How far is it plausible that Jesus of the four gospels was an obsessive-compulsive maniac, a crank? Diagnostic criteria are supplied, and a confirmation that he meets an ample amount of the criteria for being diagnosed as compulsive obsessive, and thus in need of being taken care of.
According to the DSM-5, the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an Anxiety Disorder marked by complaints of persistent or repetitive thoughts (obsessions) or conducts (compulsions). The diagnostic criteria are different from those of the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). OCD symptoms are preferably ranked - as "milder" and "quite strong".
Someone with an OCD feels compelled to continue despite an awareness that the thoughts or conducts may be excessive or inappropriate, and feels distress if they stop them. (This is in contrast to "addictive" conducts which produce pleasure or gratification.)
James Morrison Adds
Dr James Morrison (2014) offers a guide to the Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders. He writes: "Patients who are preoccupied with obsessional ideas or certain repetitive behaviors may qualify for the disorders listed here. . . .
Obsessive–compulsive disorder. These patients are bothered by repeated thoughts or behaviors that appear senseless, even to them (Morrison 2014:199) and "Repeated thoughts can . . . be compulsions, if their purpose is to reduce the obsessional anxiety" [!] (Op.cit, 204).
Obsessions and compulsions usually result in anxiety and dread that does not seem rational. Four major symptom patterns have features that sometimes overlap. Three features: (1) A fear of contamination that leads to excessive handwashing is the most common of them; (2) Doubts that go along with excessive checking; (3) Obsessions and compulsions slow some so that it takes them hours just to finish breakfast or other daily routines. (Op.cit., p. 200)
Some believe that parts of their bodies are misshapen or ugly (Op.cit., p. 204-07).
Some hoard so many objects (perhaps of no value) that they interfere with life and living (Op.cit., 207-10).
Some keep pulling hair from various parts of the body (hair-pulling disorder) (Op.cit., p. 210-12)
Some persistently pick at their skin and thereby traumatise it (Op.cit.,p. 212-14).
Obsessions and compulsions may be caused by various medical conditions (Op.cit., p. 214).
Various substances can lead to obsessive–compulsive symptoms too, as an own classify-group. (p. 215-16).
Also, there are other specified or unspecified obsessive–compulsive and related disorder. Categories like the ones above are used to label (read: code) disorders. There are anxiety symptoms that do not fit neatly into any of the above groups too. (p. 216).
No to betrayals and hate
Many undiagnosed psychopaths may have started sects. There are up to 5000 cults in the United States (Singer 2003:xvii), and methods of diagnosing psychopathy are notoriously imprecise. Given that, the risk of saying that several cults were started by psychopaths, is not so great, since the American Psychiatric Association (APA) estimates that about two percent of the US population are psychopaths. That is more or less guesswork. However, if one percent of the US cult founders were psychopaths, it would make fifty of them. "Which are those cults?" may be another question. Typically, nobody gets out of the worst cults. Massacres see to that. Few escape from the next worst, and many may escape from the cults further down the list, and perhaps seek another cult - the risk is there.
Christianity itself started as a very tense, conflict-laden sect within Judaism. Its originator - as described in the later-written gospels - reveals cardinal marks of a psychopath - It spells "of deformed or deranged id and id-development" to a psychoanalyst. He (not a good psychoanalyst) violates normal human rights, allows you to be "handed over to be persecuted and put to death, and . . . hated" - giving conditions so bad that many "will betray and hate each other" and deceivers will find a "market". (Matthew 24:9-11) .Jesus came to bring division on earth, not peace, he says. (Luke 12:51 etc.). And so on - many good signs of several capital mental disorders. However, and once again:
There is no simple definition of mental disorder that is universally satisfactory. This is partly because mental states or behaviour that are viewed as abnormal or pathological in one culture may be regarded as normal or acceptable in another, and in any case it is difficult to draw a line clearly demarcating healthy from pathological mental functioning. [EB, sv. "mental disorder"]
Does a saviour breed "normal and acceptable" division? Think twice.
Estrangements abound in Christianity
Hallmarks of mental troubles can be useful, and are much used. A source of error lies in the large society with its great estrangements, nervous troubles, and bad loomwork (infiltration of influences, networks), so to speak. Besides, many mental illnesses may be induced by relationships with mates, family members, and increasing alienation. [EB, sv. "Laing, R. D.]
