Unfamiliar terms need stiff explanations and comments, or they may not be of much
Many words of yoga stem from Sanskrit. Some are explained below, and others on a page of Buddhist terms - see "Buddhist terms" above.
This brief dictionary of yoga terms was culled from many sources. Many explanations are inconclusive, and the English rendering of Sanskrit words is at times a matter of preference: there are alternatives.
- Egoism, identification with the body.
- Spiritual practice ending in Oneness.
- Teacher; spiritual preceptor; propounder of a doctrine. As a title it is affixed to the names of learned men.
- A qualified person.
- Substratum, support.
- Superimposition or false attribution of properties of one thing on another thing.
- "First", meaning original, primordial.
- A Hindu deity.
- Not two, i.e. non-duality. A school of Vedanta philosophy that teaches the state of sensed oneness with nature and
further, a philosophy which aims at getting over and above (beyond)
duality, beyond opposites. It can be associated with monism. Its most renowned exponent was Shankara.
- A class of Tantric literature; Tantric scripture dealing with rites, righteousness (dharma), cosmology and the like. Agamas are works found inside the tradition of the tantrics and kaula, as opposed to that of the orthodox or Aryans known as Veda. In agamas, Shakti (femaleness) asks Shiva (masculinity deep inside) questions, and he replies.
- A Vedic seer.
- Fire; fire god, a bhuta (qv): the fire element. See tattwas.
- A Vedic sacrifice where clarified butter, milk, and curds are offered to the god of fire.
- I, embodied self; soul.
- (Lit., 'ego-factor.'It's really the central I-instance inside. It handles and deals with experiences of outer objects. It can be good and
bad and in between those two. It can be gross or subtle and in between those two. It can
work in healty ways for our good, or take nasty turns if unhealthy or unsavoury. Realistic
handling of Hindu teachings depends on healthy, central I-instances in lots of persons.
One should go for it, as good learning, fit adaptations, and savoury realistic handling in general depend on ahamkara. On the other hand, some forms of madness with lacks or lossess of assessments may be related to unsound, defective workings of the I-instance. The term is used in the samkhya (qv) philosophy.
- It means "non-hurt" or "non-damage", i.e. on-injury in thought, word and
deed. Absence of negativity from within; non-violence
- AING, AIM
- Mantra of Saraswati and Tara, and also of a chakra or two, according to
the Tantric expert Sir John Woodroffe.
- AJAPA MANTRA
- "Hamsa" with variant spellings and practices. See HAMSA.
- AJNA CHAKRA
- The mid-area between the eye-brows, associated with good and able use
of the mind and the so-called third eye. [FURTHER STUDY]
- Ignorance; primal ignorance that is rooted in duality.
- From a + karma. Karma means several things, and akarma means many things correspondingly, for example: failure to perform fruitful actions, freedom from fruitive results; inaction; nonperformance of prescribed duties, etc. ['Karma' comes from 'kri', work.]
- That which is immortal. Nectar of the Gods.
- ANAHATA CHAKRA
- Concentration point in the spine behind the heart; centre of
emotion and the experience of unconditional love.
- Mystic sound heard by Yogis.
- ANAHATA DHWANI
- A spontaneous perpetual sound one can hear in deep concentration.
- Bliss, happiness, joy.
- Cloud of bliss.
- ANANDAMAYA KOSHA
- The sheath ("layer") of bliss. See kosha(s).
- Full of great happiness.
- Of the form of bliss.
- ANANTA NAGA
- A name of Shesha, the hydra-headed serpent.
- ANNAMAYA KOSHA
- The dimension of matter. The physical body. "Kosha" means sheath.
- ANTAR MOUNA
- Inner stillness, and thought observation.
- Of the form of bliss.
- (Lit., one who controls from within). God residing in and controlling from within.
- Governing or managing the subtle aspects of human personality;
- An illumined person, whose words are infallible.
- A perfected Soul.
- A hero in the epos Mahabharata and thus also in the Bhagavad Gita, which is a part of the epic poem. In the Gita, the archer Arjuna asks Krishna about his purpose in life.
- Sanskrit for wealth, property. Pursuing wealth or material advantage is one of the four traditional aims in life, and should be adhered to. Wealth helps order and social goings in so far as society rests on wealth. Artha (wealth) must be regulated by righteousness (dharma), is in the teaching too. To put wealth and three more aims in perspective, see kama, dharma, and moksha too.
- Yogic posture; physical posture in which one is at ease and in harmony with one's self. A bodily pose or posture.
- (1) Any of the four stages of life of a Hindu, viz., Brahmacharya, Garhasthya, Vanaprastha, and Sannyasa. (2) It is also a traditional name referring to places where yoga is lived and taught; a home of a person or group who lead a spiritual life. Hermitage; monastery.
- ASHTANGA, ASHTANGA YOGA
- It refers to Patanjali's yoga with eight steps
or limbs, as laid bare in his Yoga Sutras. It is claimed to be genuine royal yoga (raja yoga) too.
- ASVATTA TREE
- The holy fig tree, at times used as a symbol of the universe.
- Individual soul; the Self, one's spirit. The highest or true self as
distinct from the consciousness of ego. There is no difference between
atman and paramatman except that caused by maya. The Atman (Self deep inside) is not necessarily embodied.
- Self-knowledge; i.e., knowledge of the Self.
- The essential nature of the Self.
- ATMA VICHARA
- Inquiry into the Self.
- A mantra (also spelled Om) which is described as the primordial sound; the
sound through which the manifest world comes into being. It is often used as a
sound-symbol of Brahman. In some Upanishadic texts it is written that enlightenment may
come from chanting this mantra alone, which is used to open or close prayerful sessions
etc. Aum may be heard through a particular meditation technique.
- AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA
- A well known "universal mantra" that may be repeated by anyone,
but also a personal mantra that may be given by a guru at the time of
- Name of the Goddess as Mother of Herbs and medicine.
- A naked sage, more specifically someone who transcends body and worldly
- Lit., 'descent', from Sanskrit 'avatarati' he descends, from
'ava', away + 'tarati', he crosses over. An avatar may be an incarnation (embodyment) of a
god or goddess into a human or animal form, or of divinity (more abstract).
The Hindu god Vishnu, for example, is said to have incarnated many times, as (1) a
fish; (2), a tortoise, (3) a boar, (4) a man-lion, (5) a dwarf, (6) Axe-Rama, (7) Rama,
(8) Krishna, and (9) Balarama. Gautama Buddha is in some of these lists too.
Avatarhood lore also counts with such as full (purna) and partial embodiments of
divinity. And some persons that appear to embody admirable qualities, may be called
avatars of those qualities.
