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Some among us find protection in being shallow. We cannot all be like them. Here goes:

A very peculiar navel is described in ancient myths. All the world grows from it, we are told. Is there hidden truth in a myth, and isn't everything in it figurative? [Example]

Some myths contain suggestive cores that have been interpreted afresh by others (about Oedipus and Electra, for example). So what to make out of the tales of old navel that a lotus grew from? Stories differ, and that brings backup problems.

. Be that as it may; here are old burlesques and tall figures of speech, in part on several levels, along with plain, factual information. To your health! A word that refers to something is not exactly that thing in itself, but a representation called good or bad in inbetween those two. There are visual representations and verbal ones. At the back of many common words are images, and many words combine to form word-images too. Abstract terms may contain concrete building-blocks, or be "lifted up" through metaphor-making and so on. There are words and pictures that serve as symbols as well - symbols abound in art, including artistic use of a language. If we know the general meaning of symbols and finer imagery, we may get a clue about many metaphorical expressions too. Japanes proverbs abound in this use of the language. Further, the languages of certain artists may or may not contain symbols. If one knows of common ways to interpret them, the chances of understanding paintings and word-paintings should increase. [see Dis; Ids]

On the gliding-scale from "at hand and solid, here" to "up in the air, far, far away from here" one may have an intermediate area or level.

Exactly how concretely a "thing" is to be understood, is in part up to the ones who receive tall tales. For example, a fairy tale may speak of elves. Do they exist? How? Where? Or may they be understood in a new light through interpretations? An encyclopaedia and dictionary may go for "explanations of terms like elf" by telling about the quite common agreements over generations: For example: An elf (plural elves) is a being, a white being and one of a race of divine or semi-divine ones - some good, some not so good. Older and more recent descriptions differ a whole lot [Cf. WP, "Elf"].

There is more below, and literature references at the bottom of the page.

TK

Alf

alf
A likeness of Alf from the tv sitcom
Alf (acronym from Alien Life Form) is an alien: In our context, compare with Paramahansa Yogananda (qv). He taught the world is unreal, illusory (not unlike a sitcom), "saying, "There is no material universe; its warp and woof is . . . illusion." [Paramahansa Yogananda, Autobiography of a Yogi, ch. 30]. If his saying isn't a giant belly flop blunder, what is it?

Look around; Yogananda (1893-1952) is gone, but the world goes on - a world that he taught was unreal, a dream, illusory and so on. The world you depend on for a living.

An alarmingly funny side to saying the world is not real, is that saying so involves that Yogananda and his line of gurus and all their fabulous teachings too are unreal, at best not unlike alien life forms of sitcoms. Ponder to make sure: Where are his teachings now? The answer is: In the world he says is unreal - like he himself would be, too if his teachings were real yet unreal - which they cannot fully be in an illusory universe - and so on. He might not have got Ramana Maharsi's: "Illusion in itself is illusory".

There may be followers of Yogananda who look on him like a sort of elf, appearing to some, heard of by others, and so on. Against his over-arching teachings - that the world is unreal - some guru followers think he lived, and have taken shelter in his fatamorgana teachings - they necessarily would have to be that if his teachings were true, ans so on. It can't be all good.

Ananda Sangha

Ananda was formerly Ananda Church of Self-Realization. Sangha in the current term means fellowship, and ananda means joy and bliss. So it means "Joy-Fellowship" and similar. The congregation is a spin-off based on ideals and teachings and methods of Yogananda (qv). Ananda was formed by a former vice-president of Self-Realization Fellowship, the late James Donald Walters, aka Swami Kriyananda.

SRF dragged its spin-off Ananda to court and kept at it for about a dozen years in matters pertaining to publishing rights. Ananda won most of the issues. Books by Kriyananda are on-line. [Link].

Atlantic Ocean

Deep Mind or Essence (God) can be felt as an inner ocean. In that case the (figurative) Atlantic Ocean is a Depth Facet of a sort.

