;
23. For, should I not ever engage myself in action, unwearied, men would in every way follow my path, Arjuna!
Utseedeyur ime lokaa na kuryaam karma ched aham;
24. These worlds would perish if I did not perform action; I should be the author of confusion of castes and destruction of these beings.
Saktaah karmanyavidwaamso yathaa kurvanti bhaarata;
25. As the ignorant men act from attachment to action, Bharata (Arjuna), so should the wise act without attachment, wishing the welfare of the world!
Na buddhibhedam janayed ajnaanaam karmasanginaam;
26. Let no wise man unsettle the minds of ignorant people who are attached to action; he should engage them in all actions, himself fulfilling them with devotion.
Prakriteh kriyamaanaani gunaih karmaani sarvashah;
27. All actions are wrought in all cases by the qualities of Nature only. He whose mind is deluded by egoism thinks: "I am the doer".
Tattwavittu mahaabaaho gunakarma vibhaagayoh;
28. But he who knows the truth, mighty-armed Arjuna, about the divisions of the qualities and their functions, knowing that the Gunas as senses move in the middle of the Gunas as the sense-objects, is not attached.
Prakriter gunasammoodhaah sajjante gunakarmasu;
29. Those deluded by the qualities of Nature are attached to the functions of the qualities. A man of perfect knowledge should not unsettle the foolish one of imperfect knowledge.
Mayi sarvaani karmaani sannyasyaadhyaatma chetasaa;
30. Renouncing all actions in me, with the mind centred in the Self, free from hope and egoism, and from (mental) fever, fight.
you me matam idam nityam anutishthanti maanavaah;
31. Those men who constantly practise this teaching of Mine with faith and without cavilling, they too are freed from actions.
you twetad abhyasooyanto naanutishthanti me matam;
32. But those who carp at my teaching and do not practise it, deluded in all knowledge and devoid of discrimination, know them to be doomed to destruction.
Sadrisham cheshtate swasyaah prakriter jnaanavaan api;
33. Even a wise man acts in accordance with his own nature; beings will follow nature; what can restraint do?
Indriyasyendriyasyaarthe raagadweshau vyavasthitau;
34. Attachment and aversion for the objects of the senses abide in the senses; let none come under their sway, for they are his foes.
Shreyaan swadharmo vigunah paradharmaat swanushthitaat;
35. Better is one's own duty, Though devoid of merit, than the duty of another well discharged. Better is death in one's own duty; the duty of another is fraught with fear.
Atha kena prayukto'yam paapam charati poorushah;
36. But impelled by what does man commit sin, though against his wishes, Varshneya (Krishna), constrained, as it were, by force?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Kaama esha krodha esha rajoguna samudbhavah;
The Blessed Lord said:
37. It is desire, it is anger born of the quality of Rajas, all-sinful and all-devouring; know this as the foe here (in this world).
Dhoomenaavriyate vahnir yathaadarsho malena cha;
38. As fire is enveloped by smoke, as a mirror by dust, and as an embryo by the amnion, so is this enveloped by that.
Aavritam jnaanam etena jnaanino nityavairinaa;
39. Arjuna, wisdom is enveloped by this constant enemy of the wise in the form of desire, which is unappeasable as fire!
Indriyaani mano buddhir asyaadhishthaanam uchyate;
40. The senses, mind and intellect are said to be its seat; through these it deludes the embodied by veiling his wisdom.
Tasmaat twam indriyaanyaadau niyamya bharatarshabha;
41. Therefore, best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), controlling the senses first, kill this sinful thing (desire), the destroyer of knowledge and realisation!
Indriyaani paraanyaahur indriyebhyah param manah;
42. They say that the senses are superior (to the body); superior to the senses is the mind; superior to the mind is the intellect; and one who is superior even to the intellect is hethe Self.
Evam buddheh param buddhwaa samstabhyaatmaanam aatmanaa;
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Imam vivaswate yogam proktavaan aham avyayam;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. I taught this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvan; he told it to Manu; Manu proclaimed it to Ikshvaku.
Evam paramparaa praaptam imam raajarshayo viduh;
2. This, handed down thus in regular succession, the royal sages knew. This Yoga, by a long lapse of time, has been lost here, Parantapa (burner of foes)!
Sa evaayam mayaa te'dya yogah proktah puraatanah;
3. That same ancient Yoga has been today taught to you by me, for, you are my devotee and friend; it is the supreme secret.
Aparam bhavato janma param janma vivaswatah;
4. Later on was your birth, and prior to it was the birth of Vivasvan (the Sun); how am I to understand that you didst teach this Yoga in the beginning?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Bahooni me vyateetaani janmaani tava chaarjuna;
The Blessed Lord said:
5. Many births of Mine have passed, as well as of youirs, Arjuna! I know them all but you knowest not, Parantapa!
Ajo'pi sannavyayaatmaa bhootaanaam eeshwaro'pi san;
6. Though I am unborn and of imperishable nature, and though I am the Lord of all beings, yet, ruling over my own Nature, I am born by my own Maya.
Yadaa yadaa hi dharmasya glaanir bhavati bhaarata;
7. Whenever there is a decline of righteousness, Arjuna, and rise of unrighteousness, then I manifest myself!
Paritraanaaya saadhoonaam vinaashaaya cha dushkritaam;
8. For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked, and for the establishment of righteousness, I am born in every age.
Janma karma cha me divyam evam yo vetti tattwatah;
9. He who thus knows in true light my divine birth and action, after having abandoned the body is not born again; he comes to me, Arjuna!
Veetaraagabhayakrodhaa manmayaa maam upaashritaah;
10. Freed from attachment, fear and anger, absorbed in me, taking refuge in me, purified by the fire of knowledge, many have attained to my Being.
ye yathaa maam prapadyante taamstathaiva bhajaamyaham;
11. In whatever way men approach me, even so do I reward them; my path do men tread in all ways, Arjuna!
Kaangkshantah karmanaam siddhim yajanta iha devataah;
12. Those who long for success in action in this world sacrifice to the gods, because success is quickly attained by men through action.
Chaaturvarnyam mayaa srishtam gunakarma vibhaagashah;
13. The fourfold caste has been created by me according to the differentiation of Guna and Karma; Though I am the author thereof, know me as the non-doer and immutable.
In a Brahmana, Sattwa predominates. He possesses serenity, purity, self-restraint, straightforwardness and devotion.
In a Kshatriya, Rajas predominates. He possesses prowess, splendour, firmness, dexterity, generosity and rulership.
In a Vaisya, Rajas predominates and Tamas is subordinate to Rajas. He does the duty of ploughing, protection of cattle and trade.
In a Sudra, Tamas predominates and Rajas is subordinate to the quality of Tamas. He renders service to the other three castes. Human temperaments and tendencies vary according to the Gunas.
Na maam karmaani limpanti na me karmaphale sprihaa;
14. Actions do not taint me, nor have I a desire for the fruits of actions. He who knows me thus is not bound by actions.
Evam jnaatwaa kritam karma poorvair api mumukshubhih;
15. Having known this, the ancient seekers after freedom also performed actions; therefore perform actions as did the ancients in days of yore.
Kim karma kim akarmeti kavayo'pyatra mohitaah;
16. What is action? What is inaction? As to this even the wise are confused. Therefore, I shall teach you such action (the nature of action and inaction), by knowing which you shall be liberated from the evil (of Samsara, the world of birth and death).
Karmano hyapi boddhavyam boddhavyam cha vikarmanah;
17. For, verily the true nature of action (enjoined by the scriptures) should be known, also (that) of forbidden (or unlawful) action, and of inaction; hard to understand is the nature (path) of action.
Karmanyakarma yah pashyed akarmani cha karma yah;
18. He who seeth inaction in action and action in inaction, he is wise among men; he is a yogi and performer of all actions.
Yasya sarve samaarambhaah kaamasankalpa varjitaah;
19. He whose undertakings are all devoid of desires and (selfish) purposes, and whose actions have been burnt by the fire of knowledge,him the wise call a sage.
Tyaktwaa karmaphalaasangam nityatripto niraashrayah;
20. Having abandoned attachment to the fruit of the action, ever content, depending on nothing, he does not do anything Though engaged in activity.
Niraasheer yatachittaatmaa tyaktasarvaparigrahah;
21. Without hope and with the mind and the self controlled, having abandoned all greed, doing mere bodily action, he incurs no sin.
Yadricchaalaabhasantushto dwandwaateeto vimatsarah;
22. Content with what comes to him without effort, free from the pairs of opposites and envy, even-minded in success and failure, Though acting, he is not bound.
Gatasangasya muktasya jnaanaavasthitachetasah;
23. To one who is devoid of attachment, who is liberated, whose mind is established in knowledge, who works for the sake of sacrifice (for the sake of God), the whole action is dissolved.
Brahmaarpanam brahmahavirbrahmaagnau brahmanaa hutam;
24. Brahman is the oblation; Brahman is the melted butter (ghee); by Brahman is the oblation poured into the fire of Brahman; Brahman verily shall be reached by him who always sees Brahman in action.
Daivam evaapare yajnam yoginah paryupaasate;
25. Some yogis perform sacrifice to the gods alone, while others (who have realised the Self) offer the Self as sacrifice by the Self in the fire of Brahman alone.
Shrotraadeeneendriyaanyanye samyamaagnishu juhwati;
26. Some again offer hearing and other senses as sacrifice in the fire of restraint; others offer sound and various objects of the senses as sacrifice in the fire of the senses.
Sarvaaneendriya karmaani praanakarmaani chaapare;
27. Others again sacrifice all the functions of the senses and those of the breath (vital energy or Prana) in the fire of the Yoga of self-restraint kindled by knowledge.
Dravyayajnaas tapoyajnaa yogayajnaastathaapare;
28. Some again offer wealth, austerity and Yoga as sacrifice, while the ascetics of self-restraint and rigid vows offer study of scriptures and knowledge as sacrifice.
Apaane juhwati praanam praane'paanam tathaa'pare;
29. Others offer as sacrifice the outgoing breath in the incoming, and the incoming in the outgoing, restraining the courses of the outgoing and the incoming breaths, solely absorbed in the restraint of the breath.
Apare niyataahaaraah praanaan praaneshu juhwati;
30. Others who regulate their diet offer life-breaths in life-breaths; all these are knowers of sacrifice, whose sins are all destroyed by sacrifice.
Yajnashishtaamritabhujo yaanti brahma sanaatanam;
31. Those who eat the remnants of the sacrifice, which are like nectar, go to the eternal Brahman. This world is not for the man who does not perform sacrifice; how then can he have the other, Arjuna?
Evam bahuvidhaa yajnaa vitataa brahmano mukhe;
32. Thus, various kinds of sacrifices are spread out before Brahman (literally at the mouth or face of Brahman). Know them all as born of action, and knowing thus, you shall be liberated.
Shreyaan dravyamayaadyajnaaj jnaanayajnah parantapa;
33. Superior is wisdom-sacrifice to sacrifice with objects, Parantapa! All actions in their entirety, Arjuna, culminate in knowledge!
Tadviddhi pranipaatena pariprashnena sevayaa;
34. Know that by long prostration, by question and by service, the wise who have realised the Truth will instruct you in (that) knowledge.
Yajjnaatwaa na punarmoham evam yaasyasi paandava;
35. Knowing that, you shall not, Arjuna, again become deluded like this; and by that you shall see all beings in your Self and also in me!
Api chedasi paapebhyah sarvebhyah paapakrittamah;
36. Even if you are the most sinful of all sinners, yet you shall verily cross all sins by the raft of knowledge.
Yathaidhaamsi samiddho'gnir bhasmasaat kurute'rjuna;
37. As the blazing fire reduces fuel to ashes, Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge reduce all actions to ashes!
Na hi jnaanena sadrisham pavitram iha vidyate;
38. Verily there is no purifier in this world like knowledge. He who is perfected in Yoga finds it in the Self in time.
Shraddhaavaan labhate jnaanam tatparah samyatendriyah;
39. The man who is full of faith, who is devoted to it, and who has subdued all the senses, obtains (this) knowledge; and, having obtained the knowledge, he goes at once to the supreme peace.
Ajnashchaashraddhadhaanashcha samshayaatmaa vinashyati;
40. The ignorant, the faithless, the doubting self proceeds to destruction; there is neither this world nor the other nor happiness for the doubting.
Yogasannyasta karmaanam jnaanasamcchinnasamshayam;
41. He who has renounced actions by Yoga, whose doubts are rent asunder by knowledge, and who is self-possessed,actions do not bind him, Arjuna!
Tasmaad ajnaanasambhootam hritstham jnaanaasinaatmanah;
Sannyaasam karmanaam krishna punar yogam cha shamsasi;
1. Renunciation of actions, Krishna, you praisest, and again Yoga! Tell me conclusively which is the better of the two.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Sannyaasah karmayogashcha nihshreyasakaraa vubhau;
The Blessed Lord said:
2. Renunciation and the Yoga of action both lead to the highest bliss; but of the two, the Yoga of action is superior to the renunciation of action.
Jneyah sa nityasannyaasi yo na dweshti na kaangkshati;
3. He should be known as a perpetual Sannyasin who neither hates nor desires; for, free from the pairs of opposites, mighty-armed Arjuna, he is easily set free from bondage!
Saankhyayogau prithagbaalaah pravadanti na panditaah;
4. Children, not the wise, speak of knowledge and the Yoga of action or the performance of action as Though they are distinct and different; he who is truly established in one obtains the fruits of both.
Yatsaankhyaih praapyate sthaanam tad yogair api gamyate;
5. That place which is reached by the Sankhyas or the Jnanis is reached by the (Karma) yogis. He sees who sees knowledge and the performance of action (Karma Yoga) as one.
Sannyaasastu mahaabaaho duhkham aaptuma yogatah;
6. But renunciation, mighty-armed Arjuna, is hard to attain without Yoga; the Yoga-harmonised sage proceeds quickly to Brahman!
Yogayukto vishuddhaatmaa vijitaatmaa jitendriyah;
7. He who is devoted to the path of action, whose mind is quite pure, who has conquered the self, who has subdued his senses and who has realised his Self as the Self in all beings, Though acting, he is not tainted.