The word may also represent one who incarnates a particular truth or path on
earth. Thus, Matsyendranath is the Avatar of the Kaula Jnana Nirnaya Tantra.
- Not-knowing, i.e. ignorance of reality. Ignorance. spiritual blindness.
- "Knowledge of longevity": Ancient and traditional Indian system of
medicine and medical practices coupled with rigorous ways of life and recuperation
adjustments too. Surgery was included in this system of medicine too.
- Bengali for 'father'. Thus, Sai Baba may be rendered as "Father Sai".
- Bandhas are a series of powerful locks designed to unlock blockages of
energy in the body. Mulbandha contracts an area around muladhara chakra in the perineal
area. Uddiyana bandha involves a contraction of the abdominal area. Jalandhara bandha
involves a contraction of the throat. Mahabandha is a combination of all three
- The divine Enjoyer in man. Also: portion.
- The Lord (lit., one endowed with six attributes, such as great spiritual power, righteousness, glory, splendour, knowledge. ( Any Godhead that has been born; one of Love and Delight. Often rendered as Blessed Lord, supreme Godhead-personality, a Person-of-Divinity born. "The Word made flesh" may correspond quite nicely to it. According to Hindu thinking, there can be more than one Bhagavan, more than one Person-God.
- BHAGAVAD GITA
- Literally, "Song of the Lord (Krishna)" A part of the very large
Mahabharata epic poem which contains Sri Krishna's teachings. It is a looming 'chapter'
within a section of the Sanskrit epic poem, and is, in turn, subdivided into eighteen chapters itself. The Gita (song) takes the form of a dialogue between a chariot-driving Krishna and the bowman Arjuna, his friend,
while they stand on the battlefield between two armies on the brink of war. Arjuna is
filled with doubt and questions how good this particular warfare could be. Krishna, in
turn, explains what is called good and great. The Gita contains a medley of old
philosophies. A version of the text is available here. [LINK]
- Name of a Purana (a work dealing with doctrines of creation, gods and
myths, fabled kings and royal dynasties, teachings of sages, sayings for living and so
on). There are over 18 main Puranas. All these works along with the Vedas are ascribed to
the ancient expert of writing Vyasa. Yet they hail different and in part much competing
gods of the Hindu pantheon. Siva Purana is one of them. Vishnu Purana is another,
Markandeya Purana still another.
- Devotional song. Bhajans are a form of chanting. Usually, they are
traditional Sanskrit passages, with several or many verses, and are sung to traditional
melodies. In such ways and others, spiritual texts were passed on. In contrast
kirtans are generally shorter and repeated many times.
- A devotee, or a devotee of God.
- Devotion. Also, more loosely, the yoga of devotion, bhakti yoga, which is
one of the main branches of yoga.
- Devotional yoga; path of devotion; a way of spiritual discipline.
- Land immersed in light; It can be taken to mean India nowadays.
Pakistan was not excluded earlier.
- A dynamic diaphragmatic breathing practice, known as bellows breathing,
in which the breath is forcibly drawn in and out in equal proportions through the
- Essentially: attitude; continued contemplation (meditation); steady concentration of mind. Also: deep feeling and that state of being, according to Tantra.
- Seed, or "root". Also beeja.
- Sexual enjoyment. Enjoyment of the senses.
- Food. "That which is enjoyed": There are three types:
of sense impressions; "Solar", composed of the prana, or vital essences; "Fiery", composed
of edibles and water. So they say.
- BHUH LOKA
- Dimension of consciousness related to the dimension of earth and
- The five elements, "Ether", Air, Fire, Water, Earth. (Lit., what has come into being, an entity as opposed to the unmanifested) Any of the five elementary constituents of the world, called akasha (ether), vayu (wind, air) agni or tejas (fire), ap (water) and kshiti, (earth)). These five are called maha-bhutas or tanmatras too. According to Hindu cosmogony - and Taoism too - these are manifestations of the Absolute, as such they constitute whatever exists, being compounded with one another. They start as subtle (fine) and then turn into gross bhutas that serve in the make-up of the physical world. These are .
- BHUVAH LOKA
- Dimensions of consciousness related to the element of water and
- Seed, or "root". A "root" or "seed" sound or syllable of a mantra (sound). Sperm. Also beeja.
- The source; a drop; psychic centre, concentration point at the top back of
the head where the hair whorls. The point without a center from which proceeds cosmic
sound (nada): Dot. Semen.
- BENARES (BANARAS)
- A holy pilgrimage centre of Hindus, now called Varanasi. It is
in Uttar Pradesh, India.
- A being who, having developed the Awakening Mind (a mind infused with
the aspiration to attain the state of Buddhahood), devotes his life to the task of
achieving Buddhahood for the sake of sentient beings.
- The Creator of the Cosmos and priest of the gods, often called the Grandfather. Learning, science, music, etc. have been described as some of his great forces (shaktis).
- (a) Study years in youth. (b) Celibate student's stage. (c) Maintaining celibacy.
- Knowledge of Brahman.
- The plane (loka) of Brahma, where fortunate ones enjoy communion with God.
- From the root 'brih', to grow, expand. (a) God or Pan (Omnipresence). (b)
Mind (consciousness) which allows growth to take place.
- The universe of gross and fine (subtle) entities.
- The hole of Brahma, the spiritual centre at the top of the
- Classical Vedantic scripture that is as well as impossible to
understand (needing commentaries).
- Knowledge of Brahman, learning pertaining to Brahman or the absolute
reality. Know-how of how to gain in Brahma mind.
- Ideally, one who knows Brahma, Godhood inside.
- One of the major Upanishads; they are ancient Hindu religious-philosophical works.
- (Sanskrit, "The awakened one"). The Enlightened One. In Sanskrit his clan name is Gautama and his personal name Siddhartha. "His mother, the queen Maha Maya, dreamed that a white elephant had entered her womb. Ten lunar months later, as she strolled in the garden of Lumbini, the child emerged from under her right arm. He was able to walk and talk immediately. A lotus flower blossomed under his foot at each step." And she died seven days later. The prince enjoyed an opulent life and a had a child with his woman, and left all to contemplate, well seated in a meditative posture. One night, in the hours before dawn, he was liberated throughout the universe. His life and teachings are elaborated on here: [MORE] [Ebu "Buddha].
Also, according to traditions of Buddhism, there have been buddhas in the past and will be buddhas in the future. Some forms of Buddhism hold that the buddha nature (tathagatagarbha) lies deep within each one. All forms of Buddhism celebrate his birth, enlightenment, and passing away (final nirvana) into a state beyond suffering. "The life of the Buddha was written and rewritten in India and across the Buddhist world, elements added and subtracted as necessary . . . the motivation to create a single life of the Buddha, beginning with his previous births and ending with his passage into nirvana, occurred rather late in the history of Buddhism." [Ebu "Buddha"]
- Discerning, discriminating aspect of mind; from the route "bodh" meaning
to be aware of, to know; intellect.
