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Herbs and other plants -

Lives of humans depend on the lives of plants. Man's life is reciprocal to that of plants. Thus, we need more than marriage in our lives in order to thrive and benefit. The story of Adam in a garden indicates it nicely.

Herbs may have their effects, and variable effects too. Granted that, traditional usages and medical research lie behind the selection of plants below. Names are furnished in Latin and English.

Below is a list of some 380 herbs used for healing purposes and others. Some are used for food, most are used for remedies, and some are poisonous. A few can be deadly in the wrong hands: it depends a lot on dosages.

Latin names are to the left, common English names to the right. There are often more English name variants than suggested here, though.

Parts of the content is sampled from the Wikipedia. In addition, take a look at what good herbalists write about them also.


Acacia catechu - Black Catechu

The tree's seeds are a good source of protein. The extract is used to treat sore throats and diarrhoea.

Achillea millefolium - Yarrow

There are several varieties and subspecies. The most medicinally active part of the plant are the flowering tops. The herb is purported to be a diaphoretic, astringent, tonic, stimulant and mild aromatic. Today, yarrow is valued mainly for its action in colds and influenza, and also for its effect on the circulatory system. In rare cases, yarrow can cause severe allergic skin rashes; prolonged use can increase the skin's photosensitivity.

A folk belief states that if you hang a bunch of dried yarrow or yarrow that had been used in wedding decorations over the bed, you can thus ensure a lasting love for at least seven years.

Acorus calamus - Calamus, Sweet-flag

Calamus has been an item of trade in many cultures for thousands of years. Calamus has been used medicinally for a wide variety of ailments and its smell makes calamus essential oil valued in the perfume industry.

Adonis vernalis - Yellow Pheasant's Eye

The plant is poisonous.

Aesculus hippocastanum - Horsechestnut

The three can get 36 meter tall. The nuts, especially those that are young and fresh, are slightly poisonous.

Agathosma betulina (=Barosma betulina) - Buchu

The essential oils and extracts of the leaves are used as flavoring for teas, candy, and a liquor known as buchu brandy in South Africa. The extract is said to taste like blackcurrant.

Agrimonia eupatoria - Agrimony

In traditional herbal medicine it was often incorporated in herbal pillows. Modern herbalists prescribe it for disorders of the kidneys. It may be tried for mild skin complaints such as acne.

Agropyron repens - Couchgrass

The rhizome is the part used. It is diuretic, demulcent, anti-microbial, and may be used in urinary infections such as cystitis, urethritis and prostatitis. It soothes irritation and inflammation. It has been used against rheumatism.

Decoction: put 2 teaspoonfuls of the cut rhizome in a cup of water, bring to boiling and let simmer for 10 minutes. This may be drunk three times a day, days David Hoffman. [Link]

Alchemilla alpina - Alpine Lady's Mantle

In veterinary medicine the herb is used against diarrhea.

Alchemilla mollis (=A. vulgaris) - Lady's Mantle

Aletris farinosa - True Unicorn Root

Allium cepa - Garden Onion, Red Onion

Allium sativum - Garlic

Allium ursinum - Ramsons

Aloe ferox - Cape Aloe

Aloe vera - Aloe

Alpina officinarum - Galangal

Althaea officinalis - Marshmallow

Ammi visnaga - Visnaga

Anethum graveolens - Dill

Angelica archangelica - Angelica

Anthoxanthum odoratum - Sweet Vernal Grass

Anthyllis vulneraria - Kidney Vetch

Aphanes arvensis - Parsley Piert

Apium graveolens - Celery

Archangelica officinalis - Garden Angelica, Wild Parsnip

Arctium lappa (major) - Burdock

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Archtostaphylus uva-ursi) - Bearberry, Mountain-box

Areca catechu - Betel nuts, Areca nuts

Aristolochia clematitus - Birthwort

Aristolochia serpentaria - Virginia Snakeroot

Armoracia rusticana (-lapathifolia) - Horseradish

Arnica montana - Arnica

Artemisia abrotanum - Southernwood

Artemisia absinthum - Wormwood

Artemisia cina - Wormseed, Santonica

Artemisia dracunculus - Tarragon

Artemisia vulgaris - Mugwort

Asarum europaieum - European Wild Ginger, Asarabacca

Ascidia piscipula - Jamaican Dogwood

Asclepias tuberosa - Pleurisy Root

Avena sativa - Oats


Ballota nigra - Black Horehound

Baptisia tinctoria - Wild Indigo

Bellis perennis - Daisy

Berberis vulgaris - Barberry

Betula alba (=B. odorata, B. pubescens) - Downy Birch

Betula pendula (=B. verrucosa) - Silver Birch

Bidens tripartita - Burr Marigold

Borago officinalis - Borage

Brassica nigra - Black Mustard

Brassica oleracea - Wild Cabbage, Savoy cabbage etc.

