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Book 2. The Winning of Friends


[213} Here, then, begins Book 2, called "The Winning of Friends." The first verse runs:

The mouse and turtle, deer and crow,

Had first-rate sense and learning; so,

Though money failed and means were few,

They quickly put their purpose through.

"How was that?" asked the princes. And Vishnusharman told the following story.

In the southern country is a city called Maidens' Delight. Not far away was a very lofty banyan tree with mighty trunk and branches, which gave refuge to all creatures. As the verse puts it:

Blest be the tree whose every part

Brings joy to many a creature's heart -

Its green roof shelters birds in rows,

While deer beneath its shadow doze;

Its flowers are sipped by tranquil bees,

And insects throng its cavities,

While monkeys in familiar mirth

Embrace its trunk. That tree has worth;

But others merely cumber earth.

In the tree lived a crow named Swift. One morning he started toward the city in search of food. But he saw a hunter who lived in the neighbourhood and who [214} was already near the tree, approaching to trap birds. He was hideous in person, flat of hand and foot, bare to the calf of the leg, dreadfully ugly of complexion, had bloodshot eyes, was accompanied by dogs, wore his hair in a knot, carried snare and club in his hand - why spin it out? He seemed a second god of destruction, noose in hand; the incarnation of evil; the heart of unrighteousness; the teacher of every sin; the bosom friend of death.

When Swift saw him, he was disturbed in spirit and reflected: "What does he mean to do, the sinner? To hurt me? Or has he some other purpose?" And he clung to the hunter's heels, being filled with curiosity. Now the hunter picked a spot, spread a snare, scattered grain, and hid not far away. But the birds who lived there were held in check by Swift's counsel, regarded the rice-grains as deadly poison, and did not peep.

At this juncture a dove-king named Gay-Neck, with hundreds of dove retainers, was wandering in search of food, and spied the rice-grains from afar. In spite of dissuasion from Swift, he greedily sought to eat them and alighted in the great snare. The moment he did so, he and his retainers were caught in the meshes. Nor should he be blamed. It happened through hostile fate. As the saying goes:

How did Ravan fail to feel

That it's wrong, a wife to steal? [215}

How did Rama fail to see

Golden deer could never be?

How Yudhishthir fail to know

Gambling brings a train of woe?

Clutching evil dims the sense,

Darkening intelligence.

And again:

When once the mind is gripped by fate,

The judgement even of the great,

In mortal meshes fettered, wends

To unintended, crooked ends.

So the hunter gleefully lifted his club and ran forward. Then Gay-Neck and his retainers, seeing him advancing, were distressed by their disastrous position in the snare. But the king, with much presence of mind, said to the doves: "Have no fear, my friends. For

Provided judgement does not fail,

Whatever the distress,

Men reach the farther shore of woe,

And rest in happiness.

We must all agree in purpose, must fly up in unison, and carry the snare away. This is not possible without united action. For death befalls those of disunited purpose. As the saying goes:

Bharunda birds will teach you why

The disunited surely die:

For, single-bellied, double-necked,

They took a diet incorrect." [216}

"How was that?" asked the doves. And Gay-Neck told the story of

The Bharunda Birds

By a certain lake in the world lived birds called "bharunda birds." They had one belly and two necks apiece.

While one of these birds was sauntering about, his first neck found some nectar. Then the second said: "Give me half." And when the first refused, the second neck angrily picked up poison somewhere and ate it. As they had one belly, they died.

"And that is why I say:

Bharunda birds will teach you why, . . .

and the rest of it. Thus union is strength."

When the doves heard this, being eager to live, they united their efforts to carry the snare away, flew just an arrow-shot into the air, formed a canopy in the sky, and proceeded without fear.

When the hunter saw the snare carried away by birds, he looked up in amazement, thinking: "This is unprecedented." And he recited a stanza:

So long as they agree, they may

Carry the fatal snare away;

But they will quickly disagree,

And then those birds belong to me.

With this in mind, he started to pursue. And when Gay-Neck perceived the savage pursuer and [217} recognized his purpose, with judgement unconfused, he started to fly over regions rough with hills and trees.

And Swift in turn, astonished both by Gay-Neck's prudent conduct and the hunter's cruel purpose, repeatedly shifted his glance, looking now up, now down, forgot his concern for food, and followed the flock of doves with keenest interest. For he was thinking: "What will this noble soul do next? And what this villain?" At last the hunter, observing that the flock of doves was protected by the roughness of the paths, turned back in disappointment, saying:

"What shall not be, will never be;

What shall be, follows painlessly;

The thing your fingers grasp, will flit,

If fate has predetermined it.

And again:

If fate be hostile, even gains

Acquired no man can hold;

They go, and take his other wealth,

Like hoards of magic gold.

"For, to say nothing of getting birds to eat, I have actually lost the snare which was my means of supporting the family."

Now when Gay-Neck saw that the hunter had turned back hopeless, he said to the doves: "See! We may travel quietly. The villainous hunter has turned back. This being so, our best plan is to fly to the city Maidens' Delight. For in its north-eastern quarter dwells a mouse named Gold, a dear friend of [218} mine. He will cut our bonds in a hurry. He is quite competent to set us free from our trouble."

So they all did as he said, for they were eager to find the mouse named Gold. And when they reached the hole which he had converted into a fortress, they alighted. Now previously

The mouse, in social ethics skilled,

Saw danger coming. Then

He built and was residing in

A hundred-gated den.

This being so, Gold was alarmed at the whir of birds' wings, darted along one path in his fortress den until just beyond reach of a cat's paw, and remained on the qui vive, wondering what it meant. But Gay-Neck took his stand at a gate of the den, and said: "My dear Gold, pray hasten to me. See what a plight I am in."

Thereupon Gold, still within his fortress, said: "My good sir, who are you? What is your errand? And of what nature is your misfortune? Please inform me."

And Gay-Neck answered: "Why, my name is Gay-Neck. I am king of the doves, and a friend of yours. Hasten to me."