- Pure Consciousness.
- (a) Centres of energy in the human system. Wheel; vortex of prana; psychic
centre, "lotus". Chakras are subtle energy centres in the body: The main chakras in the
body are situated along the spinal column. (b) Circle or wheel, often applied to the
diagrams or yantras used in ritual worship. (c) A place of worship.
- A Upanishad.
- Name of the Moon.
- The founder of a materialistic school of thought; pertaining to this school of thought.
- Disciple; pupil of a Guru.
- One who has gained eternal life.
- Consciousness. Loosely
- subconscious mind.
- (a) Aspect of mind which receives impressions of the present experience
and stores it for future use. (b) Individual consciousness including the subconscious and
unconscious layers of the mind (memory, thinking, concentration, attention, enquiry).
- DAHARA VIDYA
- Contemplation of the deity in the heart.
- Devic or divine.
- A quite elemental embodiment of supernatural knowledge and
- Control of senses.
- (a) Vision, sight; (b) any system of Hindu philosophy.
- The sannyasa tradition of Shankarcharya consists of ten branches. They are: Arana, Ashrama, Bharati, Giri (mountain), Parvati, Puri, Sagara, Saraswati, Teertha and
- A Hindu guru of ancient times.
- Literally: Shining ones. God(s); heavenly beings, angels.
- A sacrificial rite enjoined on householders.
- Goddess or shakti: There are many devis, or aspects of a primordial goddess
that is Devi.
- Concentration on one point, one-pointed attention. The sixth "limb" of ashtanga yoga (qv).
- Duty, what needs to be done. Righteous way of living as enjoined by
scriptures, virtue. The term relates to laws and obligations according to such as stage of life and class.
- Unstitched cloth used as lower garment.
- Contemplation, "meditation", also called Zen; the seventh rung in the ladder of Patanjali's eightfold yoga, and hence a facet of interiorisation of the mind. Sanskrit dhyana came to be called Ch'an in Chinese and Zen in Japanese.
- Initiation (into any form of spiritual discipline); from the verb 'see' or 'concentrate'.
- Festival of Light, traditional celebration in India honouring the goddess
- Pain, suffering.
- DVAPARA YUGA
- Second great period of time described in old Hindu works, especially the Laws of Manu. The term is much similar to the Bronze
- "Twice-born". In the Hindu social system, members of the three upper social
classes are regarded as twice-born. They are the Brahmans (priests and teachers),
Kshatriya (warriors), and Vaisya (traders, merchants). Their sacrament (initiation rite),
where they are invested with a cotton thread, is regarded as a second or spiritual birth,
and signifies that the male child enters the life of a student (brahmacarin) and is
accepted as a regular member of his community. The thread consists of a loop made of three
knotted and twisted strands. It is replaced regularly to be worn throughout the lifetime
of the owner, normally over the left shoulder and diagonally across the chest to the right
hip. However, less and less persons observe the initiation ceremony.
More specifically, the second birth is said to have taken place during the
student's initiation when the guru (holy teacher) to the student imparts to him the
Gayatri mantra, which is a sacred verse of the Rigveda.
- The state of one-pointed attention.
- (a) One-pointed attention, i.e. one-pointedness. (b) Concentrating on
one thing at a time.
- The syllable "Aing", also written "Aim" - seed mantra associated with Tara
and Sarasvati (goddesses).
- FOURTH (STATE)
- "Turiya". Super-mind, super-mentality above waking, dreaming, and sleeping. Also, super-consciousness.
- Celestial musicians on the plane (loka) of Indra.
- The womb.
- Secondary, indirect.
- GAYATRI MANTRA
- A very old three-line verse from the Rigveda; "Om bhuh bhuvah
swaha / tat savator varenium / bargo devasya de mahe / deya yona prachodhyat". There are
variants of spelling and interpretations of it. One is:
"We meditate on the supreme splendour of Savitr (sunlight) that he may inspire our
The three-lined mantra is a gift from the Vedic seer Vishvamitra. It is found in
the third book of the Rigveda (3;62;10). "May we attain that excellent glory of Savitar the God / So may he stimulate our prayers." (Ralph Griffith's translation).
It is a blessing recited at sunrise, noon and sunset. The words hail divine deeds
as well as being "Sunlit" from above, that is, well inspired. Our role may be to bring the
inner light of inspired bliss to fruition. As it is said, Gayatri is for "new insight and
inspiration or to increase memory and concentration [and much else]". Many Hindus today
hold that the Gayatri mantra is not restricted to any certain community, but is a treasure
for all the world, and properly belongs to humanity. The next verse of the Savitri lines (3;62;11) shows that more verses are very fine too. And the prayer to pure Brihaspati (3;62;5) for power that none can bend is fit for some as well.
- Song, often rendered 'words'.
- A term of the samkhya philosophy, where it is held that matter has three qualities; sattva, rajas, and tamas. Tamas is supposed to be intertia or
laziness, i.e., something quite passive; Rajas activity; and Sattva
'goodness' and 'nobleness'. Hence, the gunas are classification devices, a guna is a classificatory attribute, or suggested quality.
- (Sanskrit: "venerable"). The guru and his pupil(s) work together, and the guru is to be treated with respect. Guide in a spiritual life; teacher, dispeller of a certain ignorance or 'darkness'; can be 'uplifter' also.
- A serial line of teachers.
- Wisdom; path of understanding and knowledge. Also written Jnana.
- Bija mantra (seed mantra) for vishuddhi chakra.
- "Swan" (duck and goose too in ancient Sanskrit), a mantra (ie, syllables) used by some to meditate on. The proper pronunciation of this mantra is different frow how the word is written, and there are different ways of practice too. Research into the middle range and long range effects appears to be missing.
- HATHA YOGA
- To millions of Westerners this is a yoga of stretching and tensing parts of the while conforming to certain well composed body postures. It goes deeper than mere stretching; its yoga practices seek to redress or balance ha and tha energies, solar and lunar energies and also other pranic (vital) currents of body and mind. "Sun-moon yoga" exercises for better physical health.
- HATHA YOGA PRADIPIKA
- classic text on yoga. [Hat]
- HIMALAYA, HIMAVAT
- Lit., 'the domain of snow'. the mountain range is said to be the father of the Goddess.