Naiva kinchit karomeeti yukto manyeta tattwavit;
8. "I do nothing at all"thus will the harmonised knower of Truth thinkseeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, going, sleeping, breathing,
Pralapan visrijan grihnan nunmishan nimishannapi;
9. Speaking, letting go, seizing, opening and closing the eyesconvinced that the senses move among the sense-objects.
Brahmanyaadhaaya karmaani sangam tyaktwaa karoti yah;
10. He who performs actions, offering them to Brahman and abandoning attachment, is not tainted by sin as a lotus leaf by water.
Kaayena manasaa buddhyaa kevalair indriyair api;
11. Yogis, having abandoned attachment, perform actions only by the body, mind, intellect and also by the senses, for the purification of the self.
Yuktah karmaphalam tyaktwaa shaantim aapnoti naishthikeem;
12. The united one (the well poised or the harmonised), having abandoned the fruit of action, attains to the eternal peace; the non-united only (the unsteady or the unbalanced), impelled by desire and attached to the fruit, is bound.
Sarvakarmaani manasaa sannyasyaaste sukham vashee;
13. Mentally renouncing all actions and self-controlled, the embodied one rests happily in the nine-gated city, neither acting nor causing others (body and senses) to act.
Na kartritwam na karmaani lokasya srijati prabhuh;
14. Neither agency nor actions does the Lord create for the world, nor union with the fruits of actions; it is Nature that acts.
Naadatte kasyachit paapam na chaiva sukritam vibhuh;
15. The Lord accepts neither the demerit nor even the merit of any; knowledge is enveloped by ignorance, thereby beings are deluded.
Jnaanena tu tad ajnaanam yeshaam naashitam aatmanah;
16. But, to those whose ignorance is destroyed by knowledge of the Self, like the sun, knowledge reveals the Supreme (Brahman).
Tadbuddhayas tadaatmaanas tannishthaas tatparaayanaah;
17. Their intellect absorbed in That, their self being That; established in That, with That as their supreme goal, they go whence there is no return, their sins dispelled by knowledge.
Vidyaavinaya sampanne braahmane gavi hastini;
18. Sages look with an equal eye on a Brahmin endowed with learning and humility, on a cow, on an elephant, and even on a dog and an outcaste.
Ihaiva tairjitah sargo yeshaam saamye sthitam manah;
19. Even here (in this world) birth (everything) is overcome by those whose minds rest in equality; Brahman is spotless indeed and equal; therefore, they are established in Brahman.
Na prahrishyet priyam praapya nodwijet praapya chaapriyam;
20. Resting in Brahman, with steady intellect, undeluded, the knower of Brahman neither rejoiceth on obtaining what is pleasant nor grieveth on obtaining what is unpleasant.
Baahyasparsheshwasaktaatmaa vindatyaatmani yat sukham;
21. With the self unattached to the external contacts he discovers happiness in the Self; with the self engaged in the meditation of Brahman he attains to the endless happiness.
you hi samsparshajaa bhogaa duhkhayonaya eva te;
22. The enjoyments that are born of contacts are generators of pain only, for they have a beginning and an end, Arjuna! The wise do not rejoice in them.
Shaknoteehaiva yah sodhum praak shareera vimokshanaat;
23. He who is able, while still here in this world to withstand, before the liberation from the body, the impulse born of desire and angerhe is a yogi, he is a happy man.
Yo'ntah sukho'ntaraaraamas tathaantarjyotir eva yah;
24. He who is ever happy within, who rejoices within, who is illumined within, such a yogi attains absolute freedom or Moksha, himself becoming Brahman.
Labhante brahma nirvaanam rishayah ksheenakalmashaah;
25. The sages obtain absolute freedom or Mokshathey whose sins have been destroyed, whose dualities (perception of dualities or experience of the pairs of opposites) are torn asunder, who are self-controlled, and intent on the welfare of all beings.
Kaamakrodhaviyuktaanaam yateenaam yatachetasaam;
26. Absolute freedom (or Brahmic bliss) exists on all sides for those self-controlled ascetics who are free from desire and anger, who have controlled their thoughts and who have realised the Self.
Sparsaan kritwaa bahir baahyaamschakshus chaivaantare bhruvoh;
27. Shutting out (all) external contacts and fixing the gaze between the eyebrows, equalising the outgoing and incoming breaths moving within the nostrils,
Yatendriya manobuddhir munir mokshaparaayanah;
28. With the senses, the mind and the intellect always controlled, having liberation as his supreme goal, free from desire, fear and angerthe sage is verily liberated for ever.
Bhoktaaram yajnatapasaam sarvaloka maheshwaram;
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Anaashritah karmaphalam kaaryam karma karoti yah;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. He who performs his bounden duty without depending on the fruits of his actionshe is a Sannyasin and a yogi, not he who is without fire and without action.
Yam sannyaasamiti praahuryogam tam viddhi paandava;
2. Do you, Arjuna, know Yoga to be that which they call renunciation; no one verily becomes a yogi who has not renounced thoughts!
Aarurukshormuneryogam karma kaaranamuchyate;
3. For a sage who wishes to attain to Yoga, action is said to be the means; for the same sage who has attained to Yoga, inaction (quiescence) is said to be the means.
Yadaa hi nendriyaartheshu na karmaswanushajjate;
4. When a man is not attached to the sense-objects or to actions, having renounced all thoughts, then he is said to have attained to Yoga.
5. Let a man lift himself by his own Self alone; let him not lower himself, for this self alone is the friend of oneself and this self alone is the enemy of oneself.
Bandhuraatmaa'tmanastasya yenaatmaivaatmanaa jitah;
6. The self is the friend of the self for him who has conquered himself by the Self, but to the unconquered self, this self stands in the position of an enemy like the (external) foe.
Jitaatmanah prashaantasya paramaatmaa samaahitah;
7. The Supreme Self of him who is self-controlled and peaceful is balanced in cold and heat, pleasure and pain, as also in honour and dishonour.
Jnaana vijnaana triptaatmaa kootastho vijitendriyah;
8. The yogi who is satisfied with the knowledge and the wisdom (of the Self), who has conquered the senses, and to whom a clod of earth, a piece of stone and gold are the same, is said to be harmonised (that is, is said to have attained the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi).
Suhrinmitraary udaaseena madhyastha dweshya bandhushu;
9. He who is of the same mind to the good-hearted, friends, enemies, the indifferent, the neutral, the hateful, the relatives, the righteous and the unrighteous, excels.
Yogee yunjeeta satatamaatmaanam rahasi sthitah;
10. Let the yogi try constantly to keep the mind steady, remaining in solitude, alone, with the mind and the body controlled, and free from hope and greed.
Shuchau deshe pratishthaapya sthiramaasanamaatmanah;
11. In a clean spot, having established a firm seat of his own, neither too high nor too low, made of a cloth, a skin and kushagrass, one over the other,
Tatraikaagram manah kritwaa yatachittendriyakriyah;
12. There, having made the mind one-pointed, with the actions of the mind and the senses controlled, let him, seated on the seat, practise Yoga for the purification of the self.
Samam kaayashirogreevam dhaarayannachalam sthirah;
13. Let him firmly hold his body, head and neck erect and perfectly still, gazing at the tip of his nose, without looking around.
Prashaantaatmaa vigatabheer brahmachaarivrate sthitah;
14. Serene-minded, fearless, firm in the vow of a Brahmachari, having controlled the mind, thinking of me and balanced in mind, let him sit, having me as his supreme goal.
Yunjannevam sadaa'tmaanam yogee niyatamaanasah;
15. Thus, always keeping the mind balanced, the yogi, with the mind controlled, attains to the peace abiding in me, which culminates in liberation.
Naatyashnatastu yogo'sti nachaikaantamanashnatah;
16. Verily Yoga is not possible for him who eats too much, nor for him who does not eat at all; nor for him who sleeps too much, nor for him who is (always) awake, Arjuna!
Yuktaahaaravihaarasya yuktacheshtasya karmasu;
17. Yoga becomes the destroyer of pain for him who is always moderate in eating and recreation (such as walking, etc.), who is moderate in exertion in actions, who is moderate in sleep and wakefulness.
Yadaa viniyatam chittamaatmanyevaavatishthate;
18. When the perfectly controlled mind rests in the Self only, free from longing for the objects of desire, then it is said: "He is united."
Yathaa deepo nivaatastho nengate sopamaa smritaa;
19. As a lamp placed in a windless spot does not flickerto such is compared the yogi of controlled mind, practising Yoga in the Self (or absorbed in the Yoga of the Self).
Yatroparamate chittam niruddham yogasevayaa;
20. When the mind, restrained by the practice of Yoga, attains to quietude, and when, seeing the Self by the Self, he is satisfied in his own Self,
Sukhamaatyantikam yattad buddhi graahyamateendriyam;
21. When he (the yogi) feels that infinite bliss which can be grasped by the (pure) intellect and which transcends the senses, and, established wherein he never moves from the Reality,
Yam labdhwaa chaaparam laabham manyate naadhikam tatah;
22. Which, having obtained, he thinks there is no other gain superior to it; wherein established, he is not moved even by heavy sorrow,
Tam vidyaad duhkhasamyogaviyogam yogasamjnitam;
23. Let that be known by the name of Yoga, the severance from union with pain. This Yoga should be practised with determination and with an undesponding mind.
Sankalpaprabhavaan kaamaan styaktwaa sarvaan asheshatah;
24. Abandoning without reserve all the desires born of Sankalpa, and completely restraining the whole group of senses by the mind from all sides,
Shanaih shanairuparamed buddhyaa dhritigriheetayaa;
25. Little by little let him attain to quietude by the intellect held firmly; having made the mind establish itself in the Self, let him not think of anything.
Yato yato nishcharati manashchanchalamasthiram;
26. From whatever cause the restless, unsteady mind wanders away, from that let him restrain it and bring it under the control of the Self alone.
Prashaantamanasam hyenam yoginam sukhamuttamam;
27. Supreme bliss verily comes to this yogi whose mind is quite peaceful, whose passion is quieted, who has become Brahman, and who is free from sin.
Yunjannevam sadaa'tmaanam yogee vigatakalmashah;
28. The yogi, always engaging the mind thus (in the practice of Yoga), freed from sins, easily enjoys the infinite bliss of contact with Brahman (the Eternal).
Sarvabhootasthamaatmaanam sarvabhootaani chaatmani;
29. With the mind harmonised by Yoga he sees the Self abiding in all beings and all beings in the Self; he sees the same everywhere.
Yo maam pashyati sarvatra sarvam cha mayi pashyati;
30. He who sees me everywhere and sees everything in me, he does not become separated from me nor do I become separated from him.
Sarvabhootasthitam yo maam bhajatyekatwamaasthitah;
31. He who, being established in unity, worships me who dwells in all beings,that yogi abides in me, whatever may be his mode of living.
Aatmaupamyena sarvatra samam pashyati yo'rjuna;
32. He who, through the likeness of the Self, Arjuna, sees equality everywhere, be it pleasure or pain, he is regarded as the highest yogi!
Yo'yam yogastwayaa proktah saamyena madhusoodana;
33. This Yoga of equanimity taught by you, Krishna, I do not see its steady continuance, because of restlessness (of the mind)!
Chanchalam hi manah krishna pramaathi balavad dridham;
34. The mind verily is restless, turbulent, strong and unyielding, Krishna! I deem it as difficult to control as to control the wind.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Asamshayam mahaabaaho mano durnigraham chalam;
The Blessed Lord said:
35. Undoubtedly, mighty-armed Arjuna, the mind is difficult to control and restless; but, by practice and by dispassion it may be restrained!
Asamyataatmanaa yogo dushpraapa iti me matih;
36. I think that Yoga is hard to be attained by one of uncontrolled self, but the self~controlled and striving one attains to it by the (proper) means.
Ayatih shraddhayopeto yogaacchalitamaanasah;
37. He who is unable to control himself, though he has the faith, and whose mind wanders away from Yoga, what end does he meet, having failed to attain perfection in Yoga, Krishna?
Kacchinnobhayavibhrashtash cchinnaabhramiva nashyati;
38. Fallen from both, does he not perish like a rent cloud, supportless, mighty-armed (Krishna), deluded on the path of Brahman?
Etanme samshayam krishna cchettumarhasyasheshatah;
39. This doubt of mine, Krishna, completely dispel, because it is not possible for any but you to dispel this doubt.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Paartha naiveha naamutra vinaashas tasya vidyate;
The Blessed Lord said:
40. Arjuna, neither in this world, nor in the next world is there destruction for him; none, verily, who does good, my son, ever comes to grief!
Praapya punyakritaam lokaanushitwaa shaashwateeh samaah;
41. Having attained to the worlds of the righteous and, having dwelt there for everlasting years, he who fell from Yoga is reborn in the house of the pure and wealthy.
Athavaa yoginaameva kule bhavati dheemataam;
42. Or he is born in a family of even the wise yogis; verily a birth like this is very difficult to obtain in this world.
Tatra tam buddhisamyogam labhate paurvadehikam;
43. There he comes in touch with the knowledge acquired in his former body and strives more than before for perfection, Arjuna!
Poorvaabhyaasena tenaiva hriyate hyavasho'pi sah;
44. By that very former practice he is borne on in spite of himself. Even he who merely wishes to know Yoga transcends the Brahmic word.
Prayatnaadyatamaanastu yogee samshuddhakilbishah;
45. But, the yogi who strives with assiduity, purified of sins and perfected gradually through many births, reaches the highest goal.
Tapaswibhyo'dhiko yogee jnaanibhyo'pi mato'dhikah;
46. The yogi is thought to be superior to the ascetics and even superior to men of knowledge (obtained through the study of scriptures); he is also superior to men of action; therefore, be a yogi, Arjuna!
Yoginaamapi sarveshaam madgatenaantaraatmanaa;
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Mayyaasaktamanaah paartha yogam yunjanmadaashrayah;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. Arjuna, hear how you shall without doubt know me fully, with the mind intent on me, practising Yoga and taking refuge in me!
Jnaanam te'ham savijnaanam idam vakshyaamyasheshatah;
2. I shall declare to you in full this knowledge combined with direct realisation, after knowing which nothing more here remains to be known.
Manushyaanaam sahasreshu kashchidyatati siddhaye;
3. Among thousands of men, one perchance strives for perfection; even among those successful strivers, only one perchance knows me in essence.