In many ancient and more recent Hindu scriptures, divine states of mind are compared to an ocean. Ramakrishna:

I determined to put an end to [my life]. I jumped up like a madman and seized [a sword] when suddenly ... [t]he buildings with their different parts, the temple and everything else vanished from my sight, leaving no trace whatever, and in their stead I saw a limitless, infinite, effulgent Ocean of Bliss. As far as the eye could see, the shining billows were madly rushing at me from all sides with a terrific noise, to swallow me up. I was panting for breath. I was caught in the rush and collapsed". [Goa 19-20]

[Ramakrishna:] "Suppose a man has seen the ocean, and somebody asks him, "Well, what is the ocean like?" The first man opens his mouth as wide as he can and says: "What a sight! What tremendous waves and sounds!" The description of Brahman in the sacred books is like that. It is said in the Vedas that Brahman is of the nature of Bliss; It is Satchidananda [Being-Consciousness-Joy (Bliss)]". [Goa 153]

"Never believe the bed of the ocean bare of pearls
If in the first few dives you fail." - Ramakrishna, singing, referring to contemplation [Goa 179-81].

"Mind, dive deep in the ocean of God's beauty". - Ramakrishna singing [Goa 215].

Avatar

Mystical and profound teacher. In the Hindu work Srimad Bhagavatam one ancient avatar (descended godhood is quite accurate) was a boar - a somewhat mythical animal who saved the world from drowning in water. The boar is one of the many incarnations or avatars of Vishnu (qv) in Vishnu-Hinduism (Vaishnavism). [Cf. Sh; Clh]

Babaji

Mystical teacher of Sanatan Dharma, Hinduism, also called the Perenneal Religion. Babaji material at this place has been placed here and here.

Baker
Some that are no good for you, try to set you off and make you different from others - it pays to beware and be careful.

What is the difference between a baker and potter if both are used to signal the Maker? One reply: "I don't know any, for in ancient Egypt the Creator-God is presented both as a baker and potter, in different contexts."

The baker makes white bread and doughnuts, to name a few of them. Here comes a passage almost as from Jeremiah:

"Go down to the baker's house, and there I will give you my message."

So I went down to the baker's house, and I saw him working at the dough near the oven. But the doughnut he was shaping from the dough happened to get marred in his hands; so he formed it into another goody, shaping it as best he could. Then God the Baker and Maker said:

"Can't I do better?" - Cf. Jeremiah 18;1-6.

And to have a bun in the oven is a contemporary allusion to "have a baby in the womb".

Beaver

The glad and free beaver is a symbol of base lust, animal pampering, hankering, vivacity, or zest (not just Freudian id, libido) in humans. By way of symbolist thinking we prefer to let such as "the beaver" suggest much basic life of man [More]. And not everything inside is part of nature. The giant loka lies beyond matter.

Bramble Farm, QUAG, Its Gardens, Hotbets, and Main Buildings

'Farm' means enterprise ever so often.

'Bramble' carries some connotations too. Brambles may have both tasty berries and maddening thorns. Brambles spread "fervently", so be very careful among them, wear some protection, for example. You have to know what you are doing to reap possible benefit: ripe, delicious berries for jam and further.

There are real bramble farms on this planet, in the United States too. Pluck berries when they are ripe and go on.

A profitable farm is for the leaders or owners to use. may have (1) wide and flowing farmland surrounded by mires; (2) gardens; (3) hotbeds in some them. (4) Then there is a farmhouse somewhere. Much similarly, the American QUAG similarly consists of

  1. A fellowship part ("acres spread out") for committed or not so committed "students", that is, for receivers of the Self-Realization Fellowship Lessons.
  2. A church part (consisting of kriya yoga guys who have submitted to the claimed guru line of six christs, as they are called. The footfolks, like serfs were too on farmlands in the Middle Ages.
  3. Hotbeds for monastic novices in training, whatever that may be.
  4. Leaders in "the main house", the headquarters - one or more headquarters also. Some owners of farms in England wanted to live on their farms, while other owners spent much time elsewhere and still other owners travelled back and forth between favourite places to stay. In QUAG it was found out by "servants" in the big house that the boss did not like it too good there, and had stayed away from the place for twenty years - and most of them did not know it. Imagine!

A well-run farm with monastics in control, yet protected by walls and guards with German Shepherds - will it work a long time? That depends in part of the kinds of seed and seedlings that are regularly used, who owns the seeds, and on whose terms they are bought or shared.

A big issue: Who has a right to the seeds and growing lots of food? Lots of lands requre lots of seeds. Seeds are either had from former productons or bought from firms that have grown hybrids that cannot produce a harvest more than once. Then new seeds must be bought, over and over, with formerly independent farmers becoming dependent in an unforeseen way.