"Jesus and other cult founders breed confusion"
Drop going from bad to worse
Persons who initially suffer from such as insecurity and lack of social aplomb may be set on a track of no return, and go from a little bad to worse. And Jesus who maintains that "all will hate you", "be not of the world" and so on, may look like a safe haven to screw-ups. Many sect leaders are much admired by horseplay, it seems fair to say.
You may do well to stay away from insane or rabid nfluence
In the teachings of Jesus there are many elements that suit madcaps in sects and cults, such as acceptance of slavery. Jesus vouches for it by embracing the law of Moses completely, In that law are regulations of taking, keeping and handling slaves (Matthew 5:17-19). This means Jesus influences brutal arrogance (slave-holding) and many sayings of his are on their wavelengths, so to speak. Many have got mad by harsh, "Christian" influence, a mask over wicked tyranny rather often. Paul accepts slavery too, with one hand. With the other he does not. (see Titus).
Have enough own control
Jesus and other cult founders breed confusion, and seem to thrive on it too, in addition to coercion, internal control, intrigues, pressures and lies. Paramahansa Yogananda (1893-1952) claims to be in liaison with Jesus. Getting away from cults of psychopaths is fit, and not to enter in the first place is even more laudable. But in church that is state-governed as in Norway, it is not easy to stay clean.
See how things were
We do not ignore the obvious: the gospel's Jesus takes to chimerical visions of the end of time - which did not come when the apostles said, even though they were supposed to have the right spirit. Jesus wanted followers to obey his commands, but all the apostles and the Holy Ghost found that unfit, and dispensed with them [Acts 15; 21:25]. After giving the subject some thought, we think the later-added last part of Matthew is made up, since it does not rhyme with what all the apostles and the Holy Ghost carried through for Gentile Christians. See how they followed Jesus: For non-Jewish followers they dispensed with all he said, according to Acts 15 and Acts 21:25. - just like that. Most of his sayings were meant for Jews only. If he fought such an illness, it did not help a lot. For "Jews only" proved him wrong: they had him executed. They could not have been his sheep, despite all he had said to the contrary earlier [John 10:14; 10:26-27].
Traditional feigning: eating blood food and saying "I have not sinned"
In the end he asked Peter - not Paul - to take care of his sheep. [John 21:16] And as we have been into, Peter and all the other apostles - and the Holy Ghost - dispensed with practically everything Jesus had commanded Jewish followers. Good for you. Now four things are required of Gentile followers, the tradition's Christians, then. No to eating blood food is one of the four items on the list. Black pudding is blood food, and several kinds of Brat,Wurz, and hamburgers, containing blood proteins. And the Mosaic Law is dead too [Acts 15; 21_25].
A hopeless case for Elias
Jesus claimed: "To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. But I tell you, Elijah has already come [Matthew 17:11-12]." If he had come and restored things, why didn't he do any of it? Jesus said in effect, "He who has come, will come." It does not make sense at all.
He who sacrifices healthy persons, oversteps
He who sacrifices healthy persons, oversteps. Criminal law and mental institutions apply to such ones. God the Father is just that kind, and Jesus say they are one and the same.
Big shots and their adultery
Jesus also says those who pretend to be his followers are hypocrites. He explicitly condemns religious hypocrites, but not adulterers. Still, Acts 15 requires us not to commit adultery, in contrast to many big shots of the Bible. Abraham had children with his half-sister Sara. The Law says it is forbidden, and the punishment is not kind, but they "did it" long before that law was written. The sons of Jacob - the heads of the twelve tribes of Israel, broke into their old father's harem one day and pleased themselves. Whether they pleased women there, is left unsaid. It was a horrible shame to their old father. King David whored with Batsheba and had her husband killed, and is greatly admired in many Christian circles too. He was not stoned to death, for he was the top dog.
There are alternatives to selling all you own and say ritually you are sick
As mentioned, even though Jesus condemns hypocrisy, it is blood food like black pudding and wrangled poultry (and other choked animals, and adultery) that all the apostles and the Holy Spirit mark off as no-no and unwise. Jesus says he will not recognise those [Jews] who call him Lord, Lord without doing what he says. He tells [Jewish] followers to sell all they own and says they are sick (!). Quote: "It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. But go and learn what this means: "I desire mercy, not sacrifice." "For I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners." [Matthew 9:12-13]"
He also say he is a doctor, and that healthy ones do not need him. Better be on the safe side: stay healthy and keep a sound mind with a working moral too.