Bhoomiraapo'nalo vaayuh kham mano buddhireva cha;
4. Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and egoismthus is my Nature divided eightfold.
Apareyamitastwanyaam prakritim viddhi me paraam;
5. This is the inferior Prakriti, mighty-armed (Arjuna)! Know you as different from it my higher Prakriti (Nature), the very life-element by which this world is upheld.
Etadyoneeni bhootaani sarvaaneetyupadhaaraya;
6. Know that these two (my higher and lower Natures) are the womb of all beings. So, I am the source and dissolution of the whole universe.
Mattah parataram naanyat kinchidasti dhananjaya;
7. There is nothing higher than me, Arjuna! All this is strung on me as clusters of gems on a string.
Raso'hamapsu kaunteya prabhaasmi shashisooryayoh;
8. I am the sapidity in water, Arjuna! I am the light in the moon and the sun; I am the syllable Om in all the Vedas, sound in ether, and virility in men.
Punyo gandhah prithivyaam cha tejashchaasmi vibhaavasau;
9. I am the sweet fragrance in earth and the brilliance in fire, the life in all beings; and I am austerity in ascetics.
Beejam maam sarvabhootaanaam viddhi paartha sanaatanam;
10. Know me, Arjuna, as the eternal seed of all beings; I am the intelligence of the intelligent; the splendour of the splendid objects am I!
Balam balavataam asmi kaamaraagavivarjitam;
11. Of the strong, I am the strength devoid of desire and attachment, and in (all) beings, I am the desire unopposed to Dharma, Arjuna!
you chaiva saattvikaa bhaavaa raajasaastaamasaashcha you;
12. Whatever being (and objects) that are pure, active and inert, know that they proceed from me. They are in me, yet I am not in them.
Tribhirgunamayair bhaavairebhih sarvamidam jagat;
13. Deluded by these Natures (states or things) composed of the three qualities of Nature, all this world does not know me as distinct from them and immutable.
Daivee hyeshaa gunamayee mama maayaa duratyayaa;
14. Verily this divine illusion of Mine made up of the qualities (of Nature) is difficult to cross over; those who take refuge in me alone cross over this illusion.
Na maam dushkritino moodhaah prapadyante naraadhamaah;
15. The evil-doers and the deluded, who are the lowest of men, do not seek me; they whose knowledge is destroyed by illusion follow the ways of demons.
Chaturvidhaa bhajante maam janaah sukritino'rjuna;
16. Four kinds of virtuous men worship me, Arjuna! They are the distressed, the seeker of knowledge, the seeker of wealth, and the wise, lord of the Bharatas!
Teshaam jnaanee nityayukta eka bhaktirvishishyate;
17. Of them, the wise, ever steadfast and devoted to the One, excels (is the best); for, I am exceedingly dear to the wise and he is dear to me.
Udaaraah sarva evaite jnaanee twaatmaiva me matam;
18. Noble indeed are all these; but I deem the wise man as my very Self; for, steadfast in mind, he is established in me alone as the supreme goal.
Bahoonaam janmanaamante jnaanavaanmaam prapadyate;
19. At the end of many births the wise man comes to me, realising that all this is Vasudeva (the innermost Self); such a great soul (Mahatma) is very hard to find.
20. Those whose wisdom has been rent away by this or that desire, go to other gods, following this or that rite, led by their own nature.
Yo yo yaam yaam tanum bhaktah shraddhayaarchitum icchati;
21. Whatever form any devotee desires to worship with faiththat (same) faith of his I make firm and unflinching.
Sa tayaa shraddhayaa yuktastasyaaraadhanameehate;
22. Endowed with that faith, he engages in the worship of that (form), and from it he obtains his desire, these being verily ordained by me (alone).
Antavattu phalam teshaam tadbhavatyalpamedhasaam;
23. Verily the reward (fruit) that accrues to those men of small intelligence is finite. The worshippers of the gods go to them, but my devotees come to me.
Avyaktam vyaktimaapannam manyante maamabuddhayah;
24. The foolish think of me, the Unmanifest, as having manifestation, knowing not my higher, immutable and most excellent nature.
Naaham prakaashah sarvasya yogamaayaasamaavritah;
25. I am not manifest to all (as I am), being veiled by the Yoga Maya. This deluded world does not know me, the unborn and imperishable.
Vedaaham samateetaani vartamaanaani chaarjuna;
26. I know, Arjuna, the beings of the past, the present and the future, but no one knows me.
Icchaadweshasamutthena dwandwamohena bhaarata;
27. By the delusion of the pairs of opposites arising from desire and aversion, Bharata, all beings are subject to delusion at birth, Parantapa!
Yeshaam twantagatam paapam janaanaam punyakarmanaam;
28. But those men of virtuous deeds whose sins have come to an end, and who are freed from the delusion of the pairs of opposites, worship me, steadfast in their vows.
Jaraamaranamokshaaya maamaashritya yatanti you;
29. Those who strive for liberation from old age and death, taking refuge in me, realise in full that Brahman, the whole knowledge of the Self and all action.
Saadhibhootaadhidaivam maam saadhiyajnam cha you viduh;
30. Those who know me with the Adhibhuta (pertaining to the elements), the Adhidaiva
(pertaining to the gods), and Adhiyajna (pertaining to the sacrifice), know me even at the
time of death, steadfast in mind.
Kim tadbrahma kim adhyaatmam kim karma purushottama;
1. What is that Brahman? What is Adhyatma? What is action, best among men? What is declared to be Adhibhuta? And what is Adhidaiva said to be?
Adhiyajnah katham ko'tra dehe'smin madhusoodana;
2. Who and how is Adhiyajna here in this body, destroyer of Madhu (Krishna)? And how, at the time of death, are you to be known by the self-controlled one?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Aksharam brahma paramam swabhaavo'dhyaatmamuchyate;
The Blessed Lord said:
3. Brahman is the Imperishable, the Supreme; his essential nature is called Self-knowledge; the offering (to the gods) which causes existence and manifestation of beings and which also sustains them is called action.
Adhibhootam ksharo bhaavah purushashchaadhidaivatam;
4. Adhibhuta (knowledge of the elements) pertains to my perishable Nature, and the Purusha or soul is the Adhidaiva; I alone am the Adhiyajna here in this body, best among the embodied (men)!
Antakaale cha maameva smaran muktwaa kalevaram;
5. And whoever, leaving the body, goes forth remembering me alone at the time of death, he attains my Being; there is no doubt about this.
Yam yam vaapi smaran bhaavam tyajatyante kalevaram;
6. Whoever at the end leaves the body, thinking of any being, to that being only does he go, son of Kunti (Arjuna), because of his constant thought of that being!
Tasmaat sarveshu kaaleshu maamanusmara yudhya cha;
7. Therefore, at all times remember me only and fight. With mind and intellect fixed (or absorbed) in me, you shall doubtless come to me alone.
Abhyaasayogayuktena chetasaa naanyagaaminaa;
8. With the mind not moving towards any other thing, made steadfast by the method of habitual meditation, and constantly meditating, one goes to the Supreme Person, the Resplendent, Arjuna!
Aadityavarnam tamasah parastaat.
9. Whoever meditates on the Omniscient, the Ancient, the ruler (of the whole world), minuter than an atom, the supporter of all, of inconceivable form, effulgent like the sun and beyond the darkness of ignorance,
Bhaktyaa yukto yogabalena chaiva;
Sa tam param purusham upaiti divyam.
10. At the time of death, with unshaken mind, endowed with devotion and by the power of Yoga, fixing the whole life-breath in the middle of the two eyebrows, he reaches that resplendent Supreme Person.
Yadaksharam vedavido vadanti
Vishanti yadyatayo veetaraagaah;
Tatte padam samgrahena pravakshye.
11. That which is declared imperishable by those who know the Vedas, that which the self-controlled (ascetics) and passion-free enter, that desiring which celibacy is practisedthat goal I will declare to you in brief.
Sarvadwaaraani samyamya mano hridi nirudhya cha;
12. Having closed all the gates, confined the mind in the heart and fixed the life-breath in the head, engaged in the practice of concentration,
Omityekaaksharam brahma vyaaharan maamanusmaran;
13. Uttering the monosyllable Omthe Brahmanremembering me always, he who departs thus, leaving the body, attains to the supreme goal.
Ananyachetaah satatam yo maam smarati nityashah;
14. I am easily attainable by that ever-steadfast yogi who constantly and daily remembers me (for a long time), not thinking of anything else (with a single or one-pointed mind), Partha (Arjuna)!
Maamupetya punarjanma duhkhaalayamashaashwatam;
15. Having attained me these great souls do not again take birth (here), which is the place of pain and is non-eternal; they have reached the highest perfection (liberation).
16. (All) the worlds, including the world of Brahma, are subject to return again, Arjuna! But he who reaches me, son of Kunti, has no rebirth!
Sahasrayugaparyantam aharyad brahmano viduh;
17. Those who know the day of Brahma, which is of a duration of a thousand Yugas (ages), and the night, which is also of a thousand Yugas' duration, they know day and night.
Avyaktaadvyaktayah sarvaah prabhavantyaharaagame;
18. From the unmanifested all the manifested (worlds) proceed at the coming of the "day"; at the coming of the "night" they dissolve verily into that alone which is called the unmanifested.
Bhootagraamah sa evaayam bhootwaa bhootwaa praleeyate;
19. This same multitude of beings, born again and again, is dissolved, helplessly, Arjuna, (into the unmanifested) at the coming of the night, and comes forth at the coming of the day!
Parastasmaat tu bhaavo'nyo'vyakto'vyaktaatsanaatanah;
20. But verily there exists, higher than the unmanifested, another unmanifested Eternal who is not destroyed when all beings are destroyed.
Avyakto'kshara ityuktastamaahuh paramaam gatim;
21. What is called the Unmanifested and the Imperishable, That they say is the highest goal (path). They who reach it do not return (to this cycle of births and deaths). That is my highest abode (place or state).
Purushah sa parah paartha bhaktyaa labhyastwananyayaa;
22. That highest Purusha, Arjuna, is attainable by unswerving devotion to him alone within whom all beings dwell and by whom all this is pervaded.
Yatra kaale twanaavrittim aavrittim chaiva yoginah;
23. Now I will tell you, chief of the Bharatas, the times departing at which the yogis will return or not return!
Agnijyotirahah shuklah shanmaasaa uttaraayanam;
24. Fire, light, daytime, the bright fortnight, the six months of the northern path of the sun (northern solstice)departing then (by these), men who know Brahman go to Brahman.
Dhoomo raatristathaa krishnah shanmaasaa dakshinaayanam;
25. Attaining to the lunar light by smoke, night-time, the dark fortnight or the six months of the southern path of the sun (the southern solstice), the yogi returns.
Shuklakrishne gatee hyete jagatah shaashwate mate;
26. The bright and the dark paths of the world are verily thought to be eternal; by the one (the bright path) a person goes not to return again, and by the other (the dark path) he returns.
Naite sritee paartha jaanan yogee muhyati kashchana;
27. Knowing these paths, Arjuna, no yogi is deluded! Therefore, at all times be steadfast in Yoga.
Vedeshu yajneshu tapahsu chaiva
Daaneshu yat punyaphalam pradishtam:
Yogee param sthaanamupaiti chaadyam.
28. Whatever fruits or merits is declared (in the scriptures) to accrue from (the study
of) the Vedas (the performance of) sacrifices, (the practice of) austerities, and
(the offering of) giftsbeyond all these goes the yogi, having known this; and he
attains to the supreme primeval (first or ancient) Abode.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Idam tu te guhyatamam pravakshyaamyanasooyave;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. I shall now declare to you who does not cavil, the greatest secret, the knowledge combined with experience (Self-realisation). Having known this, you shall be free from evil.
Raajavidyaa raajaguhyam pavitramidamuttamam;
2. This is the kingly science, the kingly secret, the supreme purifier, realisable by direct intuitional knowledge, according to righteousness, very easy to perform and imperishable.
Ashraddhadhaanaah purushaa dharmasyaasya parantapa;
3. Those who have no faith in this Dharma (knowledge of the Self), Parantapa (Arjuna), return to the path of this world of death without attaining me!
Mayaa tatamidam sarvam jagadavyaktamoortinaa;
4. All this world is pervaded by me in my unmanifest aspect; all beings exist in me, but I do not dwell in them.
Na cha matsthaani bhootaani pashya me yogamaishwaram;
5. Nor do beings exist in me (in reality): behold my divine Yoga, supporting all beings, but not dwelling in them, is my Self, the efficient cause of beings.
Yathaakaashasthito nityam vaayuh sarvatrago mahaan;
6. As the mighty wind, moving everywhere, rests always in the ether, even so, know you that all beings rest in me.
Sarvabhootaani kaunteya prakritim yaanti maamikaam;
7. All beings, Arjuna, enter into my Nature at the end of a Kalpa; I send them forth again at the beginning of (the next) Kalpa!
Prakritim swaamavashtabhya visrijaami punah punah;
8. Animating my Nature, I again and again send forth all this multitude of beings, helpless by the force of Nature.
Na cha maam taani karmaani nibadhnanti dhananjaya;
9. These actions do not bind me, Arjuna, sitting like one indifferent, unattached to those acts!
Mayaa'dhyakshena prakritih sooyate sacharaacharam;
10. Under me as supervisor, Nature produces the moving and the unmoving; because of this, Arjuna, the world revolves!
Avajaananti maam moodhaah maanusheem tanumaashritam;
11. Fools disregard me, clad in human form, not knowing my higher Being as the great Lord of (all) beings.
Moghaashaa moghakarmaano moghajnaanaa vichetasah;
12. Of vain hopes, of vain actions, of vain knowledge and senseless, they verily are possessed of the deceitful nature of demons and undivine beings.
Mahaatmaanastu maam paartha daiveem prakritimaashritaah;
13. But the great souls, Arjuna, partaking of my divine nature, worship me with a single mind (with the mind devoted to nothing else), knowing me as the imperishable source of beings!