Do monopolising agents destroy democracy in the long run? Hybrid corn, pesticides over and over and GMO food - should all be classified as bad in the long run, because so much gets controlled by big business, and the bait deals function so as to undermine the independence of farmers? To monopolise seed distribution may have wide, social implications in the long run, apart from costing farmers a lot.

Apart from their esthetic and other values, plants, bushes and trees may also yield good fruits and berries over and over.

[Enjoy free seeds]

Bramble Lessons

There are lessons that need to be learnt if you want to pluck lots of brambles, and there are informal letters and so-called lessons sent by mail from some "Bramble Farm". Brambles offer lessons the hard way to those who venture near, and others say "Here is how to do it" - so there are several sorts of lessons too.

Some farms have farm institutes (agricultural schools) attached to them, or vice versa. Some send out lessons by mail too. The farm lessons tend to serve the farm's or institutes ways of going on, and maybe farm workers too, although machines are taking over so much work. In the Middle Ages, monks wrote by hand on goat skin pergaments, and did good work. Today, interactions and very much output in life is handled by machines, and men strive to follow suit while machines make their way.

Non-official farm lessons "for the people" may be a hodgepodge of varying quality, from verrückt through "interesting" to "remarkable or sensible", for example.

Self-Realization Fellowship Lessons are made in much the same way as good and decent animal food: Mishmash and hodgepodge from various Yogananda lectures and sermons serve to "feed sentiments" of members and students in the United States andin other countries.

The SRF Lessons may not suffice for the locally well adapted life-style, though. For example, they do not teach you how to build an igloo or dam or win in any lottery.

Draug

The draug in folklore is the foreboding sign of imminent death at sea. The draug is a spectre in a half-boat, appearing right before someone's death, or presaging death in wider ways and contexts.

A draug may not be called a "false Christ" that Jesus of the gospel found it fit to warn against way in advance. [Matthew 24;24-26], but I think there are some similarities into it.

One may wonder why the guru Yogananda did not say that in his universe there is a basic, 112 percent unity between Hinduism and the "original Christianity of Jesus" in the Bible. Well, he did not, he only went for 100 percent, which is wrong. Am I kidding!? [More]

The guru wanted to fulfil a quite impossible mission: to point out a harmony that facts delete. Being fair to facts is different . . .

Elf-Realisation
Charles Edward Boutibonne (1816-1897). Mermaids Frolicking in the Sea (or Sirens), 1883
Mermaids frolicking in the sea

According to Yogananda, a departed Yukteswar communicated one day:

The ordinary astral universe [it translate to one of the heavenly realms] ... is peopled with ... myriads of fairies, mermaids, fishes ... goblins, gnomes, demigods and spirits." [Au 355].

There is no specific mention of elves in the quote. An elf (plural elves) in folklore is a being endowed with magical powers that can be used for the benefit and the injury of mankind. In medieval Norse mythology, they were divided into light elves and dark elves; the Light Elves were brighter than the sun, and crossbreeding was possible between elves and humans in the Old Norse belief. The elves could be seen dancing over meadows at night and on misty mornings. If a human watched the dance of the elves, he would discover that even though only a few hours seemed to have passed, many years had passed in the real world.

The elf made many appearances in ballads of English and Scottish origin, as well as folk tales. Elves of English folktales were often portrayed as children with "cocktail party tendencies", that is Williams syndrome, and were sometimes said to be invisible. In this tradition, elves became similar to fairies. Successively, the word elf, and the literary term fairy, evolved to spirits like the English and Scots brownie, the Northumbrian English hob and so forth.

William Shakespeare imagined elves as little people. He apparently considered elves and fairies to be the same race, and in Self-Realization Fellowship they believe Yogananda had been Shakespeare in a former life, because Yogananda had told so.

19th-century Romanticism wanted to depict elves as very young, and pretty.

In early modern and modern folklore elves become associated with the fairies of Romance folklore. In the Western world, children's folklore of Santa Claus typically includes elves. They are green-clad elves with pointy ears, long noses, and pointy hats, make toys in a workshop on the North Pole.

And Yogananda's autobiography (above) speaks of fairies in heaven.

Now what is the make-up of the Elf and the Self? Are they fed by Light within or not? There are books and CDs published at ◦Findhorn Press in Scotland about many invisible beings, including a garden pea angel who conversed with the Findhorn co-founder Dorothy Maclean.