At this the mouse felt a quiver in his body and a thrill in his soul. He hastened forth, saying:

If daily to his home

The friends who love him come,

And coming, bring delight

To eyes that kindle bright,

A man has found the whole

Of life within his soul. [219}

Then, observing that Gay-Neck and his retainers were caught in a snare, he sadly said: "My good friend, what is this, and whence? Tell me."

"My good friend," answered Gay-Neck, "why do you ask me? For you know it well. As the proverb says:

Whence, what, by whom, how long, when, where,

And how deserved is good or ill,

Thence, that, by him, so long, then, there,

And so it comes. Fate has its will.

And again:

The peacock seems the world to view

From thousand eyes that mock the hue

Of some bright water-lily;

When fear of death beclouds his mind,

His conduct is of one born blind;

He sinks disheartened, silly.

A hundred leagues and twenty-five

The vulture spies his meat,

But - fate decreeing - fails to see

The snare before his feet.

And again:

Snake, bird, and elephant are caged;

The moon and sun go through eclipse;

The wise are poor: all this I see,

And think how dreadfully fate grips.

And once again:

The birds that in the sky securely soar,

Endure calamities;

While fish are plucked by men from ocean's floor

In far, unsounded seas: [220}

Why speak of virtue here or moral harm?

What stance could help or mar?

It's Time that stretches forth a fatal arm,

And seizes from afar."

When Gay-neck had spoken thus, Gold began to cut his bonds, but Gay-Neck checked him, saying: "My good friend, this is wrong. Please do not cut my bonds first, but my followers'."

Now Gold grew angry at this and said: "Come now! You are mistaken. For servants follow the master."

"No, no, my good friend," said Gay-Neck. "All these poor creatures left others to take service with me. Shall I fail to show them this petty honour? You know the proverb:

The king who offers honour to

His followers beyond their due,

Has servants glad who never quail,

Not even should his money fail.

And again:

Through trust, the root of happy power,

A creature wins to kingship's flower;

While lions, born to kingship, must

As tyrants govern, lacking trust.

"Besides, after cutting my bonds, you might perhaps get a toothache. Or that villainous hunter might return. In that case, I should surely plunge to hell. As the proverb says:

A king who is content to know

That loyal servants suffer woe,

Will later go to hell, but first

Will see his earthly projects burst." [221}

"Yes," said Gold, "I am well aware of this royal duty. It was to test you that I said what I did. Now I will cut the bonds of all, and you will have in them a numerous retinue. For the proverb says:

The king who mercifully grants

Due share in all good circumstance

To serving-folk, may fitly rise

The triple world to supervise."

After making these observations, Gold cut the bonds of all, then said to Gay-Neck: "Now, my friend, you are free to go home." So Gay-Neck went home with his retinue. Yes, there is wisdom in the saying:

Because a man can gain his ends,

Though difficult, with aid of friends,

Get friends, and feel those friends to be

Integral with prosperity.

Now Swift, who had followed the whole matter of Gay-Neck's capture and release, was filled with astonishment, and he thought: "What intelligence has this Gold! What capacity! What an ingenious fortress! It would therefore be wise for me also to make friends with Gold. Even though I am of a suspicious temperament, confiding in nobody, even if I am too clever to be overreached by anybody, even so I should win a friend. For the proverb says:

Even the self-sufficient should

Get friends, and seek a greater good:

The ocean fears no diminution,

Yet waits Arcturus' contribution." [222}

After these reflections, he flew down from his tree, approached the gate of the den, and called out - for he had previously heard the name of Gold: "Gold, my dear sir, pray come out."

And Gold, hearing this, reflected: "Is this perhaps some other dove who, still somewhat entangled, is addressing me?" And he said: "Who are you, sir?" "I am a crow," was the answer. "My name is Swift."

On hearing this, Gold hugged a far corner and said: "My very dear sir, please leave this neighbourhood." "But," replied the crow, "I have come to see you on weighty business. Please grant me an interview."

"I see no advantage in making your acquaintance," said Gold. "But," said the crow, "I feel great confidence in you - the result of seeing how Gay-Neck was relieved of bonds through your exertions. I too may possibly be caught some day and find deliverance through you. Please enter into friendship with me."

"Sir," answered Gold, "you eat, and I am food. How can I feel friendship for you? You have heard the saying:

The dull think inequalities

In strength no fatal blocks

To friendship. True - but they are dull,

And public laughingstocks.

Please be gone."

"Look!" said the crow. "Here I perch at the gate of your den. If you do not make friends with me, I [223} shall starve to death."

"But," said Gold, "how can I make friends with you, with an enemy? For the proverb says:

Make no truce, however snug,

With foemen dire:

Water, even boiling hot,

Will quench a fire."

"Why," said the crow, "you do not even know me by sight. Why should there be strife? Why say a thing so little to the purpose?"

"Sir," said Gold, "strife is of two kinds, natural and incidental. Now you are in natural strife with me. And the saying goes:

By incidental means one ends

An incidental strife,

And quickly. Nature's kind endures

Until the loss of life."

"Sir," said the crow, "I should like to learn the characteristic quality of each kind."

"Well," said the mouse, "incidental strife springs from a specific cause, and can therefore be removed by rendering an appropriate service. But strife rooted in nature never disappears. Thus there is enduring strife between mongoose and snake - herbivorous creatures and those armed with claws - water and fire - gods and devils - dogs and cats - rival wives - lions and elephants - hunter and deer - crow and owl - scholar and numskull - wife and harlot - saint and sinner. In these cases, nobody belonging to anybody has been killed by anybody, yet they fight to the death." [224}

"But this is senseless," said the crow. "Listen to me.

For cause a man becomes a friend;

For cause grows hostile. So

The prudent make a friend of him,

And never make a foe."

"But," said Gold, "what commerce can there be between you and me? Listen to the kernel of social ethics:

Whoever trusts a faithless friend

And twice in him believes,

Lays hold on death as certainly

As when a mule conceives.

And again:

A lion took the life of Panini,

Grammar's most famous name;

A tusker madly crushed sage Jaimini

Of metaphysic fame;

And Pingal, metric's boast, was slaughtered by

A seaside crocodile -

What sense for scholarly attainments high

Have beasts besotted, vile?"