Bryonica dioica - White Bryony


Calendula officinalis - Marigold

Calluna vulgaris - Heather

Cannabis sativa - Hemp

Capsella bursa-pastoris - Shepherd's Purse

Capsicum annuum var. annuum - Sweet Pepper, Cayenne

Carex arenaria - Sand Sedge

Carica papaya - Papaya

Carlina acaulis - Stemless Carline Thistle

Carlina vulgaris - Carline Thistle

Carum carvi - Caraway

Cassia fistula - Golden Shower, Canafistula

Cassia senna (=C. angustifolia) - Senna

Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut

Caulophyllum thalictrioides - Papoose Root

Ceanothus americanus - New Jersey Tea

Centaurium erythraea - Centaury

Centaurium umbellatum - Common Centaury

Cephaelis ipecacuanha (=Psychotria ipecacuanha) - Ipecac

Cetraria islandica - Iceland Moss

Chamaelirium luteum - Blazing Star, False Unicorn Root

Chamaemelum nobile (=Anthemis nobilis) - Roman Chamomile

Chelidonium majus - Greater Celandine

Chelone glabra - Balmony

Chionanthus virginicus - Fringetree

Chondrus crispus - Irish Moss

Cichorium endivia - Endive

Cichorium intybus - Chicory

Cimicifuga racemosa - Black Cohosh

Cinchona officinalis (=Cinchona succirubra) - Peruvian Bark

Cinnamomum zeylandicum - Cinnamon

Citrus aurantium - Bitter Orange

Citrus limonia (=C. limonum) - Lemon

Claviceps purpurea - Ergot

Clematis recta (=C. erecta) - Erect Clematis

Cnicus benedictus - Blessed Thistle

Cochlearia armoracia (=Armoracia lapathifolia) - Horseradish

Cochlearia officinalis - Common Scurvy Grass

Coffea arabica - Arabian Coffee

Cola acuminiata - Cola

Cola nitida - Cola, Kola

Colchium autumnale - Autumn Crocus, Meadow Saffron

Collinsonia canadensis - Stone Root

Commiphora molmol - Myrrh

Convallaria majalis - Lily of the Valley

Coriandrum sativum - Coriander

Corydalis cava - Bird-in-a-bush

Crataegus laevigata (=C. oxyacantha) - Midland Hawthorn

Cucumis melo - Melon

Cucumis sativus - Cucumber

Cucurbita pepo - Pumpkin

Curcuma longa - Curcuma

Cydonia oblonga - Quince

Cynaria scolymus - Globe Artichoke

Cynoglossum officinale - Hound's Tongue

Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens - Lady's Slipper, Nerve Root