Be not Made an Unlucky Sheep through the Fraud or Incompetence of Others
Whipping and frauds
It may be the fraud of top dogs and influential people in general that tends to do the most harm. As Adolf Hitler says in Mein Kampf: "The broad mass of a nation . . . will more easily fall victim to a big lie than to a small one." That might well happen. (Ratcliffe 2000:223)
Fraud is not innocent and may lead into insanity by steps. What is being insane? It is not being well and at ease. Devil or lunatic, where is the difference? Whipping of others - minds are "whipped" by dogmatism too - is a means to ensure conformity. Tyrannical people may be encountered in sects and cults. Some are top dogs; most are under-dogs. Being democratic is no help among people with perverted id (libido). If you don't think so, share your ideas.
Perversions like "Let the dead bury their dead"
The belief that the dead are to bury their dead is not a sign of soundness. After thirty years or more in good soil there is nothing left of the corpse, so how could they bury anyone? In the case of skeletons without muscles and sinews left, how can they move and work like the damned pirates in the film "Pirates of the Caribbean"? [Matthew 8:22]
Butchering innocents, at the core of the faith
Christian followers are really ill, as they enter a "contract" where they are supposed to find comfort and hope in vicarious sacrifices - in butchering of innocents. Those unlucky sheep. Vicarious sacrifice or scapegoating is not healthy.
Scapegoating is not dead yet
A biblical scapegoat is a goat that was symbolically burdened with the sins of the Jewish people and sent into the wilderness in the ceremony for Yom Kippur. A scapegoat has come to mean any group or individual that innocently bears the blame of others, or who "bears the blame for others", or "one that is the object of irrational hostility." Both Biblical and Greek scapegoating should ensure protection from ill fortune for another year. Christianity is marked by this unsound "justification hope" through its belief that Jesus Christ was a God-man who died for the sins of all mankind, even when some goats would have been enough, according to the Bible. Fascists blamed their countries' problems on scapegoats. Jews were among the groups that were demonised. Fascists thought there were "judeo-masonic-bolshevik" conspiracies, and that depriving these demons of their power and influence would cause major problems to go away. [Merriam-Webster, EB, sv. "scapegoat", "fascism"] In psychology scapegoating is tied in with neuroticism. In a good enough society vicarious scapegoating is to be condemned as corrupt.
Insanity: Towards a General Understanding
What insanity could be:
There are textbooks on the subject, and helpful symptom lists.
The American Psychiatric Association publishes a diagnostic and statistic manual of mental disorders. In its third edition, commonly known as DSM-III-R, we have the finest agreed-on criteria so far. You find all of them below. Refrain from using the criteria to harm people.
Is nasty provocation a reliable part of a good road test?
Jesus seems to know about being tested. He fasted for forty days in the desert, it says, and was tested by the devil there. He was tested in a garden before he was nailed on a cross - and "Massa Jesus" is now just about to be road tested on the basis of writings about him. They are not accurate, for they were written down long after he was gone, so he has neither approved of the gospels or edited them. And the gospels diverge widely on important issues, so the material to judge Jesus by, is far from ideal: it was just written by guys who allegedly had the Holy Ghost of Truth . . . and the results do not stand critical textual tests from our time.
If you doubt the practice of getting to know another by his or her outpourings, that is OK. In 1944 the Swiss psychiatrist Ludwig Binswanger wrote a whole book on a lonely women he had not met, The Case of Ellen West. He analysed her from her diary outpourings, without ever having met her. Erik H. Erikson did about the same with Martin Luther; he has written a book about him. "We will follow Luther through the crisis of his youth, . . . to the first manifestation of his originality . . . I could have avoided those methodological uncertainties and impurities which will undoubtedly occur . . . we may have to risk that bit of impurity." (1962:15-16)
Testing unmet and little-known guys thus has famous exponents. But that is not the same as saying the method is ideal. Far from it. The danger is to "judge a book by its cover", to judge a diary writer by her diary outputs. There is a difference between the two. There is obviously much more to a writer than his writing, and it should be taken into account as well. By the way, to digress a little, the American psychologist Carl R. Rogers felt angry with how Ellen was treated, and suggested she would not have killed herself if she had been able to be treated by him, rather than being driven into isolation and estrangement. (Rogers 1995:164-79)
In the case of Jesus we do not have letters and diary notes by him, only four gospels and letters that tell this illegitimate child felt greatly misunderstood, lonely and forsaken on a cross, and often put words in the mouth of God, so to speak. The gospel writers were said to have the Holy Spirit of Truth, who Jesus commissioned to remind of all he said. The versions differ anyway even after they were edited. And that is how we have his teachings.