- HINDU CALENDER:
Indian days of the week
- Chaitra - 30 days (March - April)
- Vaishaka - 31 days (April - May)
- Jyaistha - 31 days ( May - June)
- Asadha - 31 days ( June - July)
- Srawana - 31 days (July - August)
- Bhadrapada - 31 days (August - September)
- Asvina - 30 days (September - October)
- Kartikka - 30 days (October - November)
- Magasirsa - 30 days ( November - December)
- Pousha - 30 days (December - January)
- Magha - 30 days (January - February)
- Phalguna - 30 days (February - March)
Raviãra - Sunday (day of Sun)
Somavãra - Monday (day of Moon)
Mañgalvã - Tuesday (day of Mars)
Budhavãra - Wednesday (day of Mercury)
Guruvã - Thursday (day of Jupiter)
Sukravãra - Friday (day of Venus)
Sanivãra - Saturday (day of Saturn)
- Cosmic intelligence; the supreme lord of the universe; cosmic
- See HAMSA.
- Heart space of feelings and anahata chakra.
- A mantra of maya shakti. It is pronounced "Hreem".
- Mantra governing the solar force; a part of the hamsa (hang saw) sound.
- The Will.
- The (lunar) nadi going about the central Sushumna nadi. The nadi is also
connected with the left nostril and a receptive (or passive) mentality.
- The king of the gods; controller of the senses. The ruler of (Indra's)
- The senses, the forces which rule the mind.
- Lit., object of desire. A symbol of divinity. The One one feels particularly for; the chosen Ideal, the particular divine form through which a spiritual aspirant contemplates on God; also, sacrificial rite.
- ISHTA DEVATA
- Same as ishta (qv). Chosen goddess or chosen god - .
- Light-Lord; God in the shape or garb of subtle inner light.
- "That which is always going", that is, the phenomenal world, that is, the
- Waking state of consciousness.
- Conscious mind.
- JANAH LOKA
- The dimension of consciousness related to vishuddhi chakra and the
- Repetition, repetition of such as a sound or sound medley
- JEWELS OF THE NATHS
- There are three of them: Sama, equipoise; Samarasa, seeing self as
the world, and the world in the self; and Sahaja, spontaneous naturalism.
- The individual soul and incarnated Atma(n).
- (Lit., liberated while living) One who is liberated in this life while still in the body.
- Literally: living being. The individual soul which in essence is one with the Universal Soul.
- JIVAN MUKTI
- Soul freedom gained while still in the body.
- Individual soul and its consciousness. The embodied soul.
- Knowledge; wisdom. Also written gyana.
- One of four paths (margas), or modes of living, for yogis, in which the attention is interiorised. The other three paths are karma-yoga, raja-yoga, bhakti-yoga.
- JNANENDRIYAS or JNANA-INDRIYAS
- The five organs of knowledge with five senses of
- (Pronounced Nyani) A wise person, a discriminating person. The word is often used to denote a non-dualist.
- Light, name.
- Astronomy; (also, Astrology).
- Emancipation in the sense of independence of the soul from the body or matter, hence a state of absolute independence. Liberation of consciousness from an individuation.
- Time, star etc. Part or division of one whole process or thing.
- The fire at the end of time which burns up the whole cosmic
- Destructing sakti (force, energy, prowess as personified mainly in Hindu iconography).
- KALI YUGA
- The "dark age", or "iron age" - the era of Kali, the destructress. The lowest of four eras of Hinduism, namely Krita (Satya), Treta, Dwapara, and Kali. Some details are given in Laws of Manu, chap. 1:68 ff.
- An age. See yuga.
- Desire. One of the four main goals in life in Hindu living, along with obtaining wealth, being righteous, and release from life's toils. In Sanskrit words: artha (wealth), kama, dharma (righteousness etc.), and moksha (release). Kama is also shown as the god of erotic love, lust and sexuality. What is required for procreation. As such he seems like Ares of ancient Greeks in dominant portrayed traits or features.
- KAMAKHYA PITHA
- Seat of the goddess; a place especially sacred.
- Actions operating through the law of cause and effect, or action in the
manifest or unmanifest dimension; law of cause and effect; deep impressions in life which
make us think, feel and act in particular ways. This theorized "action" or results of
doing" is ascribed to the inevitable law of cause and effect and may last over lifetimes,
it is held.
- KARMA YOGA (KARMA-YOGA)
- Path of action; a path of activity as delineated in the Bhagavad Gita and other
places. It aspires to harmonious activity.
- Organs of action: tongue, hands, feet, genital organ and
- Receptacle of actions.
- A son of shiva
- also known as skanda or subrahmana
- His vehicle is a
- Hidden desires.
- One who can move in the Expanse of Consciousness = Shiva.
- KHECHARI MUDRA
- Lightly placing the underside of the tip of the tongue against the
- Spirits who are half human and half beast in the service of
- (a) Singing devotional songs. (b) Mantras which are sung to
- (Lit., sheath, scabbard) A sheath enclosing the soul, monad. Five sheaths ("envelopes"), one outside the other: the sheath of bliss, anandamaya; of intelligence, vigyanamaya; of mind, manomaya; of vital energy, pranamaya; and of food (or physical matter), annamaya. Hence, the kosha is a form; a sheath aligned with a plane or level of existence.
- Action, motion.
- "The black (or dark brown) one", the eighth incarnation of God
Vishnu, described in the epic poem Mahabharata and the Bhagavata
- KRITA YUGA
- The great era, the "golden" age, such a period of time. The same as satya yuga, the age of truthfulness, etc. as laid out in Laws of Manu, chapter 1, v. 68 ff, etc.
- KRIYA SHAKTI
- The energy or shakti of action.
- The same as kriya yoga (qv) in some circles.
- The same as kriya yoga and kriyayoga. In one of its meanings it stands
for a certain pranayama method. In a wider sense it stands for a complete systems of such
methods, and is a part of the more general concept of "raja yoga" in such cases. The basic
kriya yoga method (in the strict, narrow sense), consists in breathing in and out in
particular ways that used to be very secret formerly. Hence, kriya yoga consists of one or
more techniques that involve the movement of prana and consciousness aimed at reaching
inwardness of mind (dhyana, contempation).
One additional meaning: Kriya is also a type of of exercise in Hatha
- One who practices kriya yoga (qv). There are different levels of
attainment, and many graded techniques into it.
- The war caste of leaders and business magnates etc. See varna.
- "Clan": A shakti or energy: Some build, some maintain, and some
- (a) The "coiled fire snake", a latent energy in muladhara chakra at the
base of the spine, used for rising inwardly. (b) Also defined as the primordial cosmic
energy located in the individual.
- KUNDALINI YOGA
- Practices for the awakening of kundalini.