Cytisus scoparius - Broom, Broom Tops


Datura stramonium - Thorn Apple

Daucus carota - Wild Carrot

Daucus carota sativa - Carrot

Digitalis purpurea - Foxglove

Dioscorea villosa - Wild Yam

Drosera rotundifolia - Round-leaved Sundew

Dryopteris filix-mas - Male Fern


Echinacea angustfolia - Echinacea

Eleattaria cardamomum - Cardamon

Eleutherococcus senticosus - Siberian Ginseng

Ephedra sinica - Ephedra, Ma Huang

Equisetum arvense - Horsetail, Field Horsetail

Erigeron canadensis - Canadian Fleabane

Eryngium maritimum - Sea Holly

Erythroxylon coca (=Erythroxylum coca) - Bolivian Coca

Eschscholzia california - Californian Poppy

Eucalyptus globulus - Tasmanian Blue Gum, Southern Blue Gum

Euonymus atropurpureus - Wahoo

Eupatorium cannabinum - Hemp Agrimony

Eupatorium perfoliatum - Boneset, Thoroughwort

Eupatorium purpureum - Gravel Root

Euphorbia hirta - Pill-bearing Spurge, Asthma Weed

Euphrasia officinalis - Eyebright

Euphrasia rostkoviana - Euphrasia


Ficus carica - Fig

Filipendula ulmaria - Meadowsweet

Foeniculum vulgare - Fennel

Fragaria vesca - Wild Strawberry

Fraxinus excelsior - Ash

Fucus vesiculosus - Bladderwrack

Fumaria officinalis - Fumitory


Galega officinalis - Goat's Rue

Galeopsis ochroleuca daakerda - Downy Hemp-nettle

Galium aparine - Goosegrass, Cleavers

Galium odoratum (=Asperula odorata) - Sweet Woodruff

Galium verum - Lady's Bedstraw, Cheese-rennet

Gaultheria procumbens - Wintergreen, Checkerberry

Gelidium amansii - Agar-agar

Genista germanica - German Greenwood

Gentiana lutea - Yellow Gentian

Gentiana purpurea - Purple Gentian

Geranium maculatum - American Cranesbill

Geranium robertianum - Herb Robert

Geum urbanum - Wood Avens, Herb Bennet

Ginkgo biloba - Maidenhair Tree, Ginkgo

Glechoma hederacea - Ground Ivy

Glycine max - Soya Bean

Glycyrrhiza glabra - Liquorice, Licorice

Gnaphalium uliginosum - Marsh Cudweed

Gossypium herbaceum - Levant Cotton

Gratiola officinalis - Hedge Hyssop, Gratiole

Grindelia camporum - Gumplant, Grindelia

Guaiacum officinale - Guaicum


Hagenia abyssinica - Kousso

Hamamelis virginiana - Witch Hazel

Haronga madagascariensis - Haronga

Harpagophytum procumbens - Devil's Claw, Grapple Plant

Hedeoma pulegioides - American Pennyroyal

Hedera helix - Ivy

Helichrysum arenarium - Everlasting Flower

Helleborus niger - Christmas Rose, Black Hellebore

Hepatica nobilis - Hepatica, Liver Flower, Liverleaf

Herniaria glabra - Smooth Rupturewort

Hibiscus sabdariffa - Roselle

Hippophae rhamnoides - Sea Buckthorn

Humulus lupulus - Hop

Hydnocarpus kurzii chaulmoogra - Kalaw Tree

Hydrangea aborescens - Seven Barks

Hydrastis canadensis - Goldenseal

Hyoscyamus niger - Henbane

Hypericum maculatum - Imperforate St John's-Wort

Hypericum perforatum - St John's Wort

Hyssopus officinalis - Hyssop


Ilex aquifolium - Holly

Ilex paraguariensis - Paraguay Teaplant

Inula helenium - Elecampane

Ipecacuanha (=Cephaelis ipecacuanha) - Psychotria ipecacuanha

Iris versicolor - Blue Flag


Jateorhiza palmata - Calumba

Juglans regia - Walnut

Juniperus communis - Juniper


Krameria triandra - Rhatany


Lactuca virosa - Wild Lettuce, Great Lettuce

Lamium album - White Dead-nettle

Laurus nobilis - Laurel, Sweet Bay, Bay Tree

Lavandula angustifolia (=L. vera) - Lavender

Leonurus cardiaca - Motherwort

Levisticum officinale - Lovage, Wild Lettuce

Linum usitatissimum - Flax

Lippia citrodora (=Aloysia triphylla) - Lemon Verbena, Lemon Plant

Lobaria pulmonaria - Lungwort Moss

Lobelia inflata - Indian Tobacco, Lobelia

Lycopodium clavatum - Clubmoss, Stag's Horn

Lycopus europaeus - Gypsywort, Bugleweed

Lycopus virginicus - Bugleweed

Lythrum salicaria - Purple Loosestrife


Mahonia aquifolium - Oregon Grape, Mountain Grape

Malva alceae - Malvaceae

Malva sylvestris - Mallow

Marrubium vulgare - White Horehound

Marsdenia condurango - Condurango

Matricaria chamomilla (=M. recutita and Chamomilla recutita) - German Chamomile, Scented Mayweed

Melilotus officinalis - Common Melilot, Ribbed Melilot

Melissa officinalis - Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm

Mentha pulegium - Pennyroyal

Mentha x piperita officinalis - Peppermint, White Peppermint

Menyanthes trifoliata - Bogbean

Mitchella repens - Partridge Berry, Squaw Vine

Monarda didyma - Bergamot, Bee Balm, Oswego Tea

Myrica cerfera - Bayberry, Wax Myrtle

Myroxylon balsamum - Balsam of Tolu


Nasturtium officinale (=Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum) - Watercress

