There is a medieval Rubaiyat ragbag of old quatrains (Saintsbury), and another, different Rubaiyat by an English author. Get a firm foundation before you erect a building, so that it will not crack greatly and fall. Yogananda tries to explain the Medieval Persian poem Rubaiyat by commenting on Edward FitzGerald's first Rubaiyat version from 1859, saying it catches the Medieval Persian Omar Khayyam's original intent. If so, it would be remarkable for many reasons.
The English scholar George Saintsbury (1845–1933) has called the old, Persian Rubaiyat poems a ragbag of old quatrains. They are attributed to Omar Khayyam. In the following, several verses of the first Fitzgerald version are put next to his fifth version, and works by Whinfield, Graves-Shah and still others are given next, so we can compare them a bit and estimate whether they share any common ground, verse by verse.
A sample of eleven stanzas is presented. After each of the stanzas are Yogananda thoughts according to an SRF editor who has polished many of his first comments. One question: How far are the key images used in Yogananda's purport substantiated by translations? See for yourself, that is easily done. Violet-coloured Yogananda-ideas below seem unsupported by and large. There is a good chance they are made up by Yogananda.
FitzGerald's First Verse
FitzGeralds' 1st ed.Awake! for Morning in the Bowl of Night
Has flung the Stone that puts the Stars to Flight:
And Lo! the Hunter of the East has caught
The Sultán's Turret in a Noose of Light.
FitzGerald's 5th ed.Wake! For the Sun, who scatter'd into flight
The Stars before him from the Field of Night,
Drives Night along with them from Heav'n, and strikes
The Sultán's Turret with a Shaft of Light.
Graves and ShahWhile Dawn, Day's herald straddling the whole sky,
Offers the drowsy world a toast 'To Wine',
The Sun spills early gold on city roofs
Day's regal Host, replenishing his jug.
Whinfield, v. 233The sun doth smite the roofs with Orient ray
And, Khosrau like, his wine-red sheen display;
Arise, and drink! the herald of the dawn
Uplifts his voice, and cries, "Oh, drink to-day!"
Bare Bones - Verse 1The day breaks.
Have some wine.
The violet sentences in the following lack back-up from the Graves-Shah translation. In my added remarks, Lacking means "lacking in the Graves-Shah translation at least." There are other valuable versions of the text to take into account too. Now, Yogananda "comments" on phrases that are not found in any real translation of Omar, but only in FitzGerald's free creation, are unsourced. Yogananda's use of FitzGerald words and imagery to interpret what an obscure writer, Omar Khayyam, meant by words "that are not there" in any original, violates good work odiously. Reading Khayyam meanings into Fitzgerald-made stuff, is far from good. So is wilful cheating.
Yogananda Glossary, verse 1
Lacking: Bowl of night, interpreted by the guru as "darkness of ignorance". That interpretation stands on his feet. We find no such mention in the Graves-Shah translation.
In fact, there is no mentioning of night and darkness and bowl in a translation of Omar Khayyam's first verse, and therefore no reason to bring in Yogananda clichés about "darkness of ignorance" either. As you may glimpse below, Yogananda ends up with a cliché-ridden collection of phrases. If that seems good enough for you, you lose much more favorable ways of handling old and ambiguous poetry.
Lacking: Stone of spiritual discipline. And Yogananda interprets the 'Fitz stone' as 'spiritual discipline' at random it seems. Enjoy a little discussion around it here: [◦Link].
Lacking: Stars "the attractive twinkling of material desires". A Fitz image is made into another random Yoganandic metaphor, seemingly. It is not good enough.
Lacking: Hunter of the East somewhat arbitrarily taken to mean "Eastern wisdom, a mighty slayer of delusion" where 'the Sun' would suffice - and here is where propaganda sets in to some, sadly enough.
Sultan's turret - Yogananda's "the sovereign soul" - is not in the Graves-Shah translation, which has "city roofs". Whinfield has "the roofs".
Noose of light becomes "shaft of light" in later FitzGerald editions. Instead of Yogananda's quite elaborate "The divine illumination of wisdom, which destroys the captive
darkness surrounding the soul" - what is talked of is after all early morning sunshine.
SPIRITUAL INTERPRETATION BY YOGANANDA
The inner Silence sings:
The yogi puts rather much into a verse of FitzGerald's making, saying he sees what Omar meant by not writing anything of the sort. And yes, it is awfully guru-embarrassing.