"True enough," said the crow. "But listen to this:

The beasts and birds as friends are won

For cause; plain folks, for service done;

And silly souls, for greed or fright -

But good men are your friends at sight.

And again:

Like pots of clay, the wicked friend

Is quick to smash and hard to mend:

Like pots of gold the righteous flash,

As quick to mend, as hard to smash. [225}

And yet again:

Each segment of a sugar-cane

Beyond the tip, is sweeter;

The friendship of the good is so -

The other kind grows bitter.

Now I assure you that I am upright. Besides, I will reassure you by taking oaths."

But Gold replied: "I have no confidence in your oaths. There is a saying:

Though a foe be bound by oaths,

Trust him none the more:

Indra struck the demon down,

Spite of oaths galore.

And again:

Even gods must try to lull

Foes with measures mild:

Indra, soothing Diti first,

Smote her unborn child.

Through a narrow crevice slip

Enemies who gloat,

Bringing slow destruction, like

Water in a boat.

If, relying on their means,

Men confide in foes,

Or in wives whose love is lost,

Life abruptly goes."

To this Swift found no rejoinder, and he thought: "What an eminent intelligence he has in the field of social ethics! Yet for that very reason I crave his friendship." And he said: [226}

"True friendship, sir, is an affair

Of seven words, the wise declare;

I've forced you, then, to be a friend -

So hear my pleading to the end.

Now grant me your friendship. If you refuse, I shall starve where I stand."

And Gold reflected: "He is not unintelligent. His speech proves it.

None lacking shrewdness flatter well;

None but a lover plays the swell;

No saints are found in judgement seats;

No clear, straightforward speaker cheats.

So I must certainly grant him my friendship."

Having made up his mind to this, he said to the crow: "My dear sir, you have won my confidence. But it was necessary first to test your intelligence. Now I lay my head in your lap." With this he started to come forth, but when scarcely halfway out, he stopped again. And Swift said: "Do you cherish even yet some reason for mistrusting me? I see you do not leave your fortress."

"I have no fear of you," said Gold, "for I have examined your mind. But if I gave my confidence, I might perhaps meet death through other friends of yours." Then the crow spoke:

Friends purchased at the price of death

To other friends and true,

One should avoid, like worthless corn

Where finest rice-plants grew. [227}

Hearing this, Gold hastened forth, and there was a civil greeting on both sides. After a moment Swift said to Gold: "I will not keep you longer outdoors. I am in search of food." With this he left his friend and flew into thick jungle where he found a wild buffalo that a tiger had killed. Of this he ate his fill, then returned to Gold, carrying a lump of meat red as a dhak-blossom. And he cried: "Come out, my dear Gold! Come out! Enjoy this meat that I have brought."

Now Gold, with sedulous forethought, had constructed a great heap of corn and rice for his friend's use. And he said: "My dear friend, pray enjoy this rice which I have provided to the best of my ability." So each was highly pleased with the other, and they ate in order to manifest kindly feeling. This, indeed, is the seed of friendship. As the verse puts it:

Six things are done by friends:

To take, and give again;

To listen, and to talk;

To dine, to entertain.

No friendship ever comes

Without some kindly deed:

The very gods respond

To gifts they have decreed.

As soon as presents cease,

So soon does friendship die:

The calf deserts the cow

Whose udder has gone dry. [228}

So, to make a long story short:

The mouse and crow became

Such friends as never fail,

Enduring, hard to split

As flesh and finger nail.

Indeed, the mouse was so captivated by the crow's attentions that he grew confident to the point of feeling quite at home between his wings.

Now one day the crow appeared with tears filling his eyes, and sobs choked him as he said: "My very dear Gold, I have grown dissatisfied with this country. I intend to travel."

"My dear friend," said Gold, "what cause do you have for discontent?"

Listen, my friend," said the crow. "There has been a dreadful drought in this country, so that all the city people, driven by famine, not only cease to give the birds a few mere crumbs, but actually set bird-traps in every house. To be sure, I have not been caught, for further life is appointed me. Yet this is why I shed tears for I think of foreign travel. This is why I plan to visit another land."

"Then tell me where you plan to go," said Gold.

And Swift replied: "In the far south is a great lake in the heart of the jungle. There lives a turtle named Slow, a bosom friend of mine, dearer even than you are. He will give me bits offish, a digestible diet. In his society I shall be happy, enjoying the delight of conversation spiced with wit. Besides, I cannot behold such slaughter of birds. For the proverb says: [229}

Blest are they who do not see

Death upon the family,

Friend in trouble, stolen wife,

Ruin of the nation's life."

"Considering the circumstances," said Gold, "I will accompany you. I, too, have a great sorrow."

"Of what nature?" asked Swift. "Oh," said Gold, "it is a long story. When we get there, I will tell you in detail."

"But," said the crow, "I travel in the air, you on the ground. How will you accompany me?"

And Gold answered: "If you feel concern for the preservation of my life, mount me on your back and carry me very gently."

At this the crow was delighted and said: "If that is possible, then I am blest indeed. There is none more blest than I. Let it be done. For I know the eight flights, Full-Flight and the rest. Thus I shall carry you in comfort."

"My friend," said Gold, "I should like to know the flights by name." And the crow recited:

Full-Flight, Part-Flight, and the Rise,

Great-Flight, and the Curve likewise,

Horizontal, Downward-Flight;

Number eight is called the Light.

After listening to this, Gold mounted the crow, who set off at Full-Flight. And very gently he brought his friend to the lake.

Thereupon Slow saw a mouse riding a crow, and wondering who he might be, plopped into the water - [230} for he was a judge of occasions. And Swift, after depositing Gold in a hole in a tree on the bank, perched on the tip of a twig and called in a piercing tone: "Friend Slow! Come here! I am your crow friend. After long absence I have come, my heart filled with longing. Come, embrace me. For the saying runs:

Bring sandalwood or camphor? No!

Nor even flakes of cooling snow;

All are not worth the sixteenth part

Of rest upon a friendly heart."

When he heard this, Slow made a narrow inspection, then, with a quiver of delight and with eyes swimming in joyful tears, he hurriedly scrambled from the water, saying: "I did not know you. I am much to blame. Forgive me." And when Swift flew down from the tree, he embraced him.