Satatam keertayanto maam yatantashcha dridhavrataah;
14. Always glorifying me, striving, firm in vows, prostrating before me, they worship me with devotion, ever steadfast.
Jnaanayajnena chaapyanye yajanto maamupaasate;
15. Others also, sacrificing with the wisdom-sacrifice, worship me, the all-faced, as one, as distinct, and as manifold.
Aham kraturaham yajnah swadhaa'hamahamaushadham;
16. I am the Kratu; I am the Yajna; I am the offering (food) to the manes; I am the medicinal herb and all the plants; I am the Mantra; I am also the ghee or melted butter; I am the fire; I am the oblation.
Pitaahamasya jagato maataa dhaataa pitaamahah;
17. I am the father of this world, the mother, the dispenser of the fruits of actions, and the grandfather; the (one) thing to be known, the purifier, the sacred monosyllable (Om), and also the Rig-, the Sama- and Yajur Vedas.
Gatirbhartaa prabhuh saakshee nivaasah sharanam suhrit;
18. I am the goal, the support, the Lord, the witness, the abode, the shelter, the friend, the origin, the dissolution, the foundation, the treasure-house and the imperishable seed.
Tapaamyahamaham varsham nigrihnaamyutsrijaami cha;
19. (As the sun) I give heat; I withhold and send forth the rain; I am immortality and also death, existence and non-existence, Arjuna!
Traividyaa maam somapaah pootapaapaa
Yajnairishtwaa swargatim praarthayante;
Mashnanti divyaan divi devabhogaan.
20. The knowers of the three Vedas, the drinkers of Soma, purified of all sins, worshipping me by sacrifices, pray for the way to heaven; they reach the holy world of the Lord of the gods and enjoy in heaven the divine pleasures of the gods.
Te tam bhuktwaa swargalokam vishaalam
Ksheene punye martyalokam vishanti;
Gataagatam kaamakaamaa labhante.
21. They, having enjoyed the vast heaven, enter the world of mortals when their merits are exhausted; thus abiding by the injunctions of the three (Vedas) and desiring (objects of) desires, they attain to the state of going and returning.
Ananyaashchintayanto maam you janaah paryupaasate;
22. To those men who worship me alone, thinking of no other, of those ever united, I secure what is not already possessed and preserve what they already possess.
you'pyanyadevataa bhaktaa yajante shraddhayaa'nvitaah;
23. Even those devotees who, endowed with faith, worship other gods, worship me only, Arjuna, but by the wrong method!
Aham hi sarvayajnaanaam bhoktaa cha prabhureva cha;
24. (For) I alone am the enjoyer and also the Lord of all sacrifices; but they do not know me in essence (in reality), and hence they fall (return to this mortal world).
Yaanti devavrataa devaan pitreen yaanti pitrivrataah;
25. The worshippers of the gods go to them; to the manes go the ancestor-worshippers; to the Deities who preside over the elements go their worshippers; my devotees come to me.
Patram pushpam phalam toyam yo me bhaktyaa prayacchati;
26. Whoever offers me with devotion and a pure mind (heart), a leaf, a flower, a fruit or a little waterI accept (this offering).
Yatkaroshi yadashnaasi yajjuhoshi dadaasi yat;
27. Whatever you doest, whatever you eatest, whatever you offerest in sacrifice, whatever you givest, whatever you practiseth as austerity, Arjuna, do it as an offering to me!
Shubhaashubhaphalairevam mokshyase karmabandhanaih;
28. Thus shall you be freed from the bonds of actions yielding good and evil fruits; with the mind steadfast in the Yoga of renunciation, and liberated, you shall come to me.
Samo'ham sarvabhooteshu na me dweshyo'sti na priyah;
29. The same am I to all beings; to me there is none hateful or dear; but those who worship me with devotion are in me and I am also in them.
Api chet suduraachaaro bhajate maamananyabhaak;
30. Even if the most sinful worships me, with devotion to none else, he too should indeed be regarded as righteous, for he has rightly resolved.
Kshipram bhavati dharmaatmaa shashwacchaantim nigacchati;
31. Soon he becomes righteous and attains to eternal peace; Arjuna, know you for certain that my devotee is never destroyed!
Maam hi paartha vyapaashritya you'pi syuh paapayonayah;
32. For, taking refuge in me, they also, who, Arjuna, may be of sinful birthwomen, Vaisyas as well as Sudrasattain the Supreme Goal!
Kim punarbraahmanaah punyaa bhaktaa raajarshayastathaa;
33. How much more easily then the holy Brahmins and devoted royal saints (attain the goal); having obtained this impermanent and unhappy world, worship me.
Manmanaa bhava madbhakto madyaajee maam namaskuru;
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Bhooya eva mahaabaaho shrinu me paramam vachah;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. Again, mighty-armed Arjuna, listen to my supreme word which I shall declare to you who art beloved, for your welfare!
Na me viduh suraganaah prabhavam na maharshayah;
2. Neither the hosts of the gods nor the great sages know my origin; for, in every way I am the source of all the gods and the great sages.
Yo maamajamanaadim cha vetti lokamaheshwaram;
3. He who knows me as unborn and beginningless, as the great Lord of the worlds, he, among mortals, is undeluded; he is liberated from all sins.
Buddhir jnaanamasammohah kshamaa satyam damah shamah;
4. Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, forgiveness, truth, self-restraint, calmness, happiness, pain, birth or existence, death or non-existence, fear and also fearlessness,
Ahimsaa samataa tushtistapo daanam yasho'yashah;
5. Non-injury, equanimity, contentment, austerity, fame, beneficence, ill-fame(these) different kinds of qualities of beings arise from me alone.
Maharshayah sapta poorve chatwaaro manavastathaa;
6. The seven great sages, the ancient four and also the Manus, possessed of powers like me (on account of their minds being fixed on me), were born of (my) mind; from them are these creatures born in this world.
Etaam vibhootim yogam cha mama yo vetti tattwatah;
7. He who in truth knows these manifold manifestations of my Being and (this) Yoga-power of Mine, becomes established in the unshakeable Yoga; there is no doubt about it.
Aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate;
8. I am the source of all; from me everything evolves; understanding thus, the wise, endowed with meditation, worship me.
Macchittaa madgatapraanaa bodhayantah parasparam;
9. With their minds and lives entirely absorbed in me, enlightening each other and always speaking of me, they are satisfied and delighted.
Teshaam satatayuktaanaam bhajataam preetipoorvakam;
10. To them who are ever steadfast, worshipping me with love, I give the Yoga of discrimination by which they come to me.
Teshaam evaanukampaartham aham ajnaanajam tamah;
11. Out of mere compassion for them, I, dwelling within their Self, destroy the darkness born of ignorance by the luminous lamp of knowledge.
Param brahma param dhaama pavitram paramam bhavaan;
12. You are the Supreme Brahman, the supreme abode (or the supreme light), the supreme purifier, the eternal, divine Person, the primeval God, unborn and omnipresent.
Aahustwaam rishayah sarve devarshirnaaradastathaa;
13. All the sages have thus declared you, as also the divine sage Narada; so also Asita, Devala and Vyasa; and now you yourself sayest so to me.
Sarvametadritam manye yanmaam vadasi keshava;
14. I believe all this that you sayest to me as true, Krishna! Verily, blessed Lord, neither the gods nor the demons know your manifestation (origin)!
Swayamevaatmanaatmaanam vettha twam purushottama;
15. Verily, you yourself knowest yourself by yourself, Supreme Person, source and Lord of beings, God of gods, ruler of the world!
Vaktum arhasyasheshena divyaa hyaatmavibhootayah;
16. You should indeed tell, without reserve, of your divine glories by which you existeth, pervading all these worlds. (None else can do so.)
Katham vidyaamaham yogimstwaam sadaa parichintayan;
17. How shall I, ever meditating, know you, yogin? In what aspects or things, blessed Lord, are you to be thought of by me?
Vistarenaatmano yogam vibhootim cha janaardana;
18. Tell me again in detail, Krishna, of your yogic power and glory; for I am not satisfied with what I have heard of your life-giving and nectar-like speech!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Hanta te kathayishyaami divyaa hyaatmavibhootayah;
The Blessed Lord said:
19. Very well, now I will declare to you my divine glories in their prominence, Arjuna! There is no end to their detailed description.
Ahamaatmaa gudaakesha sarvabhootaashayasthitah;
20. I am the Self, Gudakesha, seated in the hearts of all beings! I am the beginning, the middle and also the end of all beings.
Aadityaanaamaham vishnur jyotishaam raviramshumaan;
21. Among the (twelve) Adityas, I am Vishnu; among the luminaries, the radiant sun; I am Marichi among the (seven or forty-nine) Maruts; among stars the moon am I.
Vedaanaam saamavedo'smi devaanaam asmi vaasavah;
22. Among the Vedas I am the Sama Veda; I am Vasava among the gods; among the senses I am the mind; and I am intelligence among living beings.
Rudraanaam shankarashchaasmi vittesho yaksharakshasaam;
23. And, among the Rudras I am Shankara; among the Yakshas and Rakshasas, the Lord of wealth (Kubera); among the Vasus I am Pavaka (fire); and among the (seven) mountains I am the Meru.
Purodhasaam cha mukhyam maam viddhipaartha brihaspatim;
24. And, among the household priests (of kings), Arjuna, know me to be the chief, Brihaspati; among the army generals I am Skanda; among lakes I am the ocean!
Maharsheenaam bhriguraham giraamasmyekamaksharam;
25. Among the great sages I am Bhrigu; among words I am the monosyllable Om; among sacrifices I am the sacrifice of silent repetition; among immovable things the himalayas I am.
Ashwatthah sarvavrikshaanaam devarsheenaam cha naaradah;
26. Among the trees (I am) the peepul; among the divine sages I am Narada; among Gandharvas I am Chitraratha; among the perfected the sage Kapila.
Ucchaihshravasamashwaanaam viddhi maamamritodbhavam;
27. Know me as Ucchaisravas, born of nectar among horses; among lordly elephants (I am) the Airavata; and among men, the king.
Aayudhaanaamaham vajram dhenoonaamasmi kaamadhuk;
28. Among weapons I am the thunderbolt; among cows I am the wish-fulfilling cow called Surabhi; I am the progenitor, the god of love; among serpents I am Vasuki.
Anantashchaasmi naagaanaam varuno yaadasaamaham;
29. I am Ananta among the Nagas; I am Varuna among water-Deities; Aryaman among the manes I am; I am Yama among the governors.
Prahlaadashchaasmi daityaanaam kaalah kalayataamaham;
30. And, I am Prahlad among the demons; among the reckoners I am time; among beasts I am their king, the lion; and Garuda among birds.
Pavanah pavataamasmi raamah shastrabhritaamaham;
31. Among the purifiers (or the speeders) I am the wind; Rama among the warriors am I; among the fishes I am the shark; among the streams I am the Ganga.
Sargaanaamaadirantashcha madhyam chaivaaham arjuna;
32. Among creations I am the beginning, the middle and also the end, Arjuna! Among the sciences I am the science of the Self; and I am logic among controversialists.
Aksharaanaamakaaro'smi dwandwah saamaasikasya cha;
33. Among the letters of the alphabet, the letter "A" I am, and the dual among the compounds. I am verily the inexhaustible or everlasting time; I am the dispenser (of the fruits of actions), having faces in all directions.
Mrityuh sarvaharashchaaham udbhavashcha bhavishyataam;
34. And I am all-devouring death, and prosperity of those who are to be prosperous; among feminine qualities (I am) fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intelligence, firmness and forgiveness.
Brihatsaama tathaa saamnaam gaayatree cchandasaamaham;
35. Among the hymns also I am the Brihatsaman; among metres Gayatri am I; among the months I am Margasirsa; among seasons (I am) the flowery season.
Dyootam cchalayataamasmi tejastejaswinaamaham;
36. I am the gambling of the fraudulent; I am the splendour of the splendid; I am victory; I am determination (of those who are determined); I am the goodness of the good.
Vrishneenaam vaasudevo'smi paandavaanaam dhananjayah;
37. Among Vrishnis I am Vasudeva; among the Pandavas I am Arjuna; among sages I am Vyasa; among poets I am Usana, the poet.
Dando damayataamasmi neetirasmi jigeeshataam;
38. Among the punishers I am the sceptre; among those who seek victory I am statesmanship; and also among secrets I am silence; knowledge among knowers I am.
Yachchaapi sarvabhootaanaam beejam tadahamarjuna;
39. And whatever is the seed of all beings, that also am I, Arjuna! There is no being, whether moving or unmoving, that can exist without me.
Naanto'sti mama divyaanaam vibhooteenaam parantapa;
40. There is no end to my divine glories, Arjuna, but this is a brief statement by me of the particulars of my divine glories!
Yadyad vibhootimat sattwam shreemadoorjitameva vaa;
41. Whatever being there is that is glorious, prosperous or powerful, that know you to be a manifestation of a part of my splendour.
Athavaa bahunaitena kim jnaatena tavaarjuna;
Madanugrahaaya paramam guhyamadhyaatmasamjnitam;
1. By this explanation of the highest secret concerning the Self, which you have spoken out of compassion towards me my delusion is gone.
Bhavaapyayau hi bhootaanaam shrutau vistarasho mayaa;
2. The origin and the destruction of beings verily have been heard by me in detail from you, lotus-eyed Lord, and also your inexhaustible greatness!
Evametadyathaattha twamaatmaanam parameshwara;
3. (Now), Supreme Lord, as you have thus described yourself, Supreme Person, I wish to see your Divine Form!
Manyase yadi tacchakyam mayaa drashtumiti prabho;
4. If you, Lord, think it possible for me to see it, do you, then, Lord of the yogis, show me your imperishable Self!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Pashya me paartha roopaani shatasho'tha sahasrashah;
The Blessed Lord said:
5. Behold, Arjuna, my forms by the hundreds and thousands, of different sorts, divine and of various colours and shapes!
Pashyaadityaan vasoon rudraan ashwinau marutastathaa;
6. Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the two Asvins and also the Maruts; behold many wonders never seen before, Arjuna!
Ihaikastham jagatkritsnam pashyaadya sacharaacharam;
7. Now behold, Arjuna, in this, my body, the whole universe centred in the oneincluding the moving and the unmovingand whatever else you desire to see!