FitzGerald's later editions do not speak of "bowl of night", "flung the stone", "hunter of the East". "The sultan's turret" is intact in the five editions, though. Others translate the original into ""roofs" or city roofs", as you can see.
The Graves-Shah verse involves a hailing of the dawn and sunlight in a direct and simple way.
And Whinfield's take is in short: "A new morning. Arise, and drink! Oh, drink today!".
How sensible is it to interpret "drink" spiritually? Opinions differ, as mentioned in the introduction. Should we adjust to what Yogananda puts into FitzGerald's verse? Among Yogananda's key ideas are: Eastern wisdom, darkness of ignorance, spiritual discipline, soul, divine illumination. The fact that he elaborates on these pivotal concepts does not make them appear in any original text, and someone has to tell it so as to put things straight.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION BY YOGANANDA
Most people, though apparently awake, are really asleep in delusion. [That is not the main issue. - TK] Pursued by the compelling commands of their hounding habits, they have not yet been awakened by [sunlight - TK] wisdom to walk its pleasant pathways. Where life is in danger for lack of watchfulness, it is not safe to sleep. So it is unwise to slumber in the dark doorways of evil habits, which invite the danger of possible death to wisdom and true happiness.
Destroy false pride. [Unfounded - TK] Awaken the soul [yourself] and remain ever wakeful, striving each day to be different and better in all ways. Your soul was not meant to be a prisoner of passion, sleeping behind bars of ignorance. Jerk yourself from sloth; race forward with progressive activities, and catch success in the net of soul creativity.
No substantial basis for most of Yogananda's elaborate oration is found. And what does that suggest?
Yogananda (or should we say SRF or Yogananda-SRF) jerks some well established ideas over an adaptation of a Medieval poem. Actually, these essentially Hindu ideas carry much of his commentary. But how many of the Yoganandic "key symbols" in the poem are missing in a Rubaiyat translation!
Yogananda source: Wm 3-4.
To add to this a little
Kriyananda studied the 1937–1944 instalment version of Yogananda's Rubaiyat commentary in the magazine Inner Culture. It is a less worked up version than two later-published books, and is also called the "original commentary" stenographed and edited by a Yogananda staff. Perhaps not his own verbatim words, but still: closer to them than other versions:
Kriyananda tells more of the problems he grappled with as an editor in the preface to the Crystal Clarity edition:
"The starlike, pale, mock-lustred material desires" became one of them to him. He considered that the central image was of putting the paling stars to flight. But no, that happens by itself, so to speak. Besides, there is no mention of such shooing in translations.
There was an "original Yogananda" with reservations, from one of his later editors. One may compare with SRF's lated edited-expanded on Yogananda also.
And to repeat; the "Bare Bones" of the first stanza are simply:
The day breaks.
FitzGeralds' 1st ed.Dreaming when Dawn's Left Hand was in the Sky
I heard a voice within the Tavern cry,
"Awake, my Little ones, and fill the Cup
Before Life's Liquor in its Cup be dry."
FitzGeralds' 5th ed.Before the phantom of False morning died,
Methought a Voice within the Tavern cried,
"When all the Temple is prepared within,
"Why nods the drowsy Worshipper outside?"
Graves and Ali-ShahThen shouts ring out among us at the tavern:
'Rise too, you good-for-nothing tavern lad!
Refill our empty bowls with today's measure
Before the measure of our lives be filled!'
Whinfield, v. 1, 136, 200, 233At dawn a cry through all the tavern shrilled,
"Arise, my brethren of the revelers' guild,
That I may fill our measure full of wine,
Or e'er the measure of our days be filled."
Life's caravan is hastening on its way;
When false dawn streaks the east with cold, gray line,
The sun doth smite the roofs with Orient ray
Bare Bones - Verse 2It's dawn already.
Drink while you can.
FitzGerald at times combined several Persian quatrains to form one of of his. That explains why four correlated Whinfield poems are given above.
Yogananda Glossary, verse 2
Yogananda's glossary is based on FitzGerald's 1st edition. The violet sentences in the following lack a certain back-up in FitzGerald's mature takes, his second, third, fourth and fifth edtion, and, further, are hardly supported by one or more translations. Whinfield's brings examples. There is more on it right below the verses.