Nepeta cararia - Catnip, Catmint

Nerium oleander - Oleander


Ocimum basilicum - Sweet Basil

Olea europaiea - Olive

Ononis spinosa (=Ononis campestris) - Cammock, Spiny Rest Harrow

Origanum majorana - Sweet Marjoram

Origanum vulgare - Wild Majoram, Oregano

Orthosiphon stamineus - Java Tea, Cat's Whiskers,


Packera aurea - Life Root, Golden Groundsel

Panax ginseng - Ginseng

Panax quinquefolius - American Ginseng

Papaver rhoeas - Red Poppy, Corn Poppy

Parietaria diffusa - Pellitory of the Wall

Passiflora incarnata - Passion Flower

Petasites hybridus - Butterbur

Petroselinum crispum - Parsley

Peucedanum ostruthium (=Imperatoria ostruthium) - Masterwort

Peumus boldus - Boldo

Phaseolus vulgaris - Kidney Bean, French Bean

Physostigma venenosum - Calabar Bean

Phytolacca americana - Poke Root, Pokeweed

Picrasma excelsor - Quassia

Pilocarpus pennatifolius - Pernambuco Jaborandi

Pilosella officinarum (=Hieracium pilosella) - Mouse-ear, Hawkweed

Pimento dioica - Allspice

Pimpinella anisum - Aniseed

Pimpinella saxifraga - Burnet Saxifrage

Pinus sylvestris - Scots Pine

Piper methysticum - Kava Kava

Plantago lanceolata - Ribwort Plantain

Plantago major - Greater Plantain

Plantago psyllia - Fleawort

Podophyllum peltatum - American Mandrake

Polygala amara - Bitter Milkwort, Dwarf Milkwort

Polygala senega - Senega Snake Root

Polygala vulgaris - Milkwort

Polygonum aviculare - Knotgrass

Polygonum bistorta - Bistort, Snake Root

Polygonum hydropiper - Water-pepper, Smartweed

Polypodium vulgare - Polypody

Populus nigra - Black Poplar

Populus tacamahaca (=P. balsamifera) - Balsam Poplar

Populus tremula - Aspen Poplar

Populus x gileadensis (=P. x jackii) - Balm of Gilead

Potentilla anserina - Silverweed, Wild Agrimony

Potentilla erecta (=P. tormentilla) - Tormentil

Primula elatior - Oxlip

Primula officinalis (=P. veris) - Cowslip

Prunella vulgaris - Self-Heal, Sicle-wort

Prunus dulcis var. amara - Bitter Almond

Prunus persica - Peach

Prunus serotina - Wild Cherry, Rum Cherry

Prunus spinosa - Sloe

Pulmonaria officinalis - Lungwort Herb

Pulsatilla vulgaris (=Anemone pulsatilla) - Pasque Flower

Punica granatum - Pomegranate


Quercus pendunculata - Common Oak

Quercus robur - Oak, Pedunculate oak


Ranunculus ficaria - Pilewort, Lesser celandine

Raphanus sativus - Radish

Rauvolfia serpentina - Rauvolfia serpentina

Rhamnus cathartica - Buckthorn

Rhamnus frangula (=Frangula alnus) - Alder Buckthorn

Rhamnus purshiana - Cascara Sagrada

Rheum officinale - Tibetan Rhubarb

Rheum palmatum - Rhubarb Root, Turkey rhubarb

Rhus aromarica - Sweet Sumach, Lemon Sumach

Ribes nigrum - Blackcurrant

Ribes rubrum - Red Currant

Ricinus communis - Castor-oil Plant

Rosa canina - Rosehips, Dog Rose

Rosmarinus officinalis - Rosemary

Rubia tinctorum - Madder

Rubus fruticosus - Blackberry

Rubus idaeus - Raspberry

Rumex acetosa - Sorrel

Rumex crispus - Yellow Dock, Curled Dock

Ruta graveolens - Rue


Salix alba - White Willow

Salix nigra - Black Willow

Salvia officinalis - Sage

Sambucus ebulus - Dwarf Elder

Sambucus nigra - Elder, Elderberry

Sanguinaria canadensis - Blood Root

Sanicula europaiea - Wood sanicle

Saponaria officinalis - Soapwort

Sassafras albidum - Sassafras

Scopolia carniolica - Scopolia

Scrophularia nodosa - Figwort, Knotted Figwort

Scutellaria laterifolia - Virginian Skullcap

Selenicereus grandiflorus - Night Blooming Cercus

Senecio fuchsii (=S. ovatus) - Wood Ragwort

Senecio jacobaea - Ragwort

Senna alexandrina - Senna

Seronoa repens - Saw Palmetto

Silybum marianum - Milk Thistle

Smilax regelii - Sarsaparilla

Smilax sarsaparilla - Sarsaparilla

Smilax utilis - Sarsaparilla