[Wikipedia, s.v. "Elf"]

Elysium

Elysium is a place or condition of ideal bliss and happiness, frequently serves as another word for paradise, or the Elysean Fields. They are the abode of the blessed after death in Greek mythology. Elysium is also called the Elysian plain. Ideas of Elysium was probably retained from Minoan religion.

In Homer's writings the Elysian Plain was a land of perfect happiness at the end of the earth, on the banks of the Oceanus River, where people were vexed by neither snow nor storm, heat nor cold, the air being always tempered by the zephyr wafted from the ocean. It was no part of the lower world. But was there the delights of enough and sane variations, on may wonder?

In Hesiod (W. and D. 166) the same description is given of the Islands of the Blessed under the rule of Cronus, which yield three harvests yearly. (01. ii. 61, Frag. 95).

Name history: Elysium comes from Latin Elysium, from Greek Elysion, short for Elysion pedion, Elysian fields, the ancient Greek heaven. The name of the famous avenue in Paris, the Champs-Élysées, means "Elysian Fields."

Giant

My giant goes with me wherever I go. [Emerson, in Self-Reliance]

If you don't know, you don't know. But you may learn to figure. Let us say that 'giant' stands for "spirit" and "spiritual" and that to arrive at some balanced, helping usage would be fit. Granted that "giant" has a history and cosy embellishments, what is the possible core of the concept? To understand it better, one has to go into myth, not only folklore.

1. A BROAD LOOK INTO MYTHOLOGY: One way is to assemble some titbits and leave other fragments aside, while minding that some others may focus and find differently. Mind as well that it could pays to remain humble. The Greeks found that the opposite of it, hybris (also: hubris), was a cardinal offence.

In classical Greek ethical and religious thought, hybris is an overweening presumption that suggests impious disregard of the limits governing human action in an orderly universe, where metron ("middling fares") helps balance. Yes, classical hubris is a presumption of being godlike and attempting to overstep one's human limitations. Hybris is a main offence that the great and gifted are most susceptible to, the Greeks maintained, and then Jesus came and told angry Jews: (a) You (images of God) are gods. He also said about genuine followers: (b) all is possible for the one who has faith; (c) take care of your talents - things like that. To feign (to be bad or little worth) is therefore a rather ugly or nasty thing - and hypocricy can easily find an entry through it. Jesus condemned hypocrites, by the way.

When you are a god inside, doing your best each day to enter or re-enter heaven as Jesus said, let no Greeks stop you. Heaven is a coveted place.

True humility is attuned to being yourself. Be still and know your Self is not in the least arrogant.

What is more, The Greek view of hybris is linked to another concept, which is an Indo-European notion of justice: It holds that each being has a fate (moira) assigned to him and marked clearly by boundaries that should never be crossed by inventing a lot to ease one's lot in life.

If someone is induced by folly to excesses against his or her destiny and background or build-up, there is a divine vengeance lurking, personified as Nemesis. That is according to a tradition, manifested in such as Greek epics.

Conclusion: Let us say for the sake of illustration that you were born among beer-drinkers or other sorts of "Heavy fellows, steeped in beer and fleshpots", with drowsy minds. [Emerson, about Englishmen, in the essay "Ability"].

Yes, let us say you were born among others steeped in beer and fleshpots - seemingly as a result of a low destiny. And let us say you decide not to be a regular beer drinker, and to be a vegetarian too - will it be overstepping that low deal of fate a lot? What will be the Nemesis, in case? But it may be good to be on the safe side and not find out how hard the fate-linked punishment will be. Have a good plan! That could help a lot in any case!

2. TITBITS OF FOLKLORE: There are many giants in folklore. Imagine how Jack in the fairy tale "Jack and the beanstalk" entered some interor realm by truly astonishing climbing an alternative to "Jacob's ladder". Up there - in the thin air, so to speak - he encountered some giants and discovered they were linked to himself through his father, at least in some versions of that tale. What is more, he acquired basic wealth from the "climbs and encounters" too. Maybe it didn't end too well.

Even Ulysses encountered a giant of a sort, a Cyclope. In Greek mythology, Cyclopes were giants with one round eye, placed in the middle of their foreheads. That is just the area to focus on to see THE GIANT'S EYE (or spiritual light's funnel) better, for there it is to be seen and delved into, if you dare. Yes, guys like Yogananda teach such a cyclope-attuned lesson still.