The informal stats: Only 2-3 out of 8 key terms with Yogananda are there in later FitzGerald editions and the translation of Whinfield. Yogananda's "in flagranti hit score" as to translation-supported key terms is somewhere between 25% and 38% - which easily translates to something like "not really wise and proficient". After all, there is awfully much in Yogananda's Omar commentary that is not supported by later FitzGerald editions and the translations, and key parts in Whinfield's translation are wholly missing in FitzGerald's first edition too.
What to think of what to drink? Whinfield (200) suggests that wine is truth. As shown previously, he is not the only one who thinks thus. But scholars disagree about the drinking issue too. Some see Omar Khayyam as a materialist, and others say he was spiritual and misunderstood and the Rubayat is deeply esoteric through mystic interpretations of its themes against Islamic teachings: drinking alcohol is forbidden in Islam. (Wikipedia, "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam")
Some say the world is an inn, and we are the travellers. Inside that tavern, some like to drink. Others strive to do their duties instead of drinking much, and others again seek to combine drinking and toiling. It takes many sorts to make a world.
Yogananda source: Wine of the Mystic, p. 7 ff, and Self-Realization Magazine, Spring 1972:31-32.
FitzGeralds' 1st and 5th ed.And, as the Cock crew, those who stood before
The Tavern shouted – "Open then the Door!
You know how little while we have to stay,
And, once departed, may return no more."
Graves and Ali-Shah v. 3'Loud crows the cock for his dawn drink, my Saki!'
Here stand we in the Vinter's Row, my Saki!'
'Is this an hour for prayer? Silence, my Saki!'
'Defy old custom, Saki; drink your fill!'
Graves and Ali-Shah v. 4Rarest of lads, rising to greet the dawn;
Favour my bowl of crystal, pour red wine!
This moment filched from the grey corpse of night
We long may sigh for, never repossess.
Whinfield, v. 81, 258, 295The Bulbul to the garden winged his way,
Viewed lily cups, and roses smiling gay,
Cried in ecstatic notes, "O live your life,
You never will relive this fleeting day."
Whoe'er returned of all that went before,
See! the dawn breaks, and rends night's canopy:
Bare Bones - Verse 3The cock crows.
Now's the time to drink. Again. While we have a chance. Hurry!
Yogananda Glossary, verse 3
The emphasised Yogananda words (in violet) are his interpretations.
All in all, the guru's interpretation tells of his view of life. There is some consistency in his appointing and interpreting of verse symbols this time. But where else does the cock serve as a symbol of wisdom? In tantra-yoga, in the wisdom of yab-yum. Yab-yum represents the primordial union of wisdom and compassion, depicted as a male deity in sexual union with his female consort. The "penis of wisdom" is there in the Buddhist art of India, Bhutan, Nepal, and Tibet. (Wikipedia, "Yab-yum") Yogananda's sections called Spiritual interpretation and Practical application can be boiled down to this:
Proper wisdom may awaken you: Make the best of this present life.
Keep awake to life's highest duties: Meditate to gain bliss.
By comparing translated verses and extracting a sort of "lowest common denominator" of them, we could end up with an inkling of what is Yogananda-inferred. Yet, consistent yoga interpretations do well not to mar an original by tendentious so-called interpretations derived from second-hand verses only.
FitzGeralds' 1st and 5th ed.Now the New Year reviving old Desires.
The thoughtful Soul to Solitude retires,
Where the White Hand Of Moses on the Bough
Puts out, and Jesus from the Ground suspires.
Graves and Ali-Shah, v. 5Now that our world finds riches within reach,
Live hearts awake and hanker for wide plains
Where every bough is blanched by Moses-hand
And every breeze perfumed by Jesus-breath.
Whinfield, v. 116, 201Now spring-tide showers its foison on the land,
And lively hearts wend forth, a joyous band,
For 'Isa's breath wakes the dead earth to life,
And trees gleam white with flowers, like Musa's hand.
Now is the time earth decks her greenest bowers,
Talbot, 13, 80The world sighs out for Happiness, and saith
"The very desert liveth: where is Death?"
The hand of Moses blooms on many a bough,
And every breeze is sweet with Jesus' breath.
The sweet Spring-breezes now the world adorn,
Bare Bones - Verse 4Spring! Branches blossom.
The air of plains smells nicely.
The New Year is of spring and eagerness, and not winter-time: The first day of the Persian New Year is called Nowrus, and is celebrated on the day of the vernal equinox, which is ca. 21 March. [Wikipedia, sv. "Nowrus"]
Yogananda Glossary, verse 4
The emphasised Yogananda words are his interpretations.
Musa is Moses and Isa Jesus.