- Sacred grass
- Used in certain ceremonies.
- LAHIRI MAHASAYA
- The most common way of referring to Shyama Charan Lahiri (1828-95). Another is Lahiri Baba. In 1861 he was initiated in a formerly secret kriya-yoga by his guru, and later initiated about 5000 persons in it. There are bibliographies of him on the Web.
- The number 100,000, or a great number.
- Points in the body which are to be meditated upon.
- (a) Collective form of Will, Knowledge, Action. (b) Sexual aspect of
- Bija (seed) mantra for muladhara chakra.
- LAYA YOGA
- Meditation practice involving dissolving different stages of
- Merging; dissolution.
- Play; sport; game.
- The phallic symbol of masculinity, associated with Shiva.
- The subtle body, the astral body.
- World protectors: there are four, represented by the equinoxes and
- (a) Realms or planes of existence that can be inhabited by different
beings. (b) Also: evolution stages or levels. Dimensions. Main ones: bhuh, bhuvah, swah,
mahah, janah, tapah, and satya.
- See 'chakra'.
- The same as Indra.
- MAHA AKASHA
- great space; observation of consciousness related with manipura
chakra which is bright like the middle of the sun.
- A Hindu epic.
- "Great God", an epithet for Shiva.
- The Great Goddess.
- MAHAH LOKA
- Dimension of consciousness related to anahata chakra and the element
of air maha prana. Space and cosmic energy.
- Great sage.
- A great soul.
- MAHARISHI (MAHARSI)
- Great seer.
- The departure of a Self-realized saint from his mortal coil. It can
also refer to a tomb.
- "the great", unmanifest mind
- buddhi, chitta, ahamkara.
- Great soul.
- "great age".
- the sexual instinct; love-making in Tantra Yoga, i.e., tantric union or ritual sexual intercourse.
- Rosary, a garland usually composed of 108 beads; an aid to meditation
- Mind, aspect of manifest mind involved in experiences of sensory perception
and thought etc.
- Diagram within a circumference symbolising the deeper aspects of man's
psyche; complex geometrical symbol merging macrocosmic and microcosmic events.
- Chakra located at the spine behind behind the navel. It is associated with
strength and power.
- MANOMAYA KOSHA
- the mind sheath or the mind realm.
- Runic sound medley; subtle sound vibrations which may be good for man.
Mantras are thought to be words with inherent power, also set of words to repeat and focus
on on and on inwardly.
- MANTRA DIKSHA
- an initiation practice involving receiving a mantra from a
- MANTRA YOGA
- Using mentally intoned sound vibrations for meditation.
- The shaktis (devis, or "energies") created from the spiritual process of
- Path or way.
- Silence, keeping still.
- Figure, or Figuring. According to Paramahansa Ramakrishna, Maya projects and
withdraws the world. This universe is maya, asserts swami Vivekananda. Maya is the Goddess
who causes the world perception through the twin "powers" of projecion and concealment of
projection. Maya causes an ordered perception of various energy patterns. Maya is
etymologically akin to 'to measure', 'show forth', and thus to art too. Maya is "the
matrix or frame in which the name-form complex finds its base".
etymologically defines maya as deriving from the root ma or "measuring". When one adds the
suffix ya to the root ma it can be defined as "relating to measuring". ... maya can also
be understood in this manner in Sankara's religious-speculative system Advaita Vedanta.
Maya measures out such as language and maya itself so that knowledge of Brahman [gnosis]
can be actualised. And "Maya is a statement of ... how it is going on." - Vivekananda
- One who professes that the world is maya (qv), meaning illusion.
- In Hindu mythology, central mountain of the earth and abode of gods.
- MIRABAI (1450?-1547?)
- A celebrated princess, mystic and poet. Her sweet and charming songs of devotion to Krishna are widely popular.
- Freedom. Also: Ultimate freedom from material bondage. Moksha is one of
the four great Hindu aims or duties set up for humans along with Dharma, Artha and Kama.
- (or mauna) silence; measured silence. Also the vow of silence.
- One who observes silence.
- A type of drum.
- Symbolic gesture which aims at redirecting certain subtle
- MULADHARA, MULADHARA CHAKRA
- Basic pranic and psychic centre. Its focal point,
which is the "seat of kundalini" is at the perineum.
- A certain contraction at the muladhara.
- NACHIKETAS (NAKIKETAS)
- The spiritual seeker mentioned in the Katha Upanishad.
- Mystic, inner, subtle sound.
- Channel or "meridian", a passage through which energy and the "hooked", concomitant consciousness can flow.
- NADI SHODHANA
- Alternate nostril breathing is a balancing pranayama.
- Serpent spirits.
- NASIKAGRA DRISHTI
- Gazing at the nose tip is a mudra.
- A Hatha yoga practice that may be good for the abdominal area.
- Same as Amrita.
- Isolation from the senses and the mind; sleep.
- Liberated state and the final emancipation.
- NIRVIKALPA SAMADHI (Also: Nirbikalpa)
- Samadhi (absorption) without illusion. It is a superconscious
state where there is no modification of the mind.
- Restraint(s), or Do's. The second of the eight limbs of Patanjali's yoga discipline. The niyamas are observance of purity, contentment, austerities, etc
- "Applying" drawn energy for a purpose such as transferring power to a
candidate during initiation.
- Sexually related energy.
- (same as Aum). Universal mantra; root mantra (monosyllable) for ajna chakra; the sound symbol of Brahman.
- OM TAT SAT
- (Lit., Om That Reality.) A threefold designation of Brahman (Godhead)
- The same as OM or AUM.
- PARA SHAKTI
- Supreme Shakti in whom all the other Shaktis reside.
- Beyond etc.
- A religious title, literally "supreme swan (goose, duck)". It is given to someone
who is thought to be able to discern well, and to some sannyasins, or "world-renouncers", in Hinduism.
- Line of succession.
- Lit., 'she from the mountain'. Name of the Goddess as daughter of the Himalaya etc.
- Literally "a beast", may mean a human being who is ignorant and
uninitiated, or animal nature:
- The ascribed author of the Yoga-Sutras, which explain facets of the Yoga system (philosophy), one of the six systems of orthodox Hindu philosopy. His very short treatise deals with focusing and its methods, mind elevation through focus of thinking, and so on. Patanjali (Gonikaputra) is thought to have flourished in the 2nd century BC. His work arranges yogic thought in four very short books with the titles "Psychic Power", "Practice of Yoga", "Samadhi", and "Kaivalya" (liberation).