So the two, after exchanging embraces, thrilled with delight, and sitting beneath the tree told each other their adventures during the long separation. Gold also, with a bow to Slow, sat down there. And Slow, spying him, said to Swift: "Tell me, who is this mouse? And why did you mount him, your natural food, on your back and bring him hither?"

And Swift replied: "Ah, he is a mouse named Gold, a friend of mine, almost my second life. To make a short story of it:

His virtues, like the streams of rain

Or stars that dot the sky

Or like the grains of dust on earth

All numbering defy; [231}

Yes, mathematics fails to count

His lofty virtues through;

Yet he, in deep dejection sunk,

Has come to visit you."

"And what," said Slow, "is the cause of his gloom?"

"That," said the crow, "I asked him yonder. But he put me off, saying: 'It is a long story. I will tell you when we get there.' Now, my very dear Gold, pray tell us both the cause of your gloom." And Gold told the story of

Gold's Gloom

In the southern country is a city called Maidens' Delight, and in the neighbourhood a shrine to Shiva. In a cell nearby lived a hermit named Crop-Ear. During his begging hour he would fill his alms-bowl with dainties from the city, eatables jellified, melting in the mouth, toothsome, flavoured with sugar, treacle, and pomegranate. Then, returning to his cell, he satisfied himself according to the ordinance, hid what food was left in the alms-bowl, and hung it on a peg, keeping it for the servants' breakfast. On this food I subsisted with my companions. And so the time passed.

Since I nibbled his food, however carefully he hid it, the hermit was disgusted, and in fear of me he moved it from place to place, always hanging it higher. Even so I got at it easily enough and ate it. Now one day a guest arrived, a holy man named Wide-Bottom. And Crop-Ear welcomed him, paid [232} him due respect, and relieved his fatigue. At night they lay on the same couch and started to relate pious tales. But Crop-Ear's thoughts were so preoccupied with mice that he kept striking the alms-bowl with a frazzled bamboo and returned an absentminded answer to Wide-Bottom as he told a pious tale.

Then the guest grew extremely angry and said: "Come, Crop-Ear! I perceive that your friendship is dead. For you do not talk with me whole-heartedly. So, night though it be, I shall leave your cell and go elsewhere. For there is a saying:

'Come! Enter! News from town?

A chair! You look run down!

Welcome! Why have you slighted

Our home so long? Dee-lighted!'

Such kindly words as these

May set the mind at ease,

And friends be glad to go

Where they are greeted so.

And again:

Wherever hosts look vaguely round

Or fix their glances on the ground,

The guests who visit such a place

Are hornless, yet of bovine race.

You should not visit any home

From which no gentle greetings come,

Which fails in eager promptitude,

With gossip touching bad and good.

"But this you do not understand, having forgotten friendship through pride in the ownership of one mere [233} cell. So that you seem to dwell here, but in reality you have earned a place in hell. For the proverb says:

A certain course for hell to steer,

Become a chaplain for a year;

Or try more expeditious ways -

Become an abbot for three days.

Poor fool! You take pride in what should cause contrition."

When he heard this, Crop-Ear was terrified and said: "Do not speak thus, holy sir. There is no friend nearer my heart than you. Pray hear the reason of my inattention. There is a villainous mouse that jumps and climbs to my alms-bowl, however high I hang it, and he eats my leavings. Thus the servants get no recompense, and refuse to tidy up. So to frighten the mouse, I strike the alms-bowl repeatedly with my bamboo. This is the whole story. But I should add that the villain has such cleverness in jumping as to put cats, monkeys, and other creatures to the blush."

Then Wide-Bottom said: "But have you found the mouse-hole anywhere?"

"Holy sir," said Crop-Ear, "I have not."

"Surely," said the other, "his hole is over his hoard. Beyond question, the fragrance from his hoard makes him spry. For

The smell of wealth is quite enough

To wake a creature's sterner stuff;

And wealth's enjoyment, even more,

With virtuous giving from his store. [234}

And again:

It's certain Mother Shandilee

If bargaining in sesame -

Her hulled grains for the unhulled kind -

Has some good reason in her mind."

"How was that?" asked Crop-Ear. And Wide-Bottom told the story of

Mother Shandilee's Bargain

At one time I asked a certain Brahman in a certain town for shelter during the rainy season, and this he gave me. So there I lived, occupied with pious duties.

One day I woke betimes, and listening to a conversation between my host and his wife, I heard the Brahman say: "My dear, tomorrow will be the winter solstice, an extremely profitable season. So I will go to another village in search of donations. And you, in honour of the sun, should give some Brahman food to the extent of your ability."

But his wife snapped at him harshly, saying: "Who would give food to a poor Brahman like you? Are you not ashamed to talk like that? And besides:

Since first I put my hand in yours,

I haven't had a thing:

I've never tasted stylish food;

Don't mention gem or ring."

At this the Brahman was terrified and he stammered:

"My dear, my dear, you should not say such things. You have heard the saying: [235}

You have a mouthful only? Give

A half to feed the needy:

Will any ever own the wealth

For which his soul is greedy?

And again:

The poor man can but give a mite;

Yet his reward is such -

The Scriptures tell us as is his,

From riches giving much.

The cloud gives only water, yet

The whole world treats him as a pet:

But none can bear the sun, who stands

With rays that look like outstretched hands.

"Bearing this in mind, even the poor should give to the right person at the right time - though the gift seems beneath contempt. For

Great faith, a gift appropriate,

Fit time, a fit recipient,

An understanding heart - and gifts

Are blest beyond all measurement.

And some quote this:

Indulge in no excessive greed

(A little helps in time of need)

But one, by greed excessive led,

Perceived a topknot on his head."

"How was that?" asked the wife. And the Brahman told the story of

Self-Defeating Forethought

There was once a hillman in a certain place who set out to increase his sins by hunting. As he walked [236} along, he met a boar that resembled the top of Sooty Mountain. Straightway he drew an arrow as far as his ear, and recited this verse:

The fitted shaft and bow-string's tension

He sees, and shows no apprehension;

The psychological conclusion

Is: Death has prompted this intrusion.