Na tu maam shakyase drashtum anenaiva swachakshushaa;
8. But you are not able to behold me with these, your own eyes; I give you the divine eye; behold my lordly Yoga.
Evamuktwaa tato raajan mahaayogeshwaro harih;
9. Having thus spoken, king, the great Lord of Yoga, Hari (Krishna), showed to Arjuna his supreme form as the Lord!
Anekavaktra nayanam anekaadbhuta darshanam;
10. With numerous mouths and eyes, with numerous wonderful sights, with numerous divine ornaments, with numerous divine weapons uplifted (such a form he showed).
11. Wearing divine garlands and apparel, anointed with divine unguents, the all-wonderful, resplendent (Being), endless, with faces on all sides,
Divi sooryasahasrasya bhavedyugapadutthitaa;
12. If the splendour of a thousand suns were to blaze out at once (simultaneously) in the sky, that would be the splendour of that mighty Being (great soul).
Tatraikastham jagatkritsnam pravibhaktamanekadhaa;
13. There, in the body of the God of gods, Arjuna then saw the whole universe resting in the one, with its many groups.
Tatah sa vismayaavishto hrishtaromaa dhananjayah;
14. Then, Arjuna, filled with wonder and with hair standing on end, bowed down his head to the Lord and spoke with joined palms.
Pashyaami devaamstava deva dehe
Mrisheemshcha sarvaanuragaamshcha divyaan.
15. I behold all the gods, God, in your body, and hosts of various classes of beings; Brahma, the Lord, seated on the lotus, all the sages and the celestial serpents!
Pashyaami twaam sarvato'nantaroopam;
Pashyaami vishweshwara vishwaroopa.
16. I see you of boundless form on every side, with many arms, stomachs, mouths and eyes; neither the end nor the middle nor also the beginning do I see, Lord of the universe, Cosmic Form!
Kireetinam gadinam chakrinam cha,
Tejoraashim sarvato deeptimantam;
17. I see you with the diadem, the club and the discus, a mass of radiance shining everywhere, very hard to look at, blazing all round like burning fire and the sun, and immeasurable.
Twamaksharam paramam veditavyam
Twamasya vishwasya param nidhaanam;
Sanaatanastwam purusho mato me.
18. You are the Imperishable, the Supreme Being, worthy of being known; you are the great treasure-house of this universe; you are the imperishable protector of the eternal Dharma; you are the ancient Person, I deem.
Swatejasaa vishwamidam tapantam.
19. I see you without beginning, middle or end, infinite in power, of endless arms, the sun and the moon being your eyes, the burning fire your mouth, heating the entire universe with your radiance.
Vyaaptam twayaikena dishashcha sarvaah;
Lokatrayam pravyathitam mahaatman.
20. The space between the earth and the heaven and all the quarters are filled by you alone; having seen this, your wonderful and terrible form, the three worlds are trembling with fear, great-souled Being!
Amee hi twaam surasanghaah vishanti
Kechid bheetaah praanjalayo grinanti;
Stuvanti twaam stutibhih pushkalaabhih.
21. Verily, into you enter these hosts of gods; some extol you in fear with joined palms: "May it be well." Saying thus, bands of great sages and perfected ones praise you with complete hymns.
Rudraadityaa vasavo you cha saadhyaa
Veekshante twaam vismitaashchaiva sarve.
22. The Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Sadhyas, Visvedevas, the two Asvins, Maruts, the manes and hosts of celestial singers, Yakshas, demons and the perfected ones, are all looking at you in great astonishment.
Roopam mahat te bahuvaktranetram
Drishtwaa lokaah pravyathitaastathaa'ham.
23. Having beheld your immeasurable form with many mouths and eyes, mighty-armed, with many arms, thighs and feet, with many stomachs, and fearful with many teeth, the worlds are terrified and so am I!
Dhritim na vindaami shamam cha vishno.
24. On seeing you (the Cosmic Form) touching the sky, shining in many colours, with mouths wide open, with large, fiery eyes, I am terrified at heart and find neither courage nor peace, Vishnu!
Damshtraakaraalaani cha te mukhaani
Praseeda devesha jagannivaasa.
25. Having seen your mouths, fearful with teeth, blazing like the fires of cosmic dissolution, I know not the four quarters, nor do I find peace. Have mercy, Lord of the gods! Abode of the universe!
Amee cha twaam dhritaraashtrasya putraah
26. All the sons of Dhritarashtra with the hosts of kings of the earth, Bhishma, Drona and Karna, with the chief among all our warriors,
Vaktraani te twaramaanaa vishanti
27. They hurriedly enter into your mouths with terrible teeth and fearful to behold. Some are found sticking in the gaps between the teeth, with their heads crushed to powder.
Yathaa nadeenaam bahavo'mbuvegaah
28. Verily, just as many torrents of rivers flow towards the ocean, even so these heroes of the world of men enter your flaming mouths.
Yathaa pradeeptam jwalanam patangaa
Vishanti naashaaya samriddhavegaah;
Tavaapi vaktraani samriddhavegaah.
29. As moths hurriedly rush into a blazing fire for (their own) destruction, so also these creatures hurriedly rush into your mouths for (their own) destruction.
Lelihyase grasamaanah samantaal
Lokaan samagraan vadanair jwaladbhih;
Bhaasastavograah pratapanti vishno.
30. You lickest up, devouring all the worlds on every side with your flaming mouths. Your fierce rays, filling the whole world with radiance, are burning, Vishnu!
Aakhyaahi me ko bhavaanugraroopo
Namo'stu te devavara praseeda;
Na hi prajaanaami tava pravrittim.
31. Tell me, who you are, so fierce in form. Salutations to you, God Supreme! Have mercy; I desire to know you, the original Being. I know not indeed your doing.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Kaalo'smi lokakshayakrit pravriddho
Lokaan samaahartumiha pravrittah;
you'wasthitaah pratyaneekeshu yodhaah.
The Blessed Lord said:
32. I am the mighty world-destroying Time, now engaged in destroying the worlds. Even without you, none of the warriors arrayed in the hostile armies shall live.
Tasmaat twam uttishtha yasho labhaswa
Jitwaa shatroon bhungkshwa raajyam samriddham;
Nimittamaatram bhava savyasaachin.
33. Therefore, stand up and obtain fame. Conquer the enemies and enjoy the unrivalled kingdom. Verily, they have already been slain by me; be a mere instrument, Arjuna!
Dronam cha bheeshmam cha jayadratham cha
Karnam tathaa'nyaanapi yodhaveeraan;
Yudhyaswa jetaasi rane sapatnaan.
34. Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna and all the other courageous warriorsthese have already been slain by me; kill; be not distressed with fear; fight and you shall conquer your enemies in battle.
Etacchrutwaa vachanam keshavasya
Sagadgadam bheetabheetah pranamya.
35. Having heard that speech of Lord Krishna, the crowned one (Arjuna), with joined palms, trembling, prostrating himself, again addressed Krishna, in a choked voice, bowing down, overwhelmed with fear.
Sthaane hrisheekesha tava prakeertyaa
Jagat prahrishyatyanurajyate cha;
Sarve namasyanti cha siddhasanghaah.
36. It is meet, Krishna, that the world delights and rejoices in your praise; demons fly in fear to all quarters and the hosts of the perfected ones bow to you!
Kasmaachcha te na nameran mahaatman
Twamaksharam sadasattatparam yat.
37. And why should they not, great soul, bow to you who art greater (than all else), the primal cause even of (Brahma) the creator, Infinite Being! Lord of the gods! abode of the universe! you are the imperishable, the Being, the non-being and That which is the supreme (that which is beyond the Being and non-being).
Twamaadidevah purushah puraanas
Twamasya vishwasya param nidhaanam;
Twayaa tatam vishwamanantaroopa.
38. You are the primal God, the ancient Purusha, the supreme refuge of this universe, the knower, the knowable and the supreme abode. By you is the universe pervaded, Being of infinite forms!
Punashcha bhooyo'pi namo namaste.
39. You are Vayu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, the moon, the creator, and the great-grandfather. Salutations, salutations to you, a thousand times, and again salutations, salutations to you!
Namah purastaadatha prishthataste
Namo'stu te sarvata eva sarva;
Sarvam samaapnoshi tato'si sarvah.
40. Salutations to you from front and from behind! Salutations to you on every side! All! you infinite in power and prowess, pervadest all; wherefore you are all.
Sakheti matwaa prasabham yaduktam
he krishna he yaadava he sakheti;
Mayaa pramaadaat pranayena vaapi.
41. Whatever I have presumptuously uttered from love or carelessness, addressing you as Krishna! Yadava! Friend! regarding you merely as a friend, unknowing of this, your greatness,
Tatkshaamaye twaamaham aprameyam.
42. In whatever way I may have insulted you for the sake of fun while at play, reposing, sitting or at meals, when alone (with you), Achyuta, or in companythat I implore you, immeasurable one, to forgive!
Pitaasi lokasya charaacharasya
Twamasya poojyashcha gururgareeyaan;
43. You are the Father of this world, unmoving and moving. You are to be adored by this world. You are the greatest Guru; (for) none there exists who is equal to you; how then can there be another superior to you in the three worlds, Being of unequalled power?
Tasmaatpranamya pranidhaaya kaayam
Priyah priyaayaarhasi deva sodhum.
44. Therefore, bowing down, prostrating my body, I crave your forgiveness, adorable Lord! As a father forgives his son, a friend his (dear) friend, a lover his beloved, even so should you forgive me, God!
Adrishtapoorvam hrishito'smi drishtwaa
Bhayena cha pravyathitam mano me;
Praseeda devesha jagannivaasa.
45. I am delighted, having seen what has never been seen before; and yet my mind is distressed with fear. Show me that (previous) form only, God! Have mercy, God of gods! abode of the universe!
Kireetinam gadinam chakrahastam
Icchaami twaam drashtumaham tathaiva;
Sahasrabaaho bhava vishwamoorte.
46. I desire to see you as before, crowned, bearing a mace, with the discus in hand, in your former form only, having four arms, thousand-armed, Cosmic Form (Being)!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Mayaa prasannena tavaarjunedam
Roopam param darshitamaatmayogaat;
Yanme twadanyena na drishtapoorvam.
The Blessed Lord said:
47. Arjuna, this Cosmic Form has graciously been shown to you by me by my own yogic power; full of splendour, primeval, and infinite, this Cosmic Form of Mine has never been seen before by anyone other than yourself.
Na vedayajnaadhyayanairna daanair
Na cha kriyaabhirna tapobhirugraih;
Drashtum twadanyena karupraveera.
48. Neither by the study of the Vedas and sacrifices, nor by gifts, nor by rituals, nor by severe austerities, can I be seen in this form in the world of men by any other than yourself, great hero of the Kurus (Arjuna)!
Maa te vyathaa maa cha vimoodhabhaavo
Drishtwaa roopam ghorameedringmamedam;
Tadeva me roopamidam prapashya.
49. Be not afraid nor bewildered on seeing such a terrible form of Mine as this; with your fear entirely dispelled and with a gladdened heart, now behold again this former form of Mine.
Swakam roopam darshayaamaasa bhooyah;
Bhootwaa punah saumyavapurmahaatmaa.
50. Having thus spoken to Arjuna, Krishna again showed his own form; and the great soul (Krishna), assuming his gentle form, consoled him who was terrified (Arjuna).
Drishtwedam maanusham roopam tava saumyam janaardana;
51. Having seen this your gentle human form, Krishna, now I am composed and restored to my own nature!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Sudurdarshamidam roopam drishtavaanasi yanmama;
The Blessed Lord said:
52. Very hard indeed it is to see this form of Mine which you have seen. Even the gods are ever longing to behold it.
Naa ham vedairna tapasaa na daanena na chejyayaa;
53. Neither by the Vedas, nor by austerity, nor by gift, nor by sacrifice, can I be seen in this form as you have seen me (so easily).
Bhaktyaa twananyayaa shakyam aham evamvidho'rjuna;
54. But by single-minded devotion can I, of this form, be known and seen in reality and also entered into, Arjuna!
Matkarmakrinmatparamo madbhaktah sangavarjitah;
Evam satatayuktaa you bhaktaastwaam paryupaasate;
1. Those devotees who, ever steadfast, thus worship you and those also who worship the Imperishable and the Unmanifestedwhich of them are better versed in Yoga?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Mayyaaveshya mano you maam nityayuktaa upaasate;
The Blessed Lord said:
2. Those who, fixing their minds on me, worship me, ever steadfast and endowed with supreme faith, these are the best in Yoga in my opinion.
you twaksharamanirdeshyamavyaktam paryupaasate;
3. Those who worship the imperishable, the indefinable, the unmanifested, the omnipresent, the unthinkable, the eternal and the immovable,
Samniyamyendriyagraamam sarvatra samabuddhayah;
4. Having restrained all the senses, even-minded everywhere, intent on the welfare of all beingsverily they also come to me.
5. Greater is their trouble whose minds are set on the Unmanifested; for the goalthe Unmanifestedis very difficult for the embodied to reach.
you tu sarvaani karmaani mayi sannyasya matparaah;
6. But to those who worship me, renouncing all actions in me, regarding me as the supreme goal, meditating on me with single-minded Yoga,
Teshaamaham samuddhartaa mrityusamsaarasaagaraat;
7. To those whose minds are set on me, Arjuna, verily I become ere long the saviour out of the ocean of the mortal Samsara!
Mayyeva mana aadhatswa mayi buddhim niveshaya;
8. Fix your mind on me only, your intellect in me, (then) you shait no doubt live in me alone hereafter.
Atha chittam samaadhaatum na shaknoshi mayi sthiram;
9. If you are unable to fix your mind steadily on me, then by the Yoga of constant practice seek to reach me, Arjuna!
Abhyaase'pyasamartho'si matkarmaparamo bhava;
10. If you are unable to practise even this Abhyasa Yoga, be intent on doing actions for my sake; even by doing actions for my sake, you shall attain perfection.
Athaitadapyashakto'si kartum madyogamaashritah;
11. If you are unable to do even this, then, taking refuge in union with me, renounce the fruits of all actions with the self controlled.
Shreyo hi jnaanamabhyaasaat jnaanaaddhyaanam vishishyate;
12. Better indeed is knowledge than practice; than knowledge meditation is better; than meditation the renunciation of the fruits of actions; peace immediately follows renunciation.