The Yoga-sutras seem to have been written over several centuries: The first three books in the 2nd century BC, and the last book in the 5th century AD. The last book was possibly written in Patanjali's name, a practice that was customary in India in earlier times. Hence, authorities differ widely as to how many authors there were amd when Patanjali lived. [Ebu, "Patanjali"]
- "Crack", the thunderbolt mantra used to drive off disturbing spirits.
Fingers are usually snapped around the head while saying it.
- Nadi (vessel) connected with the right nostril conducting active vital
energy; the solar aspect; the dynamic aspect. Pingala nadi is opposite Ida nadi, they
curve around the central Sushumna nadi, according to the theory.
- Walking clockwise in a temple as a form of worship.
- True wisdom: A higher mode of knowing.
- Materialized nature and the basis of the three Gunas ("shadow qualities").
- Means of knowledge.
- The vital breath which sustains life in a physical body. Life energy, a force which governs health and its waning. In books of Yoga prana has five specialised functions: (1) prana which controls the breath; (2) apana which carries downward unassimilated food and drink; (3) vyana which pervades the whole body; (4) udana, by which one vomits etc.; (5) samana, which carries nutrition throughout the body. Thus, there are several pranas ("prana functions") in the body, it is said. Apart from being the body's energy, prana may also be rendered as life breath. Prana further denotes God having attributes (Saguna Brahman), and Spirit.
- PRANAMAYA KOSHA
- the dimension (sheath) of energy.
- The Om sound.
- "Life breath control". Practices involving regulations of inhalation, exhalation and perhaps also retention of the breath in certain ways. The generic name 'pranayama' includes many techniques for doing yoga and/or meditation. What is called kriya-yoga is a set of techniques, one of which is very typically a smart pranayama method.
- A certain withdrawal of the attention from the senses in Patanjali's yoga system.
- Application (uses).
- Divine Love.
- From prem (love) and avatar (descension of divinity), hence, a divine-love incarnation. It is a title.
- PSYCHOLOGY OF YOGA
- Yoga divides the mind into buddhi (intellect, intuition),
manas (sensory perception and thought), chitta (memory), and ahamkara (central "I"
- "Ancient". Hindu myths and legends. A class of Sanskrit literature about
various gods. There are eighteen so-called major Puranas.
- (Lit., person.) A term of samkhya philosophy, denoting the individual consciousness. In Vedanta it denotes Self. Other variations: (a) Pure, unmanifested consciousness. (b) The Supreme Being.
- An eightfold path classified by ancient
Patanjali. Its beginning steps are yama (five don't's); niyama (five do's); asana (posture); pranayama (handling of the vital breath); pratyahara (spontaneous inward-switching of the attentiveness); dharana (concentration); dhyana (steadied inward attentiveness), samadhi ( the culmination (samadhi) of the inward-turning). The eight stages form a sadhana (discipline) of rising into subtlety.
There are levels of accomplishments above the eight stages too. In deep inward-turning one focuses on different "things" to develop "in ascending degrees". This final stage is samyana, as seen in Patanjali 3:4 and further. For example "By perfectly concentrated Meditation [sanyama] on sympathy, compassion and kindness, is gained the power of interior union with others." [Patanjali 3:23]
- One who follows some of the disciplines of raja-yoga (qv).
- The activity guna, one of the three postulated qualities.
- Seed (root) mantra for manipura chakra.
- The epic story of the life of Rama. It is figured.
- RIGVEDA, RIKVEDA
- The first of the four Vedas. It consists of hymns, riks, to Vedic gods. [ONLINE]
- Seer; sage. Maharishi means great seer, thus great sage.
- A place in the Himalayas.
- Order, evolving reality.
- Form, outward form.
- Spiritual aspirant.
- "Direct way". Spiritual practice, a spiritual discipline.
- Holy man, ascetic, world-renouncer. It may be a yogi.
- Spontaneity. Joy, naturalness, and amorality are said to be spontaneous
- SAHASRARA CHAKRA
- The focal point is at the crown of the head, and represents
pure, unchanging consciousness.
- SAKTI, SHAKTI
- Power, energy.
- SAM OR SAN
- Prefix meaning total, harmonious.
- SAMA VEDA
- Veda of chants; one of the four Vedas.
- Mind control.
- Absorption, Mind merging with inner, higher consciousness forms,
- "Equal vision", i.e., seeing all things as equal.
- One sees himself as the world and the world as being in himself (or
- (Just as in the New Norwegian word 'samband' and meaning the same:) Connection.
- Often: the outer world. It is the wheel or ocean of life and death, the
wheel of time - 'All together flowing'.
- Impressions inside, often in the subconscious mind.
- Applied, transcendental focusing through converged attentiveness. See also sanyama below. Patanjali Yoga shows steps to it and practices.
- SANDHYA BHASHA
- Writings which seem to mean one thing, while they mean something
else. They can use very figurative writing or very brief (and thus more cryptic) basics
which need to be expanded on.
- Same as Samsara.
- (Deep) resolve; determination or conviction.
- See Shankara.
- SANKHYA, SAMKHYA
- One of the six orthodox Indian philosophies.
- Singing of divine songs.
- Renunciation etc.
- One who renounces worldly living and embraces renunciations.
- Ancient Indo-Aryan language from which many modern languages are
derived. A relative of ancient Persian, Greek and Latin.
- contentment; acceptance of life.
- Flow of converging pratyahara, dharana and dhyana. The same as samyama (qv).
- Goddess (with power, prowess) of creativity, music, wisdom, art, science etc. Mantra: 'Aim'.
- Association with the wise.
- Purity, one of the three non-substantial and possibly made up gunas.
- SATTWIKA (SATTVIC)
- Having sattwa predominantly in one's nature and thus endowed with purity, equanimity and clear vision. See Sattva.
- Truth, reality. Also - establishing oneself in truth.
- SATYA LOKA
- A dimension of consciousness related to sahasrara (the chakra or lotus of the large brain; thought to be the highest seat of attentive, converged consciousness in man.
- SATYA YUGA (Krita Yuga)
- 'Satya' means truth, and 'yuga' means era. Thus, the Age of Truth and integrity, the best of the four eras proposed in Laws of Manu (Manu Samhita), 1:68 ff.
- SAVIKALPA SAMADHI (Sabikalpa samadhi)
- Samadhi combined with sense, verbal knowledge.
- Sound, the sensation of sound; normally unheard sound; physical, "struck" sound.
- SHAKTI BANDHAS
- A series of asana to release blocked energy.
- An energy or power: feminine counterpart to a god of the Hindu pantheon,
especially of Shiva. It is also power, drive and force around or inside a
- SHAMBHAVI MUDRA
- Focusing the open or closed eyes on the eyebrow centre.