Then with a sharp arrow he shot the boar, who in turn angrily tore the hillman's stomach with a pointed fang that shone like the crescent moon, so that the man fell dead. The boar also, after killing the hunter, died in torment from the arrow-wound.

At this point a starving jackal reached the spot in his aimless wanderings. When he spied a boar and a hunter, both dead, he gleefully thought: "Fate is kind to me, providing this unlooked-for store of food.

There is wisdom in the verse:

The fruit of actions good or bad

In each preceding state,

Without a further effort, comes

Upon us, brought by fate.

And again:

Each deed from every time and place

And age, as consequence

Brings good or evil in exact

And fitting recompense.

"Now I will eat in such a way as to have sustenance for many days. I will begin with the sinew wrapped round the bow-tip. I will hold it in my paws and eat very slowly. For the saying goes: [237}

Consumption of a treasure earned

Should very slowly follow,

As wise men sip elixir down,

Not bolt it at a swallow."

After these reflections, he took into his mouth the sinew with its end hanging from the bow. And when the gut snapped, the bow-tip pierced the roof of his mouth and came out like a topknot. And the jackal perished from the pain of it.

"And that is why I say:

Indulge in no excessive greed, . . . .

and the rest of it."

Then the Brahman continued: "My dear, did you never hear this?

These five are fixed for every man

Before he leaves the womb:

His length of days, his fate, his wealth,

His learning, and his tomb."

After this preachment, the wife said: "Well, I believe I have a bit of sesame grain in the house. I will grind it into flour and feed a Brahman." And her husband, having received her promise, went off to another village.

Then the wife softened the sesame grains in hot water, hulled them, placed them in the hot sun, and returned to her chores in the house. In this state of affairs a dog made water in the dish of grain, and she thought when she saw it: "Dear me! See how shrewd [238} fate is, when it has turned against you. Even these poor sesame grains it has made unfit to eat. Well, I will take them to some neighbour's house, and make an exchange, unhulled for hulled. For anybody will bargain on those terms."

So she put her grain in a basket and went from house to house, saying: "Who cares to exchange sesame unhulled for sesame hulled?"

Now she happened to enter with her grain a house which I had entered to beg alms, and she made her offer there. The housewife was delighted and took the hulled grain in exchange for unhulled. Later, her husband came home and asked: "My dear, what does this mean?"

And she told him: "I made a bargain, hulled sesame for unhulled."

Over this he pondered, then said: "To whom did this grain belong?" And his son Kamandaki told him: "To Mother Shandilee."

Then he said: "My dear wife, she is mighty shrewd at a bargain. You had better throw this sesame away.

'It's certain Mother Shandilee,

If bargaining in sesame -

Her hulled grains for the unhulled kind -

Has some good reason in her mind."

"So," said Wide-Bottom, "he surely derives this vigour in jumping from the smell of his hoard." And he continued: "Do you know his manner of attack?"

"Yes, holy sir, I do," answered Crop-Ear. "He comes not alone, but with a school of mice."

"Well now," said Wide-bottom, "is there any [239} digging tool about?"

"Indeed there is," said Crop-Ear. "Here is a handy pickaxe, solid iron."

"In that case," said the guest, "you and I must wake early, so as to follow their tracks together, while the footprints still dirty the floor."

Now when I heard the villain's speech fall like a thunderbolt, I thought: "Ah, this spells ruin for me. For his words imply something more. Just as he has marked my hoard, so he will surely discover my fortress, also. Of this his implied meaning convinces me. For the proverb says:

Shrewd characters at sight

Can estimate aright i

Their man, as some are deft

To gauge an ounce by heft.

And again:

The budding fancy first betrays

The character that strives

For birth as recompense of good

Or ill in former lives:

No marking tail has grown, yet when

You see the beggar pick

His mincing steps about the pond,

You cry: 'A peacock chick!'"

So I was terrified, deserted the beaten track to my fortress, and with my followers started on another track.

Then a prodigious cat met us, and seeing the whole pack before him, pounced into our midst. And the mice who survived the slaughter scolded me for picking a bad trail, and sought shelter in the old fortress, [240} drenching the floor with blood. Yes, there is wisdom in the old story:

A deer there was that burst his bonds;

He flung the trap aside;

He violently broke apart

The hobbling snare that tied;

From woods uncouth with tufted flames

Around him bristling, fled;

The hunters' arrows left behind;

To seeming safety sped;

Into a well at last he tumbles:

On hostile fate all effort stumbles.

Then I departed, alone. The others - poor dolts! plunged into the old fortress. Thereupon the holy man, perceiving that the floor was smeared with drops of blood, followed the trail to the fortress, and began to ply the pickaxe. As he dug, he came upon the hoard over which I had lived so long, and the smell of which used to guide me back to the fortress.

Then Wide-Bottom was filled with glee and said: "Now, Crop-ear, sleep in peace. It was the smell of this that enabled the mouse to wake you." So they took the hoard and turned to the cell.

Now when I returned to the spot, I could not bear to look at the sad, disturbing sight. And I reflected: "Ah, what shall I do? Where shall I go? How may I win peace of mind?" In such reflections the day dragged drearily away.

Still, when the sun had laid his thousand beams to [241} rest, I went with my companions to the same cell, though I was troubled and lacking in vigour. And when Crop-Ear heard the patter of our pack, time and again he started to strike the alms-bowl with his frazzled bamboo.

Then his guest said: "My friend, why not go peacefully to sleep at last?"

"Holy sir," he replied, "I am sure that villainous mouse has come with his followers. I do this from fear of him."

But Wide-Bottom laughed and said: "Have no fear, my friend. His jumping energy is gone with his property. This rule applies to all creatures without exception. As the saying goes:

The man has constant vigour? Dares

On others' backs to mount?

Speaks in a self-sufficient tone?

He has a bank account."

This angered me so that I made a desperate jump for the alms-bowl, but missed and fell to the floor. And my enemy saw me and said to Crop-Ear: "Look, my friend! It is quite wonderful. You could put it into poetry:

The wealthy men are men of force;

And they are scholars all, of course:

The mouse who lost his wealthy store,

Is now a mouse and nothing more.