Cyclopes are sons of Heaven (Uranus) and Earth (Gaia) and belong to the entities we love to call giants - or shall we say Titans?

In Homer's Odyssey, the Cyclopes are ferocious, man-eating entities. That is, they feed on men. Odysseus was able to puncture the eye of one of them and escape like Jack in the classic folk tale.

Cyclopes may also be told of as helping the god of fire. They helped Zeus. They were finally said to have build the great walls of ancient citadels, such as Mycene and Tiryns.

What do you make out of it? Giants may be man-eating, and they assist the highest god of Greeks, Zeus, by forging fire weapons. It could be taken as a possibility to take up a waiting and weighing attitude.

3. THE PRACTICAL CONCERNS AT HAND: Derivates from myths and folktales may be made to flourish by, not flounder by. For our purpose a giant is within - yet in the Sanskrit master-piece Srimad Bhagavatam one ancient avatar (descended godhood is quite accurate) was a boar -

Fables

In some fables animals talk and show how base humans are. The stody of a talking and angel-seeing donkey in Numbers 22 of the Old Testament is not taken to be fable, but it has folk tale similarities, such as repetitions of the carrying activity, and also some fable features. We just point to ancient similarities.

Greek fables and other fables from ancient Egypt and northern Africa have influenced Western culture considerably.

Fables from India (Panchatantra) and elsewhere (See Aesop) can give budding forewarnings or prepare for plots etc. There are many sorts of fables. The fairy tale collection Panchatantra is a rich source of how to handle delicate management stuff. [Pan]

Incorporated in proverbs and other parts of folklore are standardised templets. On top of them a fox is clever; a master wolf is hungry and seeking pray; the lion can be bossy, often gruesome and terrorising; and children learn to expect certain deeds by memory-aided suggestions over and over.

What we can arrive at on top of suggestive evidence, is corresponding, suggestive recounting that fits in in very many cultural contexts - and that can be good more often than not.

Special tacks can give good mastery help to children, and we have a child inside, the Child that Dr. Eric Berne considers part of man's personality. "Become like little children ..." [Hom; Gyl]

Delicious fables may suggest or indicate in quite typified and tactful ways, and minors today are able to benefit from them. [FABLES OF AESOP]

Glide inside

In some contexts it is the same as delve and dive, ie, meditate deeply, varliusly called. Some gurus, like Ramakrishna, likens meditation to diving within (in the sea of consciousness). Much identical terms are reach dhyana, do Zen, glide dive within, comptemplate, meditate deeply.

Guru

Guru is Sanskrit for teacher, but it means further things too, as Master. 'Teacher' is not the essential meaning of it, but something like "up-lifter" from darkness into Light.

Jagadguru: World-guru, from Sanskrit jagad, world, and guru.

Gurudev and gurudeva: Divine guru.

[Much more: WP, "Guru"]

Metaphors

The Gita's emboldening, suggestive half-typifications like "tiger among men" (Arjuna) is akin to Aesop's good and skilled animal portrayal: The fox is clever; the wolf is hungry and seeking prey, no matter what, most often; the lion can be bossy, often gruesome and terrorising; the donkey can be a jerk; and children learn to expect certain deeds by memory-aided, typified suggestions over and over. Not all of them fit the real animals, though.

To speak to minors on top of reasonable conclusions by metaphors, is quite an art. Dr. Rudolf Steiner was very much for it in his Waldorf education. It is a world-wide movement. What stands out is that carefully timed and properly fostered alluding figures can give much help to later, cognitive growth. That is one of the basic principles of Steiner schools.

Maybe fit and staunch figuratively expressions help us to consider things quite free from fear of authority figures.

Having many names and appellatives

Misty and loose-looking circumscriptions can work better for minors, for there is a need to lessen fear in schooling and rearing, in part as shown by fables. It helps to portray and ground stuff. A suggestive way of "appealing names" (appellatives) is found in the extremes in classical Hindu literature. What we have is a classical way of delineating for easy recall. And Native Americans had much identical ways of naming or additional-naming by use of significant portent. [Si; Ma; Dm; Sivn]

Hare Krishna has many other names in Indian literature, experts like Professor Tuxen informs us [see Wy]. There are many names that are used to describe feats or features of Krishna. In the Siva Purana [Si] there are over a thousand names of Shiva, and in the ancient Markandeya Purana [Ma] the Divine Mother is given a thousand different names. That part has been taken out and published as a separate book as well. [Dm]

2. Basic harmony with solid fair play comes first, not attachment to base or cramped servility.

In India a bird is cherished as a token and totem of highest status. It is a swan, a goose, a duck, writes Pargiter in a note. The apostle Paul's "In the church I would rather speak five intelligible words to instruct others than ten thousand words in a tongue." [1 Corinthians 14;19] could be implemented by heavy use of metaphors, but then there is a need for common typifications of the figurative elements. Even less suggestive expressions could assist good and solid "forewarning learning" of the sorts that lots of fables, proverbs and parables tend to bring.