- SHANKARA, SANKARA, SHANKARACHARYA (AD 700?-750?)
- A philosopher and pupil of Gaudapada, believing that plurality and differentiation is illusory. He came to be regarded as the foremost exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. With a lucid and profound style of writing he emphasised a psychological and religious approach to Truthhood (God, Brahman) (qv). He was often held to be a "Buddhist in disguise" by opponents, because his doctrine is similar to Mahayanic Buddhism. But the basic structure of his philosophy may be more akin to samkhya (qv). [MORE]
- Adi ('the first'), reformer of the Hindu swami order. Same as Shankara (above). Also, a leader of the monastic order (of swamis) that was reformed and solidified by Adi (the first) Shankara. There are five seats for Shankaracharyas spread out in India. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's guru, Brahmananda, also known as Guru Dev held a Shankaracharya position.
- Peace. It can be repeated three times after a fervent utterance and
- Collection of knowledge.
- SHIVA, SIVA
- The Destroyer God. The third of a Godhead-trinity: Brahma (Creator), Vishnu (Upholder, Deceiver, etc.), and Siva (Destroyer, Burner).
- Short verse.
- SHRI CHAKRA
- A yantra (geometrical figure, often symmetrically shaped.
- Mantra of the goddess Lakshmi, who is also known as Shri. It is pronounced
- SHRUTI (SRUTI)
- (Lit., anything heard). Revealed knowledge. The Vedas.
- (a) Master; one who has become perfected or realized (enlightened). (b)
One who possesses occult powers, siddhis.
- Hidden powers; or power; perfection.
- The same as Shiva. Lord Siva.
- Same as Karttikeya and Murugan, a son of Siva's.
- The chief verse form of the Sanskrit epics. A fluid metre that lends itself well to improvisation. it may serve us like a stanza, that is, a series of lines arranged together. Cf. sleka.
- (a) Ancient work handed over by memory. (b) Memory, one of the five
- (a) Moon deity. (b) Psychoactive plant mentioned in the Vedas.
- An eternal Sound according to the orthodox Hindu school of philosophy called Mimamsa.
- Auspicious, holy, also written shri and shree. "Sri" before a name
suggests reverence, or just courtesy and auspiciousness. In "Sri Yukteswar" (or 'Sriyukteswar') the 'sri' appellation forms part of a monk's name. The honoric prefix is also used with celebrated books. It can also be used like the English term Mr.
- Fine, subtle; belonging to a subtler order of existence than the solid physical.
- Central nadi (subtle vessel) along the spine. It is hoped to be activated through
balancing the currents of ida and pingala nadis etc. It is held to be the way to
- "Thread", aphorism. A book of aphorisms.
- One's own form. Essential nature; reality. Same as swarupa (qv).
- SWADHISTHANA CHAKRA
- Concentration point at the base of the spinal column; "one's
- Self analysis is included in it.
- SWAH LOKA
- Dimension of consciousness related to manipura chakra ("the wheel for the navel area") and the fire element.
- Hindu monk. Its literal meaning is "one with the self".
- The true form: One's own form. se also svarupa.
- "May it be auspicious". It can be used for benediction.
- inertia, one of the three postulated qualities of nature along with rajas
- Subtle, undifferentiated root elements of matter.
- The hidden side of the Vedas and Vedic living, according to some. Tantras
include philosophy and culture which deals with the transcendence of human nature:
strengthening or evolution of man and liberation of bound-up energies.
- TAPAH LOKA
- Realm or level of consciousness related to ajna chakra (the focus centre between the eyebrows, a centre of control).
- Austerities, mortification, etc. through continued effort, heat
- Element. "truth thing", i.e., principle. Five elements, namely:
prithvi, jal, agni (heat), vayu (wind), akasha (ether).
- fire; tip of the flame; brilliance.
- Ford or bathing place.
- Gazing at a fixed point. It is used in contemplation, as described in some books of yoga, for example Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines, edited by W. Y. Evans-Wents: ""Place a small ball . . . in front of thee as an object upon which to concentrate thy thought . . . fix thy gaze upon the object one-pointedly." [Tiy 122]
In some forms of yoga the attention gets riveted at the area between the eyebrows with the eyes turned somewhat upward and the eyelids "somewhat closed".
- TRETA YUGA
- Third great era of a cycle proposed by Manu and others. It corresponds somewhat to the silver age of ancient Greeks.
- Characterised by three traits, namely sattwa, rajas, and tamas; or an attribute of Becoming.
- TRIPLE BLESSING
- "Shanti, Shakti, Shambhu." It means, Peace, Power, Plenty."
"Progress" might be included among the P-words, though.
- The fourth state. It transcends the waking, dreaming and deep sleep
states, and is sometimes called superconsciousness.
- Letting go of attachments, often involving abandonment, relinquisment,
- UDDIYANA BANDHA
- Leaning forwards, resting hands on knees and pulling the abdominal organs up and in, and "feeding a flow of energy" by this means. It is a main exercise in Hatha yoga.
- UJJAYI PRANAYAMA
- slightly contracting the glottis of the throat so the breath
makes a light snoring sound; a deep relaxing breath used often in meditation
- Spiritual advice.
- The Upanishads are major books in Hinduism. The word "upanishad" is taken to mean "The sitting down at the feet of a teacher to listen to his words." In
the old times upanishads were often secret doctrines. The two basic types are Agamic
Upanishads and Vedic Upanishads. Paul Deussen has translated sixty of them. [So] [MORE]
- Indifference. Beyond caring.
- Non-attachment. It can work as freedom from too gross desires as
- (a) Adamantine. (b) Thunderbolt.
- Root mantra for swadhisthana chakra.
- VAMA MARG(A)
- Left-hand path, or left-turning path. It signifies a reversal of
conventional practices. Many of its methods may give a quicker and more direct fare - one
that can be dangerous too, at least to some..
- Left. Woman. Excrement. What is vomited.
- Caste. Any of the four primary social groups - ideally according to qualifications and vocations - in actual practice through birth almost always. brahmana (priests, teachers, law-makers); kshatriya ((awrriors and kings), vaishya (traders, bankers, industialists and farmers); shudra or sudra (labourers requiring dexterity).
- A Hindu deity as presented in the Rikveda. It shares hallmarks with Poseidon/Neptune.
- Subtle desires.
- Wind, air; a Hindu deity; prana or energy flow as in pancha vayu: prana, apana, samana, udana, vyana.
- The oldest Indo-Aryan scriptures. These most ancient, extensive texts
detail rituals and duties in life. Veda, from the root 'vid', means "knowledge" and also
stands for "ritual lore". The four main Vedas are the Rik (Rig), Yajur, Sama, and Atharva.