FitzGeralds' 1st ed.Iram indeed is gone with all his Rose,
And Jamshýd's Sev'n-ring'd Cup where no one knows;
But still the Vine her ancient Ruby yields,
And still a Garden by the Water blows.
FitzGeralds' 5th ed.Iram indeed is gone with all his Rose,
And Jamshýd's Sev'n-ring'd Cup where no one knows;
But still a Ruby gushes from the Vine,
And many a Garden by the Water blows.
Whinfield, v. 5Iram indeed is gone with all his Rose,
And Jamshyd's Sev'n-ring'd Cup where no one knows;
But still a Ruby kindles in the Vine,
And many a Garden by the Water blows.
Bare Bones - Verse 5A famous rose garden is gone.
A famed divining cup as well.
However, there is still love in spirit(s)
And other gardens still exist.
Yogananda Glossary, verse 5
The emphasised words are Yogananda's interpretations.
Yogananda's claimed Omar interpretations are perhaps tedious, but maybe some of his good observations make up for it somehow? Below are mainly guru extracts:
There is a good reason for reasoning and discriminating well and enter the Presence. Souls have entered, found wisdom and freedom.
FitzGeralds' 1st ed.And David's Lips are lock't; but in divine
High piping Pehlevi, with "Wine! Wine! Wine!
"Red Wine!" – the Nightingale cries to the Rose
That yellow Cheek of her's to'incarnadine
FitzGeralds' 5th ed.And David's lips are lockt; but in divine
High-piping Péhlevi, with "Wine! Wine! Wine!"
Red Wine!" – the Nightingale cries to the Rose
That sallow cheek of hers to incarnadine.
Graves and Ali-Shah v. 6A glorious morning, neither hot nor dank,
With cheeks of roses newly bathed in dew;
The nightingale, in Pahlevi, prescribes
For every sallower cheek: 'Wine, wine and wine!
Whinfield, v. 119Drink wine! and then as Mahmud thou wilt reign,
And hear a music passing David's strain:
Think not of past or future, seize to-day,
Then all thy life will not be lived in vain.
Bare Bones - Verse 6A glorious morning.
Carpe diem! Seize today's music and drink wine, wine and wine!
Yogananda Glossary, verse 6
The emphasised Yogananda words are his interpretations.
Yogananda says a nightingale sings divinely, truly, wisely. That is because humans happen to like it. Most birds sing as fit for their kind. Some like the sound of seagulls too, and thus they call "divinely, truly wisely", they too, so long as "Beauty is in the ear of the listener".
A wise man develops appreciations and a sensitive taste for life's finer joys, If crows and magpies dominate the bird chorus around the city dwellers, at least the bird sounds may be better than hearing no sounds at all, or the sounds of traffic jams.
FitzGeralds' 1st ed.Come, fill the Cup, and in the Fire of Spring
The Winter Garment of Repentance fling:
The Bird of Time has but a little way
To fly – and Lo! the Bird is on the Wing.
FitzGeralds' 5th ed.Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring
Your Winter-garment of Repentance fling:
The Bird of Time has but a little way
To flutter – and the Bird is on the Wing.
Whinfield, v. 59, 212, 425My law it is in pleasure's paths to stray,
My creed to shun the theologic fray;
I wedded Luck, and offered her a dower,
She said, "I want none, so thy heart be gay."
Ah! thou hast snared this head, though white as snow,
Each morn I say, "To-night I will repent
Talbot, v. 16But bring me Wine; for words I do not care;
I have thy lips, and all my Heav'n is there;
Bring wine to match thy cheeks; my penitence
Is full of tangles as thy clust'ring hair.
Bare Bones - Verse 7There is much else to say about
Luck as the pleasure of shunning theology.
Yogananda Glossary, verse 7
The violet words in boldface are in the first edition of FitzGerald and not in translations that fit the occasion. Yogananda' interpretations of the FitzGerald words and phrases are violet too, but not in boldface.
"Bring me wine; I do not care for words," says Omar - [cf. Arthur Talbot's translation, Qo, v. 16]. Is the teaching, then, not to bother about what Omar said or did not say, and interpret what he probably did not write, as Yogananda did?
It is good to fill one's mind with positive stuff anyhow, for time flies, and with it, human life. Make the best of it - if you can in the wider perspective.
No Verse – FitzGeralds' 1st ed.[FitzGerald did not include this verse in his first edition.]