And there is point in this:

A fangless snake; an elephant

Without an ichor-store; [242}

A man who lacks a cash account -

Are names and nothing more."

When I heard this, I reflected: "Alas! It is true, though it is my enemy who says it. For today I have not the power to jump a mere finger's breadth. A curse upon a fellow's life without money! As the saying goes:

After money has departed,

If the wit is frail,

Then, like rills in summer weather,

Undertakings fail.

Forest sesame, crow-barley,

Men who have no cash,

Owning names but lacking substance,

Are accounted trash.

Beggars have, no doubt, their virtues,

Yet they do not flash:

As the world has need of sunlight,

Virtues ask for cash.

Beggars-born less keenly suffer

Than the men who crash

From a life of comfort to a

Deficit of cash.

Like the flabby breasts of widows,

Hopes and wishes rash

Helpless fall upon the bosom,

When there is no cash.

The sun that stuns the eyes that shun,

In vain he strains to see:

The light so bright is wrapped in night

By veils of poverty." [243}

With this broken-spirited lamentation I saw my own hoard of wealth converted into a pillow for my enemy, and at dawn I crept into my fortress - a failure.

Then my attendants retired and gossiped together. "Look here!" said they, "the fellow has no power to fill our bellies. Those who ride his back get nothing but buffets - from cats, for example. Why pay him reverence? For the proverb says:

A king from whom no bounties come,

But only buffets fall,

Had better be avoided, and

By soldiers first of all."

Such remarks I heard on the trail. And since, when I returned to the fortress, not one of my followers accompanied me (for I was penniless) I began to ponder deeply.

"A curse, a curse on a life of poverty! There is sound sense in the verse:

Even relatives are sure

Scornfully to treat the poor;

Pride is docked, and virtue's moon

Loses lustre, waning soon;

Friends that were, disgusted fly;

Sorrows breed and multiply;

Comes the imputation then

Of the sins of other men.

When man is crushed by poverty

And stricken down by fate,

His best of friends become his foes,

And tried affection, hate.


And again:

Empty is the childless home;

Hearts that lack a friendship sure;

Wide horizons, to the fool;

All is empty to the poor.

And once again:

His passions are entire; his name,

Keen wit, and speech are just the same;

The man's the same. No! See him change!

Cash fails. The life is out! Ah, strange!

"Yet what have folk like me to do with money? Folk whose final fate is such as this? Positively my best course, now that property is gone, is to withdraw to the forest. As the proverb says:

Pride builds a proper house;

Never be humble:

Spurn cars of heaven, where

Pride takes a tumble.

Failure may dog the step;

Pride stands erect,

Stoops not to widest wealth

Tainted, abject."

And I continued my reflections: "Yes, the curse of beggary is dreadful as death. For

Gutted by the forest fire,

Stands in sterile soil a tree,

Gnarled, and riddled by the worms -

Better that than beggar be.

And as for beggary:

It is the shrine of wretchedness,

The dwelling-place of tears, [245}

The thief of mind, the soil of doubts,

The treasury of fears,

Concreted meanness, home of woe,

And haughty honour's knell,

A form of death - to self-esteem

No different from hell.

And again:

A beggar is a man of shame,

Who bids farewell to honour's name;

From this, humiliations grow,

Then melancholy's gloomy woe;

But gloom with sadness dims the sense,

And sad men lack intelligence;

Now death is folly's certain fruit -

Thus, money's lack is evil's root.

And once again:

Thrust your hands between the jaws

Of an angry snake;

Slumber in the house of Death;

Poisoned liquor take;

Dash yourself to pieces down

Himalaya's side:

Do not feast on riches wrung

From a villain's pride.

To sum it up:

Feed your body to the flames,

Friend, if you are needy;

Do not cringe to beg a dole

From the selfish-greedy.

Better roam in forest wilds

With the beasts of prey

Than, by whimpering for gifts,

Baseness to betray. [246}

"This being the case, what possible course shall I adopt to keep alive? How about robbery? That too is damnable, for it means appropriating what belongs to others. As the verse puts it:

Better let your tongue be tied

Than to know that you have lied;

Better to be impotent

Than adulterously bent;

Better die than take delight

In the petty pricks of spite;

Better beg as monk than feel

That you live by what you steal.

Well, then, shall I live on charity? That, too, is damnable, my friends, damnable. That too is a second gate of death. As the saying goes:

Parasite, or exiled scamp,

Invalid, or homeless tramp -

Life is death for these. The best

Would be death. For death is rest.

"Then I must at any cost recover the very treasure that Wide-bottom has stolen. For I saw my moneybag converted into a pillow for those two villains. I must regain my property, and if I die in the attempt, it will be better than this. For

If cowards who see themselves despoiled

Too tamely feel the sting,

Their fathers in the world beyond

Will spurn their offering."

After reaching this conclusion, I went there at night and gnawed a hole in the bag after he had gone [247} to sleep. Thereupon that dreadful holy man awoke and struck me on the head with the frazzled bamboo. Yet somehow I escaped death - predestination, you see. As the old rhyme puts it:

What's duly his, a man receives;

This law not even God can break;

My heart is not surprised, nor grieves;

For what is mine, no strangers take.

"How was that?" asked the crow and the turtle. And Gold told the story of

Mister Duly

In a certain city lived a merchant named Ocean. His son picked up a book at a sale for a hundred rupees. In this book was the line:

What's duly his, a man receives.

Now Ocean saw it and asked his son: "My boy, what did you give for this book?"

"A hundred rupees," said the son. "Simpleton!" said Ocean, "if you pay a hundred rupees for a book with one line of poetry written in it, how do you calculate to make money? From this day you are not at home in my house." After this wigging, he showed him the door.

This melancholy rebuff drove the young man to another country far away, where he came to a city and stopped there. After some days a native asked him: "Where are you from, sir? What might your name be?" And he replied:

"What's duly his, a man receives." [248}

To a second inquirer he gave the same reply. Then on all who questioned him, he bestowed his stereotyped answer. This is how he came by his nickname of Mister Duly.