Adweshtaa sarvabhootaanaam maitrah karuna eva cha;
13. He who hates no creature, who is friendly and compassionate to all, who is free from attachment and egoism, balanced in pleasure and pain, and forgiving,
Santushtah satatam yogee yataatmaa dridhanishchayah;
14. Ever content, steady in meditation, possessed of firm conviction, self-controlled, with mind and intellect dedicated to me, he, my devotee, is dear to me.
Yasmaannodwijate loko lokaannodwijate cha yah;
15. He by whom the world is not agitated and who cannot be agitated by the world, and who is freed from joy, envy, fear and anxietyhe is dear to me.
Anapekshah shuchirdaksha udaaseeno gatavyathah;
16. He who is free from wants, pure, expert, unconcerned, and untroubled, renouncing all undertakings or commencementshe who is (thus) devoted to me, is dear to me.
Yona hrishyati na dweshti na shochati na kaangkshati;
17. He who neither rejoices, nor hates, nor grieves, nor desires, renouncing good and evil, and who is full of devotion, is dear to me.
Samah shatrau cha mitre cha tathaa maanaapamaanayoh;
18. He who is the same to foe and friend, and in honour and dishonour, who is the same in cold and heat and in pleasure and pain, who is free from attachment,
Tulyanindaastutirmaunee santushto yena kenachit:
19. He to whom censure and praise are equal, who is silent, content with anything, homeless, of a steady mind, and full of devotionthat man is dear to me.
you tu dharmyaamritamidam yathoktam paryupaasate;
Prakritim purusham chaiva kshetram kshetrajnameva cha;
1. I wish to learn about Nature (matter) and the Spirit (soul), the Field and the Knower of the Field, knowledge and that which ought to be known.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Idam shareeram kaunteya kshetramityabhidheeyate;
The Blessed Lord said:
2. This body, Arjuna, is called the Field; he who knows it is called the Knower of the Field by those who know of them, that is, by the sages.
Kshetrajnam chaapi maam viddhi sarvakshetreshu bhaarata;
3. Also know me as the Knower of the Field in all fields, Arjuna! Knowledge of both the Field and the Knower of the Field is considered by me to be theknowledge.
Tat kshetram yaccha yaadrik cha yadvikaari yatashcha yat;
4. What the Field is and of what nature, what its modifications are and whence it is, and also who he is and what his powers arehear all that from me in brief.
Rishibhirbahudhaa geetam cchandobhirvividhaih prithak;
5. Sages have sung in many ways, in various distinctive chants and also in the suggestive words indicative of the Absolute, full of reasoning and decisive.
Mahaabhootaanyahankaaro buddhiravyaktameva cha;
6. The great elements, egoism, intellect and also unmanifested Nature, the ten senses and one, and the five objects of the senses,
The one: this is the mind. The five objects of the senses are sound, touch, form colour, taste and smell.
Icchaa dweshah sukham duhkham sanghaatashchetanaa dhritih;
7. Desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, the aggregate (the body), fortitude and intelligencethe Field has thus been described briefly with its modifications.
Amaanitwam adambhitwam ahimsaa kshaantiraarjavam;
8. Humility, unpretentiousness, non-injury, forgiveness, uprightness, service of the teacher, purity, steadfastness, self-control,
Indriyaartheshu vairaagyamanahankaara eva cha;
9. Indifference to the objects of the senses, also absence of egoism, perception of (or reflection on) the evil in birth, death, old age, sickness and pain,
10. Non-attachment, non-identification of the Self with son, wife, home and the rest, and constant even-mindedness on the attainment of the desirable and the undesirable,
Mayi chaananyayogena bhaktiravyabhichaarinee;
11. Unswerving devotion to me by the Yoga of non-separation, resort to solitary places, distaste for the society of men,
Adhyaatma jnaana nityatwam tattwa jnaanaartha darshanam;
12. Constancy in Self-knowledge, perception of the end of true knowledgethis is declared to be knowledge, and what is opposed to it is ignorance.
Jneyam yattat pravakshyaami yajjnaatwaa'mritamashnute;
13. I will declare that which has to be known, knowing which one attains to immortality, the beginningless supreme Brahman, called neither being nor non-being.
Sarvatah paanipaadam tat sarvato'kshishiromukham;
14. With hands and feet everywhere, with eyes, heads and mouths everywhere, with ears everywhere, he exists in the worlds, enveloping all.
15. Shining by the functions of all the senses, yet without the senses; unattached, yet supporting all; devoid of qualities, yet their experiencer,
Bahirantashcha bhootaanaam acharam charameva cha;
16. Without and within (all) beings, the unmoving and also the moving; because of his subtlety, unknowable; and near and far away is That.
Avibhaktam cha bhooteshu vibhaktamiva cha sthitam;
17. And undivided, yet he exists as if divided in beings; he is to be known as the supporter of beings; he devours and he generates also.
Jyotishaamapi tajjyotistamasah paramuchyate;
18. That, the Light of all lights, is beyond darkness; it is said to be knowledge, the Knowable and the goal of knowledge, seated in the hearts of all.
iti kshetram tathaa jnaanam jneyam choktam samaasatah;
19. Thus the Field as well as knowledge and the Knowable have been briefly stated. My devotee, knowing this, enters into my Being.
Prakritim purusham chaiva viddhyaanaadee ubhaavapi;
20. Know you that Nature and Spirit are beginningless; and know also that all modifications and qualities are born of Nature.
Kaaryakaaranakartrutwe hetuh prakritiruchyate;
21. In the production of the effect and the cause, Nature (matter) is said to be the cause; in the experience of pleasure and pain, the soul is said to be the cause.
Purushah prakritistho hi bhungkte prakritijaan gunaan;
22. The soul seated in Nature experiences the qualities born of Nature; attachment to the qualities is the cause of his birth in good and evil wombs.
Upadrashtaanumantaa cha bhartaa bhoktaa maheshwarah;
23. The Supreme Soul in this body is also called the spectator, the permitter, the supporter, the enjoyer, the great Lord and the Supreme Self.
Ya evam vetti purusham prakritim cha gunaih saha;
24. He who thus knows Spirit and Matter, together with the qualities, in whatever condition he may be, he is not reborn.
Dhyaanenaatmani pashyanti kechidaatmaanamaatmanaa;
25. Some by meditation behold the Self in the Self by the Self, others by the Yoga of knowledge, and others by the Yoga of action.
Anye twevamajaanantah shrutwaanyebhya upaasate;
26. Others also, not knowing thus, worship, having heard of it from others; they, too, cross beyond death, regarding what they have heard as the supreme refuge.
Yaavat sanjaayate kinchit sattwam sthaavarajangamam;
27. Wherever a being is born, whether it be unmoving or moving, know you, best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), that it is from the union between the Field and its Knower.
Samam sarveshu bhooteshu tishthantam parameshwaram;
28. He sees, who sees the Supreme Lord, existing equally in all beings, the unperishing within the perishing.
Samam pashyan hi sarvatra samavasthitameeshwaram;
29. Because he who sees the same Lord dwelling equally everywhere does not destroy the Self by the self, he goes to the highest goal.
Prakrityaiva cha karmaani kriyamaanaani sarvashah;
30. He sees, who sees that all actions are performed by Nature alone and that the Self is actionless.
Yadaa bhootaprithagbhaavam ekastham anupashyati;
31. When a man sees the whole variety of beings as resting in the One, and spreading forth from That alone, he then becomes Brahman.
Anaaditwaan nirgunatwaat paramaatmaayam avyayah;
32. Being without beginning and devoid of (any) qualities, the Supreme Self, imperishable, Though dwelling in the body, Arjuna, neither acts nor is tainted!
Yathaa sarvagatam saukshmyaadaakaasham nopalipyate;
33. As the all-pervading ether is not tainted because of its subtlety, so the Self seated everywhere in the body, is not tainted.
Yathaa prakaashayatyekah kritsnam lokamimam ravih;
34. Just as the one sun illumines the whole world, so also the Lord of the Field (the Supreme Self) illumines the whole Field, Arjuna!
Kshetrakshetrajnayor evam antaram jnaanachakshushaa;
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Param bhooyah pravakshyaami jnaanaanaam jnaanamuttamam;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. I will again declare (to you) that supreme knowledge, the best of all knowledge, having known which all the sages have gone to the supreme perfection after this life.
Idam jnaanam upaashritya mama saadharmyam aagataah;
2. They who, having taken refuge in this knowledge, attain to unity with me, are neither born at the time of creation nor are they disturbed at the time of dissolution.
Mama yonirmahadbrahma tasmin garbham dadhaamyaham;
3. My womb is the great Brahma; in that I place the germ; thence, Arjuna, is the birth of all beings!
Sarvayonishu kaunteya moortayah sambhavanti yaah;
4. Whatever forms are produced, Arjuna, in any womb whatever, the great Brahma is their womb and I am the seed-giving father.
Sattwam rajastama iti gunaah prakriti sambhavaah;
5. Purity, passion and inertiathese qualities, mighty-armed Arjuna, born of Nature, bind fast in the body, the embodied, the indestructible!
Tatra sattwam nirmalatwaat prakaashakam anaamayam;
6. Of these, Sattwa, which from its stainlessness is luminous and healyour, binds by attachment to knowledge and to happiness, sinless one!
Rajo raagaatmakam viddhi trishnaasangasamudbhavam;
7. Know you Rajas to be of the nature of passion, the source of thirst (for sensual enjoyment) and attachment; it binds fast, Arjuna, the embodied one by attachment to action!
Tamastwajnaanajam viddhi mohanam sarvadehinaam;
8. But know you Tamas to be born of ignorance, deluding all embodied beings; it binds fast, Arjuna, by heedlessness, sleep and indolence!
Sattwam sukhe sanjayati rajah karmani bhaarata;
9. Sattwa attaches to happiness, Rajas to action, Arjuna, while Tamas, shrouding knowledge, attaches to heedlessness only!
Rajastamashchaabhibhooya sattwam bhavati bhaarata;
10. Now Sattwa prevails, Arjuna, having overpowered Rajas and Tamas; now Rajas, having overpowered Sattwa and Tamas; and now Tamas, having overpowered Sattwa and Rajas!
Sarvadwaareshu dehe'smin prakaasha upajaayate;
11. When, through every gate (sense) in this body, the wisdom-light shines, then it may be known that Sattwa is predominant.
Lobhah pravrittir aarambhah karmanaam ashamah sprihaa;
12. Greed, activity, the undertaking of actions, restlessness, longingthese arise when Rajas is predominant, Arjuna!
Aprakaasho'pravrittishcha pramaado moha eva cha;
13. Darkness, inertness, heedlessness and delusionthese arise when Tamas is predominant, Arjuna!
Yadaa sattwe pravriddhe tu pralayam yaati dehabhrit;
14. If the embodied one meets with death when Sattwa has become predominant, then he attains to the spotless worlds of the knowers of the Highest.
Rajasi pralayam gatwaa karmasangishu jaayate;
15. Meeting death in Rajas, he is born among those who are attached to action; and dying in Tamas, he is born in the womb of the senseless.
Karmanah sukritasyaahuh saattwikam nirmalam phalam;
16. The fruit of good action, they say, is Sattwic and pure; the fruit of Rajas is pain, and ignorance is the fruit of Tamas.
Sattwaat sanjaayate jnaanam rajaso lobha eva cha;
17. From Sattwa arises knowledge, and greed from Rajas; heedlessness and delusion arise from Tamas, and ignorance also.
Oordhwam gacchanti sattwasthaa madhye tishthanti raajasaah;
18. Those who are seated in Sattwa proceed upwards; the Rajasic dwell in the middle; and the Tamasic, abiding in the function of the lowest Guna, go downwards.
Naanyam gunebhyah kartaaram yadaa drashtaanupashyati;
19. When the seer beholds no agent other than the Gunas, knowing that which is higher than them, he attains to my Being.
Gunaanetaanateetya treen dehee dehasamudbhavaan;
20. The embodied one, having crossed beyond these three Gunas out of which the body is evolved, is freed from birth, death, decay and pain, and attains to immortality.
Kairlingais treen gunaanetaan ateeto bhavati prabho;
21. What are the marks of him who has crossed over the three qualities, Lord? What is his conduct and how does he go beyond these three qualities?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Prakaasham cha pravrittim cha mohameva cha paandava;
The Blessed Lord said:
22. Light, activity and delusion,when they are present, Arjuna, he hates not, nor does he long for them when they are absent!
Udaaseenavadaaseeno gunairyo na vichaalyate;
23. He who, seated like one unconcerned, is not moved by the qualities, and who, knowing that the qualities are active, is self-centred and moves not,
Samaduhkhasukhah swasthah samaloshtaashmakaanchanah;
24. Alike in pleasure and pain, who dwells in the Self, to whom a clod of earth, stone and gold are alike, to whom the dear and the unfriendly are alike, firm, the same in censure and praise,
Maanaapamaanayostulyas tulyo mitraaripakshayoh;
25. The same in honour and dishonour, the same to friend and foe, abandoning all undertakingshe is said to have crossed the qualities.
Maam cha yo'vyabhichaarena bhaktiyogena sevate;
26. And he who serves me with unswerving devotion, he, crossing beyond the qualities, is fit for becoming Brahman.
Brahmano hi pratishthaa'ham amritasyaavyayasya cha;
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Oordhwamoolam adhahshaakham ashwattham praahuravyayam;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. They (the wise) speak of the indestructible
peepultree, having its root above and branches below, whose leaves are the metres or hymns; he who knows it is a knower of the Vedas.
Adhashchordhwam prasritaastasya shaakhaah
2. Below and above spread its branches, nourished by the Gunas; sense-objects are its buds; and below in the world of men stretch forth the roots, originating action.
Na roopamasyeha tathopalabhyate
Naanto na chaadirna cha sampratishthaa;
Asangashastrena dridhena cchittwaa.
3. Its form is not perceived here as such, neither its end nor its origin, nor its foundation nor resting place; having cut asunder this firmly-rooted peepultree with the strong axe of non-attachment,
Tatah padam tat parimaargitavyam
Yasmin gataa na nivartanti bhooyah;
Yatah pravrittih prasritaa puraanee.
4. Then that goal should be sought after, whither having gone none returns again. Seek refuge in that Primeval Purusha whence streamed forth the ancient activity or energy.
Gacchantyamoodhaah padamavyayam tat.