Verse 8 - FitzGeralds' 5th ed.Whether at Naishápúr or Babylon,
Whether the Cup with sweet or bitter run,
The Wine of Life keeps oozing drop by drop,
The Leaves of Life keep falling one by one.
Graves and Ali-Shah 8Life passes. What is Balkh? what is Baghdad?
The cup fills – should we care whether with bitter
Or sweet? Drink on! Know that long after us
The Moon must keep her long-determined course
Whinfield, v. 134When life is spent, what's Balkh or Nishapore?
What sweet or bitter, when the cup runs o'er?
Come drink! full many a moon will wax and wane
In times to come, when we are here no more.
Talbot, v. 47Who cares for Balkh or Baghdad? Life is fleet;
And what though bitter be the cup, or sweet,
So it be full? This moon, when we are gone,
The circling months will day by day repeat.
Bare Bones - Verse xThe cup of life keeps falling asunder.
Wine on while you still can!
Explanation: FitzGerald included a verse 8 in later editions. It was not in his first edition. The base of his verse is also in the translations of Graves and Ali-Shaw, Whinfield and Talbot.
None (because the verse is missing in FitzGerald's first edition).
FitzGeralds' 1st edAnd look – a thousand Blossoms with the Day
Woke – and a thousand scatter'd into Clay:
And this first Summer Month that brings the Rose
Shall take Jamshýd and Kaikobád away.
FitzGeralds' 5th ed.Each Morn a thousand Roses brings, you say:
Yes, but where leaves the Rose of Yesterday?
And this first Summer month that brings the Rose
Shall take Jamshyd and Kaikobád away.
Graves and Ali-Shah v. 9Rest in the rose's shade, though winds have burst
A world of blossom; petals fall to dust –
Jamsheds and Khusros by the hundred thousand
Lie tumbled by a similar stroke of time.
Bare Bones - Verse 8Roses blossom and wither;
Like us they do.
Neither Whinfield nor Talbot seem to have any matching verses.
Yogananda Glossary verse 8
As usual here, the violet words in boldface are in the first edition of FitzGerald and not in the translations that are provided. Yogananda' interpretations of the FitzGerald words and phrases are in violet too, but not in boldface.
When a man meditates deeply and finds the rose blooming in his house, so to speak, his duty as a gardener ceases, says Yogananda, for such a rose is free to roam (!) Other lovely flowers may die in the arms of time while such a rose blooms along and is not compelled to live on earth.
That is his teaching. The rose is a figurative element in it. The body house is too.
One may compare Yogananda's flower teachings with what is taught about "flowers along the spine" in the "body house" in tantra yoga, where there is a systematic presentation of figurative lotuses (called chakras) with differing petals along the "interior spine", or sushumna nadi [See Spo 1974]
FitzGeralds' 1st edBut come with old Khayyám, and leave the Lot
Of Kaikobád and Kaikhosrú forgot!
Let Rustum cry "To Battle!" as he likes,
Or Hátim Tai cry Supper – heed them not.
FitzGeralds' 5th ed.Well, let it take them! What have we to do
With Kaikobád the Great, or Kaikhosrú?
Let Zál and Rustum bluster as they will,
Or Hátim call to Supper – heed not you.
Graves and Ali-Shah v. 10One ample draught outdoes the fame of Kawus,
Kobad the Glorious or Imperial Tus.
Friend, never bow your neck even to Rustum
Nor proffer thanks even to Hatim Tai.
Whinfield, v. 455Whilst thou dost wear this fleshy livery,
Step not beyond the bounds of destiny;
Bear up, though very Rustems be thy foes,
And crave no boon from friends like Hatim Tai!
Bare Bones - Verse 9Have an ample draught.
Mind your own business first of all.
Yogananda Glossary, verse 9
The violet words in boldface are in the first edition of FitzGerald and not in the translations that are provided along with it. Yogananda' interpretations of the FitzGerald words and phrases are in violet too, but not in boldface.
What Yogananda thinks
Merely mourning the lot of others will not save you from a fate like theirs.
It is seldom wise to imitate the ways of those who are bound for grave disillusionment.
Never mind the fools who are indolent or engrossed in mundane life. You can cultivate wisdom which gives happiness.
The rich and powerful while away their time and death.
People eat breakfast, lunch, and supper, pursue their material duties; yet they die like gold-laden mules, unaware of much else.
The divine philosopher is the truly happy man. Therefore, cultivate wisdom which gives happiness.