Now a princess named Moonlight, who was in the first flush of youth and beauty, stood one day with a girl friend, looking out over the city. At that spot a prince, extraordinarily handsome and charming, chanced to come - it was fate's doing - within her range of vision. The moment she saw him, she was smitten by the arrows of Love, and said to her friend: "Dear girl, you must make an effort to bring us together this very day."

So the friend went straight to him and said: "Moonlight sent me to you. She sends you this message: 'The sight of you has reduced me to the last extremity of love. If you do not hasten to me, I shall die, nothing less."

On hearing this, he said: "If I cannot avoid the trip, please tell me how to get into the house." And the friend said: "When night comes, you must climb up a stout strap that will be hanging from an upper story of the palace." And he replied: "If you have it all settled, I will do my part." With this understanding the girl returned to Moonlight.

But when night came, the prince thought it over:

"A Brahman-slayer, so they say,

Is he who tries to house

With teacher's child, or wife of friend,

Or royal servant's spouse. [049}

And again:

A deed that brings dishonour,

Whereby a man must fall,

That causes disadvantage,

Don't do it - that is all."

So after full reflection he did not go to her. But Mister Duly was roaming through the night and spied a strap hanging down the wall of a fine stucco house. Out of curiosity mingled with bravado he took hold and climbed.

Now the princess, being perfectly confident that he was the right man, treated him with high consideration, giving him a bath, a meal, a drink, fine garments, and the like. Then she went to bed with him, and her limbs thrilled with joy at touching him. But she said: "I fell in love with you at first sight, and have given you my person. I shall never have another husband, even mentally. Why don't you realize this and talk to me?" And he replied:

"What's duly his, a man receives."

When she heard this, her heart stopped beating, and she sent him down the strap in a hurry. So he made for a tumble-down temple and went to sleep. Presently a policeman who had an appointment with a woman of easy virtue arrived there and found him asleep. As the policeman wished to hush the matter up, he said: "Who are you?" and the other answered:

"What's duly his, a man receives." [250}

When he heard this, the policeman said: "This temple is deserted. Go and sleep in my bed." And he agreed, but made a blunder, lying down in the wrong bed. In that bed lay the policeman's daughter, a big girl named Naughty, beautiful and young. She had made a date with a man she loved, and when she saw Mister Duly, she thought: "Here is my sweetheart." So, her blunder due to the pitchy darkness of the night, she rose, gave herself in marriage by the ceremony used in heaven, then lay with him in bed, her lotus-eyes and lily-face blossoming. But she said: "Even yet you do not talk nicely with me. Why not?" And he replied:

"What's duly his, a man receives."

On hearing this, she thought: "This is what one gets for being careless." So she gave him a sorrowful scolding and sent him packing.

As he walked along a business street, there approached a bridegroom named Fine-Fame. He came from another district and marched with a great whanging of tom-toms. So Mister Duly joined the procession. Since the happy moment was near at hand, the bride, a merchant's daughter, was standing at the door of her father's house near the highway. She stood on a raised step under an awning provided for the occasion, and displayed her wedding finery.

At this moment an elephant reached the spot, running amuck. He had killed his driver, had got [251} beyond control, and the crowd was in a hubbub, everyone scared out of his wits. When the bridegroom's parade caught a glimpse of him, they ran - the bridegroom, too - and started for the horizon.

In this crisis Mister Duly perceived the girl, all alone, her eyes dancing with terror, and with the words: "Don't worry. I will save you," manfully reassured her, put his right arm around her, and with enormous sang-froid gave the elephant a cruel scolding. And the elephant - it was fate's doing - actually went away.

Presently Fine-Fame appeared with friends and relatives, too late for the wedding; for another man was holding his bride's hand. At the sight of his rival, he said: "Come, father-in-law! This is hardly respectable. You promised your daughter to me, then gave her to another man."

"Sir," said the father-in-law, "I was frightened by the elephant, and I ran too. I came back with you gentlemen, and do not know what has been going on."

Then he turned and questioned his daughter: "My darling girl, what you have been doing is scarcely the thing. Tell me what this business means."

And she replied: "This man saved me from deadly peril. So long as I live, no man but him shall hold my hand."

When the story got abroad, dawn had come. And as a great crowd gathered in the early morning, the princess heard the story of events and came to the spot. The policeman's daughter also, hearing what [252} passed from lip to lip, visited the place. And the king in turn, learning of the gathering of a great crowd, arrived in person, and said to Mister Duly: "Speak without apprehension. What sort of business is this?"

And Mister Duly said:

"What's duly his, a man receives."

Then the princess remembered, and she said:

"This law not even God can break."

Then the policeman's daughter said:

"My heart is not surprised, nor grieves."

And hearing all this, the merchant's daughter said:

"For what is mine, no strangers take."

Then the king promised immunity to one and all, arrived at the truth by piecing their narratives together, and ended by respectfully giving Mister Duly his own daughter, together with a thousand villages. Then he bethought himself that he had no son, so he anointed Mister Duly crown prince. And the crown prince, together with his family, lived happily; for means of enjoyment were provided in great variety.

"And that is why I say:

What's duly his, a man receives, . . .

and the rest of it." And Gold continued: "After these reflections, I recovered from my money-madness. For there is much wisdom in this:

Not rank, but character, is birth;

It is not eyes, but wits, that see; [253}

True learning it's, to cease from wrong;

Contentment is prosperity.

And again:

Yes, all prosperities are his,

Whose heart is filled with mirth:

The feet in leather sandals shod,

Travel a leather earth.

A hundred leagues is nothing to him

Whose vehicle is greed:

To clasp the wealth that fingers touch

Contentment has no need.

Since Vishnu, universal lord,

Through thee a dwarf was made,

manhood's solvent, Greed divine,

To thee be homage paid.

No feat is hard for thee, O Greed,

Dishonour's wedded dame,

Who, for the men of kindest heart,

Prepares draughts of shame.

What man should never bear, I bore;

I spoke and, speaking, lied;

I waited at the stranger's door:

O Greed, be satisfied!

And again:

I've drunk foul water; slept forlorn

On gathered bits of broken thorn;

I've lost my love, I've begged for alms,

Enduring heart- and belly-qualms;

I've crossed the sea; I've walked afar;

I've treasured half a shattered jar:

Of further labours is there need?