They can be difficult to understand.
- (Lit., the essence or concluding parts of the Vedas.) The texts of Upanishads and the school of philosophy based on them: Some Veda texts contain Vedanta portions.
The orthodox Vedanta system of philosophy contains a series of ancient philosophical treatises, often in the form of dialogues between guru and disciple, in which looming topics of life are speculated about, and ways of living are conformed to. Vedanta as a
school of thought relates to and builds on major Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Brahma Sutra [Bik].
- (a) One who knows the Vedas. (b) One who follows the path of
- Inquiry into the nature of the Self, Truth, Absolute, Brahman.
- VIDYA GUPTA
- Secret oral traditions.
- VIJNANAMAYA KOSHA
- The sheath of subtle wisdom inside the human.
- Sinful or forbidden activity.
- The tossing of mind.
- The dissipated or oscillating state of mind.
- Stringed musical instrument. The goddess of music, art, wisdom (etc.) is portraited as playing on one.
- "Opposite doing": one of the essential yoga postures, the half
- The Cosmic Egg or Cosmic Soul.
- The controller in the "Hindu trilogy" of Brahma (God the Creator); Vishnu (up-keeper, maintainer fond of fraud); and Shiva (destroyer).
- VISHUDDHI CHAKRA
- Throat chakra, the centre in the spine behind the thyroid gland;
centre for expressing thoughts.
- Discerning faculty, discrimination.
- A "wave in the mind-lake". It can suggest getting disturbed also. Vrittis
(plural) are fluctuations, modifications, which "ripple" the mind at one given
- YAJNAVALKYA (Yagnavalkya)
- A respected Hindu teacher of old. "Second only to [the Laws of] Manu is the Dharma Shastra of Yajnavalkya; its 1,013 stanzas are distributed under the three headings of good conduct, law, and expiation", says Encyclopaedia Britannica. Yajnavalkya's work agrees with Manu Samhita on many points, but disagrees in topics like gambling. His work paraphrases ideas in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, where he is told of (2:3 ff; 4:5.1), and has undergone many modifications. [Ebu "Hinduism"; Xmi, index.]
- An attendant of the Hindu god of wealth, Kubera. Female: yakshini.
- Root mantra for anahata chakra (heart centre).
- (1) The hindu god of death, also known as "king of righteous
deals", dharmaraja. (2) Proper and non-wicked self control of thoughts and actions
tied in with such as righteousness that stems from deep inside. This meaning - restraint - lies behind the use of the word for the first of eight "steps" in Patanjali's yoga, where yama denotes what people had better not stray into, such as stealing and lying.
- Way, vehicle. Thus, Ramayana means "The way of Rama". Yana can also mean
- Both simple and elaborate geometric symbols aiming at liberating the
intently gazing deep mind somehow. Thus they turn into "magnetised stuff" inside oneself
and can "have a half-life" of its own.
- YOGA NIDRA
- Where one is neither awake nor in deep sleep. (Norwegian: "ei slags yogi-Ýrske").
- "Yoke" and/or "union". There are many yogas. In practical living it is (1) a way or a system of
methods. It is not just the system of solid, slow body stretching and twisting (hatha
yoga); that is just one branch of the whole system. (2) It's also a sanskrit-based,
handed-over Indian philosophy tied in with Patanjali's Yoga
Sutras. (3) It can also mean the end goal of practical tries at doing yoga,
particularly "union with the godhead inside etc.". In addition to that, there are nuances
and specialisations. "Those who attain yoga (union) breathe harmony" is a hint at what is
- A monk's name. It consists of 'yoga' and 'ananda' (great joy) glued together. Many Hindu monks have such a name. The most well-known one in the West is Param(a)hansa Yogananda (1893-1952), founder of Self-Realization Fellowship in Boston in 1920. His Autobiography of a Yogi has been influential. In it, he speaks on mystical topics, presents his own gurus, and the fabled kriya yoga methods he came to the West to make known. He was born Mukunda Lal Ghosh in India.
- YOGA SUTRAS
- Ancient primer on yoga attributed to
Maharishi Patanjali. This the earliest extant textbook on yoga explains facets of the theistic Yoga system (philosophy), one of the six systems of orthodox Hindu philosopy. This orthodox Hindu philosophy differs from the Samkhya system of philosophy only in reckoning with God, who is defined as a distinct self.
In the Yoga system, the self is a bit different from from the ordinary, everyday mind. The fundamental aim is to bring mind-modifications (citta-vritti) to rest, so that the self can shine forth in its essence, which is glad. In slightly other words, the brief and terse treatise deals with focusing and its methods, mind elevation through focus of thinking, and so on.
In the ancient textbook, yogic thought is grouped in four very brief books. They arecalled "Psychic Power", "Practice of Yoga", "Samadhi", and "Kaivalya" (liberation). The Yoga-sutras were apparently written over several centuries: The first three books in the 2nd century BC, and the last book in the 5th century AD. The last book was possibly written in Patanjali's name, according to an ancient, customary practice in India. [Ebu, "Yoga-sutras", "Patanjali"]
- One who practices yoga.
- A female yogi.
- Female sexual organ, womb, and source.
- One of the four ages of a Hindu world cycle, hence, "age", "eon", "era", "time cycle". Hindu scriptures tell of four eras. They have things in common with the Greek golden, silver, bronze and iron ages. The yuga are: satya or krita yuga;
treta yuga; dvapara yuga; and kali yuga. They are described in the Manu Samhita and briefly shown in Vishnu Puranam, and also mentioned in the old text Markandeya Purana. The claims of how long the eras and cycles are, vary extremely much.
- Zen Buddhism. The word 'Zen' is derived from Sanskrit 'dhyana' (contemplation, deep meditation), via the Chinese 'ch'an'. Zen, then, is deep and contemplative Buddhism.
a as in English come
‚ (long a) as in far
e as in bed
î as in feel
o as in note
u as in full
ai, ay as 'oy' in toy
au is 'o' sounded deep in the throat
ch as ch in cheek
d and g are hard as in dog
jn as 'gy'
s as in sheer
sh quite as in English
t and d are soft as in French
th sounds like t and h in boat-house (the h is "given air")
The stress of long Sanskrit words should be on the third last syllable, but there are exceptions. Among them: words that end with -anda (contain 'nd' in the last two syllables) have the stress on the second last syllable.
An end a in words and also in word segments (parts) may or may not be dropped. Thus the alternative spellings 'paramahansa' - 'paramhansa' and 'ananda' - 'anand'.
Diacritical marks have usually been dropped on the pages of this site.
All these matters are more complex than a crash course may cover; it is mainly for starters.