In testing mental sides of others, we have to decide how valid the test can be. Validity is "traditionally defined as the degree to which a test actually measures whatever it purports to measure." How reliable the test is, is another important facet. "A test is reliable to the extent that it measures consistently", it is pointed out. [EB, sv. "psychological testing"]
Here we study "the Massa" in the light of a central, diagnostic test from The American Psychiatric Association. Below are quotations from the 3rd edition, commonly known as DSM-III-R, with added comments. Perhaps you should be told in advance that diagnosing mental disorders and abilities is not always as clear-cut as in this case. And there are many other "check lists of mental disorders and the like to run through as well. But this little will do.
Dr. Tollak B. Sirnes has written books about mental health and psychopaths. They have no normal sense of shame. They lie shamelessly and disregard others, their property, their lives, their heart feelings, and what they own. They are most often beyond the reach of help, but are good at feigning, and very often know how to play on the kindness and goodness of others to the end of giving them hell. The psychopaths may not be healed, and are very good at deceiving others for long. Therefore, the professor says, it is a mistake to try to help such cases, to stick to it with them, to forgive and get abused and get worsened conditions. We do well to try and avoid the "God-ilk", thus.
Now we set out to diagnose someone by way of a diagnostic test. The personality disorder that is laid bare, is thought to be one of the mild ones, and many may improve from this one. It is psychopaths that are the dangerous loonies. They can lie to others, cause slaughter on their victims, their homes, and children, as the case may be. (Sirnes 1968)
Watch out for Jesus and his ilk. He could be termed a cold-blooded psycho too. In fact, he was called insane and possessed and executed among "other criminals".
So far so good, thought "all the Jews" who had preferred a robber to him at the time.
"There are other mental illnesses to judge him by too"
We will not give you details and references from the scripture in the list. Find them yourself. Suffice to say here that Jesus was called insane, blasphemous and demon-possessed and publicly executed as a criminal against contemporary law.
As part of a Great Tyrant Scheme, did he stand up as a whipper of people in the Roman Empire after he had served his turn as a "whipping boy"? The fact is that four millions of them were killed in Colosseum alone, and there were many other theatres in the empire around the Mediterranean Ocean.
The dictating Jesus has not finished yet, the believers say. He will come and "whip more, more, and even better" is the credo of most believers. Their faith is that "the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky." [Matthew 24:30] Interestingly, the Second Coming is a time for mourning. Do not look forward to being hated either.
Further, the gospels contain very many hints that he had a marked obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, but that is not all of it. There are other mental illnesses to judge him by too, just as the mind doctors in Norway, Denmark and Sweden do. Banding and branding with Jesus must be bad to the degree that "birds of a feather (and also ill sheep) flock together".
When it comes to mental disorders and derangements, things are seldom clear-cut. What an expert has to do, is to base his wary analysis on quite typical conduct more than stray sayings, of course. Recurrent actions do speak louder than words. As for words, often-repeated words should carry more weight than stray ones. There could be exceptions to that, though. The Good Doctor uses the hallmarks of the checklist and counts hits as he sees them. If he is very qualified, he masters to weigh at least some of the parameters too. If not, the rough estimate is that over five markings on the list seem to "make Jesus qualified" as a psychopathic ass - inflicting torture on innocents and the like. When the Jesus you hear of scores on at least five points of the list, beware.
The Jews that condemned him to death and rather would have a highwayman saved, might have said he suffered from a compulsive mental disorder and put him in an asylum back then, but there were not qualified diagnostics and nurses around, it may be said with much assurance.
Here the main point is that if you want to diagnose him and others better, more safely and properly, try to weigh the different scores on the measurement scale - in addition to and often over and above a "yes!" to that "he wanted "be ye perfect as his Father (who was like himself, he says) and inflexible enough to get himself crucified". That is a main criterion, the heading, so to speak for this kind of disorder. Jesus looks greatly marked by submission harshness, excessive and in part morbid morality (cut off your hand if it offends you mentally and such things); and strong wants and demands for control of those around him.