Quick, damn you! Give your orders, Greed!}

No poor man's evidence is heard,

Though logic link it word to word:

While wealthy babble passes muster

Though crammed with harshness, vice, and bluster.

The wealthy, though of meanest birth,

Are much respected on the earth:

The poor whose lineage is prized

Like clearest moonlight, are despised.

The wealthy are, however old,

Rejuvenated by their gold:

If money has departed, then

The youngest lads are aged men.

Since brother, son, and wife, and friend

Desert when cash is at an end,

Returning when the cash rolls in,

cash that is our next of kin.

"At the moment when, with such thoughts in my mind, I went to my quarters, our friend Swift came to me and suggested a journey hither. So here I am. I have come with him to visit you. Thus I have related to you the cause of my gloom.

"Well, there is this to be said:

The world - gods, elephants, and men,

Deer, devils, snakes -

Before the noonday hour is spent,

Its dinner takes.

When hour and appetite arrive,

There should suffice

For world-wide conqueror or slave

A bowl of rice. [255}

For this, what man of sense would do

Base deeds perverse,

Whose consequences drag him down

From bad to worse?"

When he had listened to this, Slow began to offer consolation. "My dear fellow," said he, "you must not lose heart at leaving your country. Intelligent as you are, why feel disturbed without occasion? Consider the saying:

The merely learnèd is a fool;

The wise man uses action's tool:

For no remembered drug can cure

The sick by name alone, it's sure.

To brave and wise what land is strange,

Or native? Whatever change

Befall, he makes the land his own

By strength of valiant arm alone:

The lion's whim is jungle law

By strength of tooth and tail and claw;

He slaughters elephants for food,

And slakes his servants' thirst with blood.

"Therefore, my dear fellow, we must always be energetic. Where will money feel at home, or pleasures? You know the saying:

As frogs will find a drinking-hole,

Or birds a brimming lake,

So friends and money seek a man

Whose vigour does not break.

From another point of view:

The goddess Fortune seeks as home

The brave and friendly man, [256}

The grateful, righteous soul who does

Each moment what he can,

Who regulates a sturdy life

Upon an active plan.

Or, put it this way:

The brave, wise, hopeful, and persistent,

From tricks, freaks, meanness equidistant -

If such there be,

And Fortune flee,

The joke on Fortune falls, insistent.

While, on the other hand:

If man be fatalist and slacker,

Irresolute and sang-froid lacker,

Him Fortune - as a bouncing miss

Her aged lover - hates to kiss.

Abysmal learning does not aid

To virtue those who are afraid:

As men with lamps no sooner find

Lost objects, if those men are blind.

The prince becomes a beggar;

By weak are slayers slain;

The beggar ceases begging;

When fate revolves again.

"Nor must you, in view of the aphorism,

Since teeth and nails and men and hair,

If out of place, are ugly there

draw the coward's conclusion:

Let no man leave his native place.

"For to the competent there is no distinction between native and foreign land. You must have heard the saying: [257}

Brave, learnèd, fair,

Wherever they roam,

Without delay

Are quite at home.

The shrewdly valiant on the earth

Will always master money's worth;

Not those of godlike scholarship -

It's certain - if they lose their grip.

"Today, no doubt, your purse is light. For all that, you are not in the position of the commonplace fellow, for you have sense and vigour. And the proverb says:

Let sturdy resolution guide,

And poor men touch the peak of pride;

Let money fold in its embrace

The mean, they sink to lowly place:

The lion's majesty derives

From nature, rich because he strives

To crown his feats with nobler feats.

What golden-collared dog competes?

And again:

Some men compacted of self-rigour

With valour, enterprise, and vigour

Indifferently view the muddle

Of ocean and the petty puddle;

As at some wretched ant-hill, frown

At Himalaya's highest crown:

To these, not those who wait and see,

Comes Fortune, tripping eagerly.

And once more:

Mount Meru is not very high,

Hell is not very low, [258}

The sea not shoreless, if a man

Abounding vigour show.

For, after all:

Why, wealthy, puff with pride?

Why, poor, in gloom subside?

Since, like a stricken ball,

Men's fortunes rise and fall.

In any case, remember that youth and wealth are unstable as water-bubbles. As the saying goes:

With shadows of the passing cloud,

New grain, and knavish friends,

With women's love, and youth, and wealth,

Enjoyment quickly ends.

This being so, if an intelligent man catches slippery money, let him make it fruitful, by giving it away or enjoying it. As the proverb tells us:

The coin that cost a hundred toils,

That men are wont to cherish

Beyond their life, will, if it be

Not given to others, perish.

And again:

Bestow, or use your wealth for pleasure;

If not, you hoard another's treasure:

As in your home, your lovely girl

Awaits a stranger - his dear pearl.

And once again:

The miser for another hoards

His bags of needless money:

The bees laboriously pack,

But others taste the honey. [259}

In any event, fate has the last word. As the proverb puts it:

In weapon-bristling battle or at home,

In flaming fire, wild cave, or monstrous sea,

Among thanatophidian fangs elate,

The to-be is, is not the not-to-be.

Now you are healthy and enjoy peace of mind. This is the supreme possession. As the saying goes:

The lord of seven continents,

Beset by crawling greed,

Is but a beggar; he who lives

Content, is rich indeed.

Besides, on this earth

No treasure equals charity;

Content is perfect wealth;

No gem compares with character;

No wish fulfilled, with health.

Nor must you think: 'How can I survive, having lost my possessions?' For money passes away, man's character abides. There is a proverb to fit the case:

The noble man, indeed, may fall

To earth - like an elastic ball;

The coward who drops is down to stay,

Is flattened like a ball of clay.

But why bore you? Here is the nub of duty. Certain men are born to enjoy the pleasures that money brings, certain others are born money's guardians. There is a verse about it:

Your wealth will flee,

If fate decree, [260}

Though it was fairly earned:

So silly Soft,

When perched aloft

In that great forest, learned."

"How was that?" asked Gold. And Slow told the story of the weaver Soft (next page).


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