5. Free from pride and delusion, victorious over the evil of attachment, dwelling constantly in the Self, their desires having completely turned away, freed from the pairs of opposites known as pleasure and pain, the undeluded reach the eternal goal.
Na tadbhaasayate sooryo na shashaangko na paavakah;
6. Neither doth the sun illumine there, nor the moon, nor the fire; having gone there they return not; that is my supreme abode.
Mamaivaamsho jeevaloke jeevabhootah sanaatanah;
7. An eternal portion of myself having become a living soul in the world of life, draws to (itself) the (five) senses with the mind for the sixth, abiding in Nature.
Shareeram yadavaapnoti yacchaapyutkraamateeshwarah;
8. When the Lord obtains a body and when he leaves it, he takes these and goes (with them) as the wind takes the scents from their seats (flowers, etc.).
Shrotram chakshuh sparshanam cha rasanam ghraanameva cha;
9. Presiding over the ear, the eye, touch, taste and smell, as well as the mind, he enjoys the objects of the senses.
Utkraamantam sthitam vaapi bhunjaanam vaa gunaanvitam;
10. The deluded do not see him who departs, stays and enjoys; but they who possess the eye of knowledge behold him.
Yatanto yoginashchainam pashyantyaatmanyavasthitam;
11. The yogis striving (for perfection) behold him dwelling in the Self; but, the unrefined and unintelligent, even Though striving, see him not.
Yadaadityagatam tejo jagad bhaasayate'khilam;
12. That light which residing in the sun, illumines the whole world, that which is in the moon and in the fireknow that light to be Mine.
Gaam aavishya cha bhootaani dhaarayaamyaham ojasaa;
13. Permeating the earth I support all beings by (my) energy; and, having become the watery moon, I nourish all herbs.
Aham vaishwaanaro bhootwaa praaninaam dehamaashritah;
14. Having become the fire Vaisvanara, I abide in the body of living beings and, associated with the Prana and Apana, digest the fourfold food.
Sarvasya chaaham hridi sannivishto
Mattah smritir jnaanam apohanam cha;
Vedaantakrid vedavid eva chaaham.
15. And, I am seated in the hearts of all; from me are memory, knowledge, as well as their absence. I am verily that which has to be known by all the Vedas; I am indeed the author of the Vedanta, and the knower of the Vedas am I.
Dwaavimau purushau loke ksharashchaakshara eva cha;
16. Two Purushas there are in this world, the perishable and the imperishable. All beings are the perishable, and the Kutastha is called the imperishable.
Uttamah purushastwanyah paramaatmetyudaahritah;
17. But distinct is the Supreme Purusha called the highest Self, the indestructible Lord who, pervading the three worlds, sustains them.
Yasmaat ksharam ateeto'hamaksharaadapi chottamah;
18. As I transcend the perishable and am even higher than the imperishable, I am declared as the highest Purusha in the world and in the Vedas.
Yo maamevam asammoodho jaanaati purushottamam;
19. He who, undeluded, knows me thus as the highest Purusha, he, knowing all, worships me with his whole being (heart), Arjuna!
iti guhyatamam shaastram idamuktam mayaa'nagha;
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Abhayam sattwasamshuddhih jnaanayogavyavasthitih;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. Fearlessness, purity of heart, steadfastness in Yoga and knowledge, alms-giving, control of the senses, sacrifice, study of scriptures, austerity and straightforwardness,
Ahimsaa satyamakrodhas tyaagah shaantirapaishunam;
2. Harmlessness, truth, absence of anger, renunciation, peacefulness, absence of crookedness, compassion towards beings, uncovetousness, gentleness, modesty, absence of fickleness,
Tejah kshamaa dhritih shauchamadroho naatimaanitaa;
3. Vigour, forgiveness, fortitude, purity, absence of hatred, absence of pridethese belong to one born in a divine state, Arjuna!
Dambho darpo'bhimaanashcha krodhah paarushyameva cha;
4. Hypocrisy, arrogance, self-conceit, harshness and also anger and ignorance, belong to one who is born in a demoniacal state, Arjuna!
Daivee sampadvimokshaaya nibandhaayaasuree mataa;
5. The divine nature is deemed for liberation and the demoniacal for bondage. Grieve not, Arjuna, for you are born with divine properties!
Dwau bhootasargau loke'smin daiva aasura eva cha;
6. There are two types of beings in this worldthe divine and the demoniacal; the divine has been described at length; hear from me, Arjuna, of the demoniacal!
Pravrittim cha nivrittim cha janaa na viduraasuraah;
7. The demoniacal know not what to do and what to refrain from; neither purity nor right conduct nor truth is found in them.
Asatyamapratishtham te jagadaahuraneeshwaram;
8. They say: "This universe is without truth, without a (moral) basis, without a God, brought about by mutual union, with lust for its cause; what else?"
Etaam drishtimavashtabhya nashtaatmaano'lpabuddhayah;
9. Holding this view, these ruined souls of small intellects and fierce deeds, come forth as enemies of the world for its destruction.
Kaamamaashritya dushpooram dambhamaanamadaanvitaah;
10. Filled with insatiable desires, full of hypocrisy, pride and arrogance, holding evil ideas through delusion, they work with impure resolves.
Chintaamaparimeyaam cha pralayaantaamupaashritaah;
11. Giving themselves over to immeasurable cares ending only with death, regarding gratification of lust as their highest aim, and feeling sure that that is all,
12. Bound by a hundred ties of hope, given over to lust and anger, they strive to obtain by unlawful means hoards of wealth for sensual enjoyment.
Idamadya mayaa labdham imam praapsye manoratham;
13. "This has been gained by me today; this desire I shall obtain; this is mine and this wealth too shall be mine in future."
Asau mayaa hatah shatrur hanishye chaaparaanapi;
14. "That enemy has been slain by me and others also I shall slay. I am the lord; I enjoy; I am perfect, powerful and happy".
Aadhyo'bhijanavaanasmi ko'nyosti sadrisho mayaa;
15. "I am rich and born in a noble family. Who else is equal to me? I will sacrifice. I will give (charity). I will rejoice,"thus, deluded by ignorance,
16. Bewildered by many a fancy, entangled in the snare of delusion, addicted to the gratification of lust, they fall into a foul hell.
Aatmasambhaavitaah stabdhaa dhanamaanamadaanvitaah;
17. Self-conceited, stubborn, filled with the intoxication and pride of wealth, they perform sacrifices in name, through ostentation, contrary to scriptural ordinances.
Ahankaaram balam darpam kaamam krodham cha samshritaah;
18. Given over to egoism, power, haughtiness, lust and anger, these malicious people hate me in their own bodies and those of others.
Taanaham dwishatah krooraan samsaareshu naraadhamaan;
19. These cruel haters, the worst among men in the world,I hurl all these evil-doers for ever into the wombs of demons only.
Aasureem yonimaapannaa moodhaa janmani janmani;
20. Entering into demoniacal wombs and deluded birth after birth, not attaining me, they thus fall, Arjuna, into a condition still lower than that!
Trividham narakasyedam dwaaram naashanamaatmanah;
21. Triple is the gate of this hell, destructive of the selflust, anger, and greed,therefore, one should abandon these three.
Etairvimuktah kaunteya tamodwaaraistribhirnarah;
22. A man who is liberated from these three gates to darkness, Arjuna, practises what is good for him and thus goes to the Supreme goal!
Yah shaastravidhimutsrijya vartate kaamakaaratah;
23. He who, casting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, acts under the impulse of desire, attains neither perfection nor happiness nor the supreme goal.
Tasmaat shaastram pramaanam te kaaryaakaaryavyavasthitau;
24. Therefore, let the scripture be the authority in determining what ought to be done and
what ought not to be done. Having known what is said in the ordinance of the scriptures,
you should act here in this world.
you shaastravidhimutsrijya yajante shraddhayaanvitaah;
1. Those who, setting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, perform sacrifice with faith, what is their condition, Krishna? Is it that of Sattwa, Rajas or Tamas?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Trividhaa bhavati shraddhaa dehinaam saa swabhaavajaa;
The Blessed Lord said:
2. Threefold is the faith of the embodied, which is inherent in their naturethe Sattwic (pure), the Rajasic (passionate), and the Tamasic (dark). Hear of it.
Sattwaanuroopaa sarvasya shraddhaa bhavati bhaarata;
3. The faith of each is in accordance with his nature, Arjuna! The man consists of his faith; as a man's faith is, so is he.
Yajante saattwikaa devaan yaksharakshaamsi raajasaah;
4. The Sattwic or pure men worship the gods; the Rajasic or the passionate worship the Yakshas and the Rakshasas; the others (the Tamasic or the deluded) worship the ghosts and the hosts of nature-spirits.
Ashaastravihitam ghoram tapyante you tapo janaah;
5. Those men who practise terrific austerities not enjoined by the scriptures, given to hypocrisy and egoism, impelled by the force of lust and attachment,
Karshayantah shareerastham bhootagraamamachetasah;
6. Senseless, torturing all the elements in the body and me also, who dwells in the body,know you these to be of demoniacal resolves.
Aahaarastwapi sarvasya trividho bhavati priyah;
7. The food also which is dear to each is threefold, as also sacrifice, austerity and alms-giving. Hear you the distinction of these.
Aayuh sattwabalaarogya sukha preetivi vardhanaah;
8. Foods which increase life, purity, strength, health,joy and cheerfulness, which are oleaginous and savoury, substantial and agreeable, are dear to the Sattwic people.
Katvamlalavanaatyushna teekshna rooksha vidaahinah;
9. The foods that are bitter, sour, saline, excessively hot, dry, pungent and burning, are liked by the Rajasic and are productive of pain, grief and disease.
Yaatayaamam gatarasam pooti paryushitam cha yat;
10. That which is stale, tasteless, putrid, rotten and impure refuse, is the food liked by the Tamasic.
Aphalaakaangkshibhiryajno vidhidrishto ya ijyate;
11. That sacrifice which is offered by men without desire for reward as enjoined by the ordinance (scripture), with a firm faith that to do so is a duty, is Sattwic (or pure).
Abhisandhaaya tu phalam dambhaarthamapi chaiva yat;
12. The sacrifice which is offered, Arjuna, seeking a reward and for ostentation, know you that to be a Rajasic Yajna!
Vidhiheenam asrishtaannam mantraheenam adakshinam;
13. They declare that sacrifice to be Tamasic which is contrary to the ordinances of the scriptures, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of Mantras and gifts, and which is devoid of faith.
Devadwijagurupraajna poojanam shauchamaarjavam;
14. Worship of the gods, the twice-born, the teachers and the wise, purity, straightforwardness, celibacy and non-injurythese are called the austerities of the body.
Anudwegakaram vaakyam satyam priyahitam cha yat;
15. Speech which causes no excitement and is truthful, pleasant and beneficial, the practice of the study of the Vedas, are called austerity of speech.
Manahprasaadah saumyatwam maunamaatmavinigrahah;
16. Serenity of mind, good-heartedness, purity of nature, self-controlthis is called mental austerity.
Shraddhayaa parayaa taptam tapastattrividham naraih;
17. This threefold austerity practised by steadfast men with the utmost faith, desiring no reward, they call Sattwic.
Satkaaramaanapoojaartham tapo dambhena chaiva yat;
18. The austerity which is practised with the object of gaining good reception, honour and worship and with hypocrisy, is here said to be Rajasic, unstable and transitory.
Moodhagraahenaatmano yat peedayaa kriyate tapah;
19. The austerity which is practised out of a foolish notion, with self-torture, or for the purpose of destroying another, is declared to be Tamasic.
Daatavyamiti yaddaanam deeyate'nupakaarine;
20. That gift which is given to one who does nothing in return, knowing it to be a duty to give in a fit place and time to a worthy person, that gift is held to be Sattwic.
Yattu pratyupakaaraartham phalamuddishya vaa punah;
21. And, that gift which is made with a view to receive something in return, or looking for a reward, or given reluctantly, is said to be Rajasic.
Adeshakaale yaddaanamapaatrebhyashcha deeyate;
22. The gift which is given at the wrong place and time to unworthy persons, without respect or with insult, is declared to be Tamasic.
Om tatsaditi nirdesho brahmanas trividhah smritah;
23. "Om Tat Sat": this has been declared to be the triple designation of Brahman. By that were created formerly the Brahmanas, the Vedas and the sacrifices.
24. Therefore, with the utterance of "Om" are the acts of gift, sacrifice and austerity as enjoined in the scriptures always begun by the students of Brahman.
Tadityanabhisandhaaya phalam yajnatapah kriyaah;
25. Uttering Tat, without aiming at the fruits, are the acts of sacrifice and austerity and the various acts of gift performed by the seekers of liberation.
Sadbhaave saadhubhaave cha sadityetatprayujyate;
26. The word Sat is used in the sense of reality and of goodness; and so also, Arjuna, it is used in the sense of an auspicious act!
Yajne tapasi daane cha sthitih saditi chochyate;
27. Steadfastness in sacrifice, austerity and gift, is also called Sat, and also action in connection with these (or for the sake of the Supreme) is called Sat.
Ashraddhayaa hutam dattam tapastaptam kritam cha yat;
Sannyaasasya mahaabaaho tattwamicchaami veditum;
1. I desire to know severally, mighty-armed, the essence or truth of renunciation, Hrishikesa, as also of abandonment, slayer of Kesi!
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Kaamyaanaam karmanaam nyaasam sannyaasam kavayoviduh;
The Blessed Lord said:
2. The sages understand Sannyas to be the renunciation of action with desire; the wise declare the abandonment of the fruits of all actions as Tyaga.
Tyaajyam doshavadityeke karma praahurmaneeshinah;
3. Some philosophers declare that all actions should be abandoned as an evil, while others declare that acts of gift, sacrifice and austerity should not be relinquished.
Nishchayam shrinu me tatra tyaage bharatasattama;
4. Hear from me the conclusion or the final truth about this abandonment, best of the Bharatas; abandonment, verily, best of men, has been declared to be of three kinds!
Yajnadaanatapah karma na tyaajyam kaaryameva tat;
5. Acts of sacrifice, gift and austerity should not be abandoned, but should be performed; sacrifice, gift and also austerity are the purifiers of the wise.
Etaanyapi tu karmaani sangam tyaktwaa phalaani cha;
6. But even these actions should be performed leaving aside attachment and the desire for rewards, Arjuna! This is my certain and best conviction.