Solanum dulcamara - Bittersweet

Solidago virga-aurea (=S. virgaurea) - Goldenrod, Woundwort

Sophoro japonica - Japanese pagoda tree

Sorbus aucuparia - Mountain Ash

Stachys officinalis - Wood Betony

Stachys palustris - Woundwort, Marsh Woundwort

Stellaria media - Chickweed

Stillingia sylvatica - Queen's Delight

Strophantus komb´┐Ż - Strophantus

Strychnos nux-vomica - Nux Vomica

Swertia chirata - Chiretta

Symphytum officinale - Comfrey

Symplocarpus foetidus - Skunk Cabbage

Syzygium aromaticum - Cloves

Syzygium cumini - Jambul


Tanacetum parthenium - Feverfew

Tanacetum vulgare (=Chrystanthemum vulgare) - Tansy

Taraxacum officinalis - Dandelion

Teucrium chamaedrys - Germander

Teucrium scorodonia - Wood Sage

Thuja occidentalis - Thuja, American Arbor-vitae

Thymus serpyllum - Wild Thyme

Thymus vulgaris - Common Thyme

Tilia cordata - Small-leaved Lime

Tilia platyphyllos (=T. grandifolia) - Large-leaved Lime

Tilia x vulgaris - Common Lime, Lime Blossom

Trifolium pratense - Red Clover

Trigonella foenum-graecum - Fenugreek

Trillium erectum - Beth Root

Tropaeolum majus - Nasturtium

Turnera diffusa var. aphrodisiaca - Damiana

Tussilago farfara† - Coltsfoot


Ulmus glabra (=U. montana U. scabra) - Wych Elm

Ulmus minor - Small-leaved Elm

Ulmus rubra - Slippery Elm

Umbilicus rupestris - Pennywort

Urginea maritima (=Scilla maritima) - Sea Squill

Urtica dioica - Stinging Nettle

Urtica urens - Annual Nettle

Usnea barbata - Old Man's Beard


Vaccinum myrtillus - Bilberry

Valeriana officinalis - Valerian

Veratrum viride - Indian Poke

Verbascum densiflorum - Dense-flowered Mullein

Verbascum philomoides - Wooly Mullein

Verbascum thapsus (=V. schrader) - Great Mullein, Aaron's Rod

Verbena officinalis - Vervain

Veronica officinalis - Speedwell, Heath Speedwell

Veronicastrum virginicum - Beaumont's root, Black Root

Viburnum opulus - Cramp Bark, Guelder Rose

Viburnum prunifolium - Black Haw, Stagberry

Vinca major - Greater Periwinkle

Vinca minor - Lesser Periwinkle

Viola odorata - Sweet Violet

Viola tricolor - Heartsease (Pansy too)

Viscum album - Mistletoe

Vitex agnus-castus - Chaste Tree, Agnus Castus

Vitis vinifera - Grape

W, X, Y


Zanthoxylum americanum - Prickly Ash

Zea mays - Sweet Corn, Corn Silk

Zingiber officinale - Ginger

Plant names in English and Latin, Herbal, Plant list of 381 herbs with Latin and English names, Herbs in English and Latin, Literature  

Chevallier, Andrew. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants: A Practical Reference Guide to over 550 Key Herbs and Their Medicinal Uses. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2001.

McIntyre, Anne. The Complete Herbal Tutor: The Ideal Companion for Study and Practice. London: Gaia, 2010. ⍽▢⍽ Recommended.

Shealy, C. Norman. The Healing Remedies Sourcebook: Over 1,000 Natural Remedies to Prevent and Cure Common Ailments. Boston, MA: Da Capo Press Lifelong Books, 2012. ⍽▢⍽ Dr Shealy is the founder of the American Holistic Medicine Association. This comprehensive sourcebook is easy to read, understand and use. It is based on eight therapeutic backgrounds: Ayurveda, Chinese herbal medicine, traditional folk remedies, herbalism, aromatherapy, homeopathy, flower remedies, and vitamins and minerals. There are in part very safe substitutes for conventional medicines in it also.

Plant names in English and Latin, Herbal, Plant list of 381 herbs with Latin and English names, Herbs in English and Latin, To top    Section     Set    Next

Plant names in English and Latin, Herbal, Plant list of 381 herbs with Latin and English names, Herbs in English and Latin. User's Guide   ᴥ    Disclaimer 
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