"Why do you call me good?" he keeps asking through the gospel . . . [Mark 10:18]
Watch out for projections
Mind heartfelt feelings in filling in your scores of Jesus. Experience counts a lot. But watch out for the snag of having given yourself away, that is, of having projected good sides to your own id onto Jesus. You think he is good and great, because you project natural id that was reserved for parent figures too, onto a stranger who looks like a maniac, but who is hailed by agreements contrary to written evidence.
Projecting one's id away seems to be very, very common, and a reason why most churches prefer to baptise and indoctrinate children from they are infants, contrary to gospel practice as to baptism and further. Baptism of children was introduced on a large scale during the reign of Charlemagne, from the early 800s, roughly. There is nothing good to it. It has served as a basis for indoctrination and tyranny. It is not fair.
Some Typical Features
Authoritarian megalomaniac takes
It might take a psychometrist from another culture than a Jesus-submissive one to assess that he scores on 7 out of 9 clues, and finalises the issue in officially OK ways.
However, the seeming "I am God" claimant (Jesus, in this case) has reached the status of God - held up by a believing (so taught) public majority in many folks, and being hated by the public is something the doctor may shy away from.
So was Jesus one more megalomaniac who thought highly about himself and wanted others do to it too? How can you find out? Authoritarian figures and especially tyrants - and a lot of those who play their "game" as conform underdogs - may be bullies. And many a bully is a coward within, it is held by many. Accordingly, fair and bright insiders could know best "where the shoe pinches". Be open to that possibility, at least. You may not get exactly the same score as an expert "from out of town", but the gospel facts add up to a sinister sketch of a megalomaniac of inflexible, dogmatic mind, or a compulsive personality disorder. He "gambled and lost". Neighbouring peoples were to pay the price of Jesus afterwards. For if he had really atoned for the sins of all, as some so fondly think, why on earth the millions of martyrs?
And besides, a couple of goats were all that was necessary the year Jesus died, and each year since, we can gather - the Good Old Bible says it. The vicarious sacrifice of a goat or two was specified and said to be a lasting ordinance. So why did it disappear? And why did no one around Jesus whisper these tidings in his ear before, during and after he struggled to ready himself to be sacrificed on Golgotha? "This is to be a lasting ordinance for you: Atonement is to be made once a year for all the sins of the Israelites." [Leviticus 16, 16:34] It stands as one more of those God-dictated, "lasting ordinances", like tent rituals. Compare Exod 27:21, 28:43, 29:9, 30:21, Deut 30:16-17; 31:29, etc.]
Cries for impoverishment
His salvation may seem like a trick from the book of a crook. One more reason to suspect that is that it does not contain the repeated promise of getting wealth as a sign of God's blessing and approval. Wealth (mammon) is really a good thing in a life. It fits upright, sensible people. Mark the demands of impoverishments by Jesus run contrary to God's blessings, then. One of them: "I will keep my covenant with you. You will still be eating last year's harvest when you will have to move it out to make room for the new [Lev 26:9-10]."
Chew on this one too: "This is a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live: You must not eat any fat or any blood.'" [Lev 3:17, emphasis added]
Tips for performing the test (above)
When using the items of a test like the one above, what we are doing is to allot scores to someone. Ideas and sentiments that were scattered, can be unified by such an approach, to the end that we get a much better phenomenological grasp on things that are ill defined or difficult to get to grips with at first. Feel free to divide your responses a little bit better than yes-no if you please. This makes weighing the scores much more sensible, and not much more difficult. It can be fun too.
Five different responses, such as "Yes indeed! Yes. Neutral or perhaps. No. Blatant no!" may do the work. Give them the numbers 5-4-3-2-1 and add up. This interesting practice is basically subjective. But when several persons apply this Likert scale to the road test of Jesus, the end result is more inter-subjectivity, which can be helpful. Much depends on
People differ; allow for it and see to sound precautions in time.
Branding by unqualified people does amount to Sachlichkeit in this scenario. Laypersons should refrain from labelling one another satanic and blasphemous and insane - Jesus should have learnt that too. He was treated as it in his day, and hanged on a cross till he died.
It is only wisdom (sensible) to stay carefully away from someone you suspect to be a psychopath after living among his or her adherents and faking followers and studying that one for years.