FitzGeralds' 1st ed.With me along some Strip of Herbage strown
That just divides the desert from the sown,
Where name of Slave and Sultan scarce is known,
And pity Sultán Máhmúd on his Throne.
5th ed, v. 11That just divides the desert from the sown,
With me along the strip of Herbage strown
Where name of Slave and Sultán is forgot –
And Peace to Máhmúd on his golden Throne!
Talbot, v. 151Where'er on earth my wand'ring gaze I place,
A garden lav'd by Kausar's stream I trace;
Heaven in the desert, Hell hath disappear'd,
And Paradise is in her Angel face.
Bare Bones - Verse 10For some reason the poet seems to prefer his heavy drinking.
He could have found a garden by the desert.
A garden or oasis, a place to drink and sleep beneath the trees: You may not have thought about it, but kriya "quiet gasping" has a lot in common with whisky drinking too.
Yogananda Glossary, verse 10
The highlighted Yogananda words are interpretations.
The dreary desert of delusion, wrong, ensnaring actions may be teeming with people who are lonely even in a crowd, and joyless in the middle of false pleasures.
Sleep can do you good, but may be crowded out during the busy wakeful state. Free yourself by deeply rejuvenating sleep. Deep sleep and beyond it to the experience of pure consciousness, turiya, which is neither a dreary waste nor a cultivated centre of restless living. [More on the value of sound sleep]
Haphazard-looking Wisdom of Yogananda
In the previous verse glossaries, Yogananda reads wisdom into eleven different things - and many of them appear to be FitzGerald-inventions and not by any medieval poet either:
Yogananda's Wine of the Mystic is of poor quality and little importance.
Arnot, Robert Page, ed. The Sufistic Quatrains of Omar Khayyam in Definitive Form: Including the Translations of Edward Fitzgerald (with Edward Heron-Allen's Analysis) E. H. Whinfield [and] J. B. Nicolas. London: M. Walter Dunne, 1903. ⍽▢⍽ Good for some comparison work. Online at archive.org.
Graves, Robert and Ali-Shah, Omar: The Rubaiyyat of Omar Khayyam. Cassell. London, 1967. ⍽▢⍽ May be closer to original Persian than the version produced by Edward Fitzgerald. However, the source of Omar Ali-Shah's version was most likely a study by Edward Heron-Allen (below). Since Ali-Shah did not inform about it, but claimed that the manuscript used had been in his family for 800 years, the reputation of the poet Graves and the credibility of Ali-Shah got severe blows.
Heron-Allen, Edward, tr., ed. The Ruba'iyat of Omar Khayyam. London: H. S. Nichols, 1898. ⍽▢⍽ The manuscript that FitzGerald used to produce his Rubaiyat, was copied for him by a professor at Cambridge, and a photographic facsimile was given to Allen. He translated the Persian into English prose in 1898, with a view to showing how far FitzGerald's work was a correct rendering of the original, and how far an adaption.
Inner Culture (Mag.): See Self-Realization Magazine.
Khayyam, Omar. The Ruba'iyat. Trs. Peter Avery and John Heath Stubbs. Reprint paperback ed. London: Penguin Books, 1989. ⍽▢⍽ One of the better translations, with no effort to rhyme the poem. Here are 235 quatrains, more than twice as many as in FitzGerald's. Materialism is clearly expressed.
Khayyam, Omar. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam: Rendered into English Verse by Edward Fitzgerald. Online Etext: Urbana, IL: The Gutenberg Project, 2008. ⍽▢⍽ The first and fifth editions, with notes. Some notes explain phrases or terms so they make more sense across the centuries and cultural differences.
Self-Realization Magazine. Los Angeles: Self-Realization Fellowship.
Talbot, Arthur B. Quatrains of Omar Khayyáám. London, Elkin Mathews, 1909. ⍽▢⍽ Talbot cast Heron-Allen's literal prose translation into a metric form. His aim was to give as literal a metric rendering as possible. Heron-Allen made many valuable suggestions to him.
Whinfield, Edward H., tr. The Quatrains of Omar Khayyam. 2nd, corrected and enl. ed. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1901. ⍽▢⍽ 500 stanzas of fine quality.
Yogananda, Paramahansa. The Wine of the Mystic. Paperback ed. Los Angeles: Self-Realization Fellowship, 1996 (1994).
Yogananda, Paramhansa. The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. 2nd ed. Nevada City, CA: Crystal Clarity Publishers, 2008. ⍽▢⍽
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