Missionaries in the first and second centuries spread Buddhism to China. In time, communities grew up, and one such community got prominent. By and by many disciples left it and moved to other areas of the nation and established schools of their own. With these men the story of Chan as a sect begins.
The Chan adherents made copious use of old legends and devised new ones. Various priests used various legends; they were refined and adjusted till a quite confusing whole emerged.
Several books have emerged on how Chinese Zen, Chan, has developed. A selection of them is at the bottom of the page.
Bodhidharma (Daruma) is used as a symbol of the real Zen ado, its spirit. (Addiss, p. 125-29). He went to China by ship somewhere between 475 and 520. Legend has it that he spent nine years sitting in meditation, facing a rock wall of a cave that's about a mile from the Shaolin Temple. Thereby he was known as "the wall-gazing brahmin".
It is also held that he created an exercise program for the monks as time went by. The system is known today as the Priest-Scholar 18 Hand Movements. Through it, the martial art kung fu (also: Gung Fu) is associated with him.
"Like dead when alive" - a Way Out
On his way somewhere near Nanking, Bodhidharma met a parrot who was kept in a wicker cage. The bird said:
Bodhidharma whispered to the bird,
The parrot listened and said, "Understood!" Then the bird stuck out his legs, closed his eyes, and waited. When the bird's owner came home from work, he opened the cage door and scooped up the bird - it lay still and quiet in his hand. Thinking the bird had recently died, the owner slowly he opened his hand - Then the bird suddenly flapped and flew away.
The stilled mind
Bodhidharma walked on. He arrived at Bear's Ear Mountain in Loyang. There he sat down to meditate while facing a wall. For nine years he sat meditating.
Someone asked him: "Quiet my mind."
"Find your mind," said Bodhidharma. "Show it to me and I will quiet it for you."
Shen Kuang looked for his mind outside his body and inside his body. He looked where there was light and in the middle of things and so on. At last Shen Kuang said to Bodhidharma, "I can't find my mind!"
"This is how well I have quieted your mind," said Bodhidharma.
The other, Shen Kuang, became "Zen man number two" in the line after Bodhidharma.
The legend tells that Bodhidharma crossed the Yangtse River on a reed and travelled to northern China. There he settled at the Shaolin Monastery and transmitted the patriarchy to Hui Ko. Soon afterwards Bodhidharma died in 528.
A few years after his death, a Chinese official reported that he had encountered Bodhidharma in the mountains of Central Asia. Bodhidharma was then carrying a staff; a single sandal was hanging from it. He told that he was on his way back to India. When this story reached his Chinese home, fellow monks decided to open Bodhidharma's tomb. Inside there was only a sandal.
Iin turn Hui Ko (487–593) handed over the "Seal of Buddha-Heart" to his foremost disciple, Seng Tsan (?–606), who was followed by Tao Hsin (580-665?) and Hung Jen (674–674?).
After Hung Jen, Chinese Chan (Zen) was divided into two schools, Northern and Southern Chan. The latter, which was led by Hui Neng (638–713), the sixth patriarch, continued a transmission that is flourishing in Japan still. [The dates given are not certain.]
The contemplation methods that Bodhidharma taught, were taken from the "pan-Indian" heritage. His instructions were to a great extent based on sutras of Mahayana Buddhism. In The Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma he says:
The old teachings
Do not misconceive karma. [Do not misconstrue.]
[Never slander a Buddha].
Buddhas neither create nor negate the mind.
The Buddha used the tangible to represent the sublime.
Buddhas do not practice nonsense.
This mind is like space ... you can't lose it. – This mind is also called the Unstoppable Tathagatha.
There's no fragrance without a tree and no buddha without the mind.
The nature of [a Buddha's] mind is basically empty . . . free of cause and effect.
Only the wise know this mind, this mind called dharma-nature, this mind called liberation. – It is not the same as the sensual mind.
Bodhidharma on how to get into Tao
[And well sustained dharana is called dhyana, (jhana in the Pali language). It is a state of meditative absorption. The Chinese Chan that became Japanese Zen in time, stems from the Sanskrit dhyana, thus.]
1. The Buddha's Nature is Found by Diving Well Inside Yourself
By mistakenly clinging to the appearance of things there is this statement: "Buddha is Sanskrit for what you call aware, miraculously aware. And the mind is a Buddha." ◇
Studying long and hard, practicing morning and night, never lying down, or acquiring knowledge of the Dharma, can blaspheme right living (i.e., the Dharma). Buddhas of the past and future only talk about seeing your nature. Experiencing your nature is of Zen (dhyana). Unless you experience your nature, the diving inside is not good enough.