Look into the diagnostic skeleton first
Before you diagnose someone, beware of possible complications that are or can become involved. [Link]
For different cultures it may be necessary to develop specific sets of criteria as to social norms, rules and obligations. For diagnosing most of the subtypes listed below, clear evidence is usually required of the presence of at least three of the traits or behaviours given. [Source: American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., 1994]
Fifteen percent of the US population suffers from mental illness. Only one-third of people with severe mental illness are ever treated. More than two-thirds are never treated. Therapists often disagree about diagnoses. The same individual may get a different diagnosis depending on which therapist he/she sees, and therapists do not use any internationally accepted, standardized way of making a diagnosis.
There is an internationally accepted standard for psychiatric diagnosis. It is called the European ICD-10 system. This diagnostic system (and its twin, the "DSM-IV" (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Revision, by the American Psychiatric Association) has proven validity and reliability. All psychiatric research now is based on this diagnostic system. Hence, it is possible to decrease the problem of diagnostic confusion.
Most mentally ill persons deny they are ill, do not accept that they are ill. Nor should healthy ones accept being wrongly labelled and wrongly diagnosed.
A confidential computerised record could help, a private diary, or self-diagnosis. In this case we have the four gospels and the set of diagnostic criteria to help us. [Link]
How paranoid was Jesus toward the end?
There is some biblical stories and saying in sprawling accounts from the last days of Jesus and his "executive functioning" then. To what degree will a modern doctor find paranoia in "God and God's Son" at that time - forsaken by the Father but one with him - maintaining to be God himself otherwise? Outcomes depend on both the criteria used, how biblical evidence is interpreted, and what weight the diagnostician might prefer to give the most salient points.
The paranoid personality disorder is marked by at least 3 of the traits in a list. See for yourself; learn to weigh evidence. [Link]. First, give him a fair try.
Initial Try - Overview
A 1. Obsessions
1. Inappropriate thoughts of self-maiming, self-impoverishments and so on. - YES
2. Excessive worries not pertaining to real life: Doomsday that did not come as the gospel says it would: YES
A 2. Compulsions
1. Repetitive conducts. Going up to Jerusalem to get into trouble. Ordering others about fervently, and introducing stiff rules for others to follow. YES
2. Aiming at preventing something dreaded. He wanted to prevent some doom of God over Israel and Jerusalem by getting sacrificed after his original mission was over. He was not realistic in the least. A couple of goats could have replaced him each year, his "Daddy's Law" said, and Jesus said it was to be valid. [Lev. 16] - YES, DEFINITELY
BExcessive and unreasonable commands to his disciples made most of them drop him, the gospels say. Add self-maiming, self-impoverishing commands and silly non-resistance to evil and assault and being plundered to the list. YES, OBVIOUSLY.
CTime-consuming compulsions estranged him from his family and functioning at large. YES, DEFINITELY.
EThe person does not recognize that the obsessions and compulsions are excessive or unreasonable, etc.. History proved him wrong about the end of the world soon, his mission of saving Jews was clearly out of line with how Jehovah had instituted his religion, where a couple of goats were all that was needed for yearly atonement in such a culture, and so on. YES.
IN SUMAbove are seven main points to confirm that Jesus had an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (and so on), and just three such points would suffice to maintain he had crossed the line -
What to do with icy cold, not funny guys to be around? Can they help your natural Child to thrive, and your Adult to cope full well? Are they first-class parents to be with? Robert de Board says something in Counselling for Toads: "Let's try thinking about this problem . . . These ideas are both important and difficult." (de Board 1997:73, 114)
APA (American Psychiatric Association). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. (DSM-5). London: APA, 2013.
de Board, Robert. Counselling for Toads: A Psychological Adventure. London: Routledge, 1997.
EB: Encyclopaedia Britannica: the same as Britannica Online.
Erikson, Erik H. Young Man Luther: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History. New York: Norton 1962.
May, Rollo, ed. Eksistensiell psykologi. Oslo: Gyldendal, 1971. (Existential Psychology, New York: Random House, 1961).
Morrison, James. DSM-5 Made Easy: The Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis. New York: The Guilford Press, 2014.
Ratcliffe, Susan, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of Thematic Quotations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Rogers, Carl R.. A Way of Being. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1995: 164-79
Singer, Margaret Thaler. Cults in Our Midst: The Continuing Fight Against Their Hidden Menace. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.
Sirnes, Tollak. - at vi skal elske hverandre (- that we shall love each other). Oslo: Gyldendal, 1968.
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