Niyatasya tu sannyaasah karmano nopapadyate;
7. Verily, the renunciation of obligatory action is improper; the abandonment of the same from delusion is declared to be Tamasic.
Duhkhamityeva yat karma kaayakleshabhayaat tyajet;
8. He who abandons action on account of the fear of bodily trouble (because it is painful), he does not obtain the merit of renunciation by doing such Rajasic renunciation.
Kaaryamityeva yatkarma niyatam kriyate'rjuna;
9. Whatever obligatory action is done, Arjuna, merely because it ought to be done, abandoning attachment and also the desire for reward, that renunciation is regarded as Sattwic!
Na dweshtyakushalam karma kushale naanushajjate;
10. The man of renunciation, pervaded by purity, intelligent and with his doubts cut asunder, does not hate a disagreeable work nor is he attached to an agreeable one.
Na hi dehabhritaa shakyam tyaktum karmaanyasheshatah;
11. Verily, it is not possible for an embodied being to abandon actions entirely; but he who relinquishes the rewards of actions is verily called a man of renunciation.
Anishtamishtam mishram cha trividham karmanah phalam;
12. The threefold fruit of actionevil, good and mixedaccrues after death to the non-abandoners, but never to the abandoners.
Panchaitaani mahaabaaho kaaranaani nibodha me;
13. Learn from me, mighty-armed Arjuna, these five causes, as declared in the Sankhya system for the accomplishment of all actions!
Adhishthaanam tathaa kartaa karanam cha prithagvidham;
14. The body, the doer, the various senses, the different functions of various sorts, and the presiding Deity, also, the fifth,
Shareeravaangmanobhiryat karma praarabhate narah;
15. Whatever action a man performs by his body, speech and mind, whether right or the reverse, these five are its causes.
Tatraivam sati kartaaram aatmaanam kevalam tu yah;
16. Now, such being the case, he who, owing to untrained understanding, looks upon his Self, which is isolated, as the agent, he of perverted intelligence, sees not.
Yasya naahankrito bhaavo buddhiryasya na lipyate;
17. He who is ever free from the egoistic notion, whose intelligence is not tainted by (good or evil), Though he slays these people, he slayeth not, nor is he bound (by the action).
Jnaanam jneyam parijnaataa trividhaa karmachodanaa;
18. Knowledge, the knowable and the knower form the threefold impulse to action; the organ, the action and the agent form the threefold basis of action.
Jnaanam karma cha kartaa cha tridhaiva gunabhedatah;
19. Knowledge, action and the actor are declared in the science of the Gunas (the Sankhya philosophy) to be of three kinds only, according to the distinction of the Gunas. Hear them also duly.
Sarvabhooteshu yenaikam bhaavamavyayameekshate;
20. That by which one sees the one indestructible Reality in all beings, not separate in all the separate beingsknow you that knowledge to be Sattwic (pure).
Prithaktwena tu yajjnaanam naanaabhaavaan prithagvidhaan;
21. But that knowledge which sees in all beings various entities of distinct kinds as different from one anotherknow you that knowledge to be Rajasic (passionate).
Yattu kritsnavadekasmin kaarye saktamahaitukam;
22. But that which clings to one single effect as if it were the whole, without reason, without foundation in Truth, and trivialthat is declared to be Tamasic (dark).
Niyatam sangarahitam araagadweshatah kritam;
23. An action which is ordained, which is free from attachment, which is done without love or hatred by one who is not desirous of any rewardthat action is declared to be Sattwic.
Yattu kaamepsunaa karma saahankaarena vaa punah;
24. But that action which is done by one longing for the fulfilment of desires or gain, with egoism or with much effortthat is declared to be Rajasic.
Anubandham kshayam himsaam anavekshya cha paurusham;
25. That action which is undertaken from delusion, without regard to the consequences of loss, injury and (one's own) abilitythat is declared to be Tamasic.
26. He who is free from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with firmness and enthusiasm and unaffected by success or failure, is called Sattwic.
Raagee karmaphalaprepsur lubdho himsaatmako'shuchih;
27. Passionate, desiring to obtain the rewards of actions, cruel, greedy, impure, moved by joy and sorrow, such an agent is said to be Rajasic.
Ayuktah praakritah stabdhah shatho naishkritiko'lasah;
28. Unsteady, dejected, unbending, cheating, malicious, vulgar, lazy and proscrastinatingsuch an agent is called Tamasic.
Buddherbhedam dhriteshchaiva gunatastrividham shrinu;
29. Hear you the threefold division of the intellect and firmness according to the Gunas, as I declare them fully and distinctly, Arjuna!
Pravrittim cha nivrittim cha karyaakaarye bhayaabhaye;
30. That which knows the path of work and renunciation, what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberationthat intellect is Sattwic, Arjuna!
Yayaa dharmamadharmam cha kaaryam chaakaaryameva cha;
31. That by which one incorrectly understands Dharma and Adharma, and also what ought to be done and what ought not to be donethat intellect, Arjuna, is Rajasic!
Adharmam dharmamiti yaa manyate tamasaavritaa;
32. That which, enveloped in darkness, views Adharma as Dharma and all things pervertedthat intellect, Arjuna, is called Tamasic!
Dhrityaa yayaa dhaarayate manah praanendriyakriyaah;
33. The unwavering firmness by which, through Yoga, the functions of the mind, the life-force and the senses are restrainedthat firmness, Arjuna, is Sattwic!
Yayaa tu dharmakaamaarthaan dhrityaa dhaarayate'rjuna;
34. But that firmness, Arjuna, by which, on account of attachment and desire for reward, one holds fast to Dharma, enjoyment of pleasures and earning of wealththat firmness, Arjuna, is Rajasic!
Yayaa swapnam bhayam shokam vishaadam madameva cha;
35. That by which a stupid man does not abandon sleep, fear, grief, despair and also conceitthat firmness, Arjuna, is Tamasic!
Sukham twidaaneem trividham shrinu me bharatarshabha;
36. Now hear from me, Arjuna, of the threefold pleasure, in which one rejoices by practice and surely comes to the end of pain!
Yattadagre vishamiva parinaame'mritopamam;
37. That which is like poison at first but in the end like nectarthat pleasure is declared to be Sattwic, born of the purity of one's own mind due to Self-realisation.
Vishayendriya samyogaad yattadagre'mritopamam;
38. That pleasure which arises from the contact of the sense-organs with the objects, which is at first like nectar and in the end like poisonthat is declared to be Rajasic.
Yadagre chaanubandhe cha sukham mohanamaatmanah;
39. That pleasure which at first and in the sequel is delusive of the self, arising from sleep, indolence and heedlessnesssuch a pleasure is declared to be Tamasic.
Na tadasti prithivyaam vaa divi deveshu vaa punah;
40. There is no being on earth or again in heaven among the gods that is liberated from the three qualities born of Nature.
Braahmanakshatriyavishaam shoodraanaam cha parantapa;
41. Of Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, as also the Sudras, Arjuna, the duties are distributed according to the qualities born of their own nature!
Shamo damastapah shaucham kshaantiraarjavameva cha;
42. Serenity, self-restraint, austerity, purity, forgiveness and also uprightness, knowledge, realisation and belief in God are the duties of the Brahmanas, born of (their own) nature.
Shauryam tejo dhritirdaakshyam yuddhe chaapyapalaayanam;
43. Prowess, splendour, firmness, dexterity and also not fleeing from battle, generosity and lordliness are the duties of Kshatriyas, born of (their own) nature.
Krishigaurakshyavaanijyam vaishyakarma swabhaavajam;
44. Agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade are the duties of the Vaishya (merchant class), born of (their own) nature; and action consisting of service is the duty of the Sudra (servant class), born of (their own) nature.
Swe swe karmanyabhiratah samsiddhim labhate narah;
45. Each man, devoted to his own duty, attains perfection. How he attains perfection while being engaged in his own duty, hear now.
Yatah pravrittirbhootaanaam yena sarvamidam tatam;
46. He from whom all the beings have evolved and by whom all this is pervaded, worshipping him with his own duty, man attains perfection.
Shreyaanswadharmo vigunah paradharmaat swanushthitaat;
47. Better is one's own duty (Though) destitute of merits, than the duty of another well performed. He who does the duty ordained by his own nature incurs no sin.
Sahajam karma kaunteya sadoshamapi na tyajet;
48. One should not abandon, Arjuna, the duty to which one is born, Though faulty; for, all undertakings are enveloped by evil, as fire by smoke!
Asaktabuddhih sarvatra jitaatmaa vigatasprihah;
49. He whose intellect is unattached everywhere, who has subdued his self, from whom desire has fled,he by renunciation attains the supreme state of freedom from action.
Siddhim praapto yathaa brahma tathaapnoti nibodha me;
50. Learn from me in brief, Arjuna, how he who has attained perfection reaches Brahman, that supreme state of knowledge.
Buddhyaa vishuddhayaa yukto dhrityaatmaanam niyamya cha;
51. Endowed with a pure intellect, controlling the self by firmness, relinquishing sound and other objects and abandoning both hatred and attraction,
Viviktasevee laghwaashee yatavaakkaayamaanasah;
52. Dwelling in solitude, eating but little, with speech, body and mind subdued, always engaged in concentration and meditation, taking refuge in dispassion,
Ahankaaram balam darpam kaamam krodham parigraham;
53. Having abandoned egoism, strength, arrogance, anger, desire, and covetousness, free from the notion of "mine", and peaceful;he is fit for becoming Brahman.
Bhrahmabhootah prasannaatmaa na shockati na kaangkshatai;
54. Becoming Brahman, serene in the Self, he neither grieves nor desires. The same to all beings, he attains supreme devotion to me.
Bhaktyaa maamabhijaanaati yaavaanyashchaasmi tattwatah;
55. By devotion he knows me in truth, what and who I am; and knowing me in truth, he enters into the supreme.
Sarvakarmaanyapi sadaa kurvaano madvyapaashrayah;
56. Doing all actions always, taking refuge in me, by my grace he obtains the eternal, indestructible state or abode.
Chetasaa sarvakarmaani mayi sannyasya matparah;
57. Mentally renouncing all actions in me, having me as the highest goal, resorting to the Yoga of discrimination, ever fix your mind on me.
Macchittah sarvadurgaani matprasaadaat tarishyasi;
58. Fixing your mind on me, you shall by my grace overcome all obstacles; but if from egoism you will not hear me, you shall perish.
Yadahankaaram aashritya na yotsya iti manyase;
59. If, filled with egoism, you think, "I will not fight," your resolve is vain; Nature will compel you.
Swabhaavajena kaunteya nibaddhah swena karmanaa;
60. Arjuna, bound by your own karma (action) born of your own nature, that which from delusion you do not wish to do, that you shall do helplessly!
Eeshwarah sarvabhootaanaam hriddeshe 'rjuna tishthati;
61. The Lord dwells in the hearts of all beings, Arjuna, causing all beings, by his illusive power, to revolve as if mounted on a machine!
Tameva sharanam gaccha sarvabhaavena bhaarata;
62. Fly to him for refuge with all your being, Arjuna! By his grace you shall obtain supreme peace and the eternal abode.
Iti te jaanamaakhyaatam guhyaad guhyataram mayaa;
63. Thus has wisdom more secret than secrecy itself been declared to you by me. Having reflected over it fully, then act as you wish.
Sarvaguhyatamam bhooyah shrinu me paramam vachah;
64. Hear again my supreme word, most secret of all. Because you are dearly beloved of me, I will tell you what is good.
Manmanaa bhava madbhakto madyaajee maam namaskuru; Maamevaishyasi satyam te pratijaane priyo'si me.
65. Fix your mind on me, be devoted to me, sacrifice to me, bow down to me. You shall come to me; I truly promise you, (for) you are dear to me.
Sarvadharmaan parityyajya maamekam sharanam vraja;
66. Abandoning all duties, take refuge in me alone; I will free you from all sins; so do not grieve.
Idam te naatapaskaaya naabhaktaaya kadaachana;
67. This is never to be spoken by you to one who is devoid of austerites, to one who is not devoted, to one who does not render service, who does not want to listen, nor to one who cavils at me.
Ya imam parmam guhyam madbhakteswvabhidhaasyati;
68. He wo with supreme devotion to me will teach this supreme secret to my devotees, shall without doubt come to me.
Na cha tasmaanmanushyeshu kashchinme pryakrittamah;
69. Nor is there any among men who does dearer service to me, nor shall there be another on earth dearer to me than he.
Adhyeshyate cha ya imam dharmyam samvaadamaavayoh;
70. And he who will study this sacred dialogue of ours, by him I shall have been worshipped by the sacrifice of wisdom; such is my conviction.
Shraddhaavaan anasooyashcha shrinuyaadapi yo narah;
71. The man also who hears this, full of faith and free from malice, he, too, liberated, shall attain to the happy worlds of those of righteous deeds.
Kacchid etacchrutam paartha twayaikaagrena chetasaa;
72. Has this been heard with one-pointed mind, Arjuna? Has the delusion of your ignorance been fully routed out, Dhananjaya?
Nashto mohah smritirlabdhaa twatprasaadaanmayaachyuta;
73. Routed out is my illusion as I have gained my memory (knowledge) through your grace, Krishna! I am firm; my doubts are gone. I will act according to your word.
Ityham vaasudevasya paarthasaya cha mahaatmanah;
74. Thus have I heard this wonderful dialogue between Krishna and the high-souled Arjuna, which causes the hair to stand on end.
Vyaasaprasaadaacchrutavaan etadguhyamaham param;
75. Through the grace of Vyasa I have heard this supreme and most secret Yoga direct from Krishna, the Lord of Yoga himself declaring it.
Raajan samsmritya samsmirtya samvaadam imam adbhutam;
76. King, remembering this wonderful and holy dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna, I rejoice again and again!
Taccha samsmritya samsmritya roopamatyadbhutam hareh;
77. And remembering again and again also that most wonderful form of Hari, great is my wonder, king! And I rejoice again and again!
Yatra yogeshwarah krihno yatra partho dhanurdharah;
78. Wherever Krishna, Lord of Yoga is, wherever Arjuna the archer is, are prosperity, happiness, victory and firm policy. That is my conviction.
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