Motion is the mind's function, and its function is its motion. You have to learn how to still it. Contempation (Zen) is for that.
You're walking, talking and sleeping essence, basically. It is standing, sitting, or lying in a quiet grove, - there is the essence of your own being and the light of your own nature while you're walking, standing, sitting, or lying in the stillness and darkness of night - And to find a Buddha all you have to do is experience your nature.
2. The Mind's Range is Said to Have no Limit
Doctrines are not the Way. The Way finally becomes wordless. Thus, even if you can explain thousands of sutras and shastras, unless you see your own nature yours is the teaching of a mortal, and not worth a Buddha.
Once you see your nature, sex is basically immaterial. In the end it ends along with your delight.
The mind's range of awareness has no limit. Do not misdirect your worship.
Devils and demons possess the power of manifestation – Unless you feel your nature, you shouldn't go around criticizing the goodness of others.
All day long some persons invoke Buddhas and read sutras. But they remain blind to their own divine nature. Ideally, you do not need to read sutras or invoke buddhas.
What is meant by mind: Your mind is nirvana deep inside. A Tathagata knows, he also knows men and gods if comparing to what is of a Buddha, or divine essence. ◇
To be bound by attachments is not great, all in all.
3. A Buddha is an Essentialist Inside
Big fools neither know nor believe to their own ultimate good.
What is good, also results in a good memory. And attachments that remain will come to an end through that.
Motions and ideas are not the mind. And deluded people do not realize that their own mind is the Buddha, divine essence.
The Buddha is your real body, your original mind.
Of what use are scriptures? But someone who sees his own nature finds the Way, even if he can't read a word. Someone who sees his nature is a Buddha. And since a Buddha's body is intrinsically pure and unsullied, and everything he says is an expression of his mind, being basically empty, a buddha, an essential one, an essentialist.
Your nature is the Buddha.
Also, free yourself from karma. If you do not see your nature, quoting sutras is no help.
Buddhas move freely. . .
The Buddha comes outward in your real body, your original mind. This mind is like an inner space. The day-to-day person-mind can't hold it full well. Thus, what good are doctrines? The ultimate Truth is beyond words. You can be better off "doing nothing" (wu wei).
Those who worship do not know, and those who know do not worship.
It is only now. ✪
Do not suffer life and death in vain. (Mod)
Go beyond language. Go beyond thought, basically. Adhere to that.
People who see that their mind is the Buddha do not need to shave their heads (in a monk's style). ⚴
So: "It is only now" . . . go beyond such language and you won't need to shave a lot. ⚴
Addiss, Stephen. 1980. The Art of Zen. New York: Abrams.
Bodhidharma. 1989. The Zen Teachings of Bodhidharma. Tr. Red Pine. New ed. New York: North Point Press / Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Chang, Garma C. C. 1970. The Practice of Zen. Perennial ed. New York: Harper and Row.
Cleary, Jonathan Christopher. 1986. Zen Dawn: Early Zen Texts from Tun Huang. Boston, MA: Shambala, 1986.
Eshin, Godfrey et al. trs. 2001. Bodhidharma's Teaching. Happy Valley, Hong Kong: Tung Lin Kok Yuen.
Gregory, Peter N., ed. 1986. Traditions of Meditation in Chinese Buddhism. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii.
Heine, Steven, and Dale S. Wright, eds. 2004. The Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jinhua Jia. 2006. The Hongzhou School of Chan Buddhism in Eighth- through Tenth-Century China. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
McRae, John. 1986. The Northern School and the Formation of Early Ch'an Buddhism.. Honolulu: University of Hawaiii Press, 1986.
Nan Huai-Chin. 1995. The Story of Chinese Zen. Tr. Thomas Cleary. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Co.
Poceski, Mario. 2007. Ordinary Mind as the Way: The Hongzhou School and the Growth of Chan Buddhism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yampolsky, Philip, tr. 1967. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. The Text of the Tun-Huang Manuscript. New York: Columbia University.
Schlütter, Morten. 2008. How Zen Became Zen: The Dispute over Enlightenment and the Formation of Chan Buddhism in Song-dynasty China. Honolulu, HI: Kuroda institute, University of Hawai'i Press.
Harvesting the hay
User's Guide ᴥ Disclaimer |
© 2001–2018, Tormod Kinnes, MPhil [Email]