"Jesus ... he did not say anything to them without using a parable." - Matthew 13;34-5. There is rich imagery in maiming words by Jesus - "wolves in sheep's clothing", "offspring of vipers", "sons of the Devil" and so on. Such expressions are figurative. Rich imagery can be useful, but not really so unless it is decoded well. In the same vein "A picture says more than a thousand words." (American advertising slogan) [Cf. Ap]. Many lessons arrived at through fables, are still in common use as proverbs. [Cf. Dp]

Figurative ways can be utterly economic. Looking to animals and finally arriving at being human is a theme Yogananda rallied for too. [Link]

Insignia

An insignia is a distinguishing mark or sign. In India various animals have token value, and "swan" (hansa) and "greatest swan", have old roots and firm values inside Hindu classifications, Gods and goddesses have a tendency to mingle and confuse, the all-Hindu pantheon is not easy to understand. Nor are the vehicles and insignia and other tokens of respect, might or prowess.They include birds, animals and on.

There are many bird and animal tokens. [MORE]. Much depends on the orientations of the makers of representational figures.

The alarming Midtgardsormen in Norse mythology is a serpent that is coiled around the world of mankind. In the old Aryan symbol of similar things, a swan swims at the centre, where the sun is also seen, the "Atlantic Ocean", and a lotus flower. Many divergent meanings can be associated with these tokens, but the elements form part of an emblem of the Ramakrishna school of thinking. The image is symbolic.

3. A brave and good look at figurative terms presupposes tall functions of mind first

What we can arrive at on top of suggestive evidence, is corresponding, suggestive recounting. Some taming elements of schooling may set in from definitions of words over and over, learning a vocabulary.

Hornet's Nest of Troubles

'Organisation'. There are many kinds of organisations, as Douglas McGregor and many others have indicated. Much depends on the boss, the climate he is able to set up, and the results. So there is not just one sort of organisation.

Paramahansa Yogananda was once asked why he was averse to organisational work. He was convinced that organisations were "hornets' nests." His guru said, with a stern glance. "Could you or anyone else achieve God-contact through yoga if a line of generous-hearted masters had not been willing to convey their knowledge . . .?" [From Autobiography of a Yogi, chap. 27]

Yogananda started an organisation but still regretted it. He wrote, "I have committed a great blunder by starting an organization." [More]

Hulder

A bewitching female that is not solid and good enough to have and ride in the long run, after all. Alluring siren of Nordic folklore. Greek sirens have snake legs, but not the Scandinavian ones. The Finnish hulder is slim like a needle. The Norwegian one is hollow, and with a cow's tail. The back isn't there at all. This suggests she's not substantial enough inside for farm life and its menial work over and over, and that marriages with her often end. However, the "art" of hulders includes to hide the tail from suitors and being sly. She can get more wealth than others.

So much for the Norwegian one. The Danish "elverpige" is also a sort of elf maid, young and seductive like the Norwegian counterpart. Her back is hollow, too. She's fond of dancing in graceful ways over the meadows, in fairy ways. She could be more like a regular fairy than the Norwegian hulder that is more bodily or stout in general due to the impressions we have got - but there is room for difference of opinion here. [Cf. Dao 157-9]

Jumper

In some Hindu scriptures, divine states of mind are found to be necessary. Ramakrishna:

"I determined to put an end to [my life]. I jumped up like a madman ..." [Goa 153]

In other places Ramakrishna tells the conduct of SOME people who experience a giant awakening, is like that of jumping monkeys.

"Once a sadhu of Hrishikesh came here. He said to me: 'There are five kinds of samadhi [union]. I find you have experienced them all. In [one of] these samadhis one feels the movement of the spiritual current to be like that of ... a monkey.'" [Goa 400]

And a "jumpie" tries to live a good life.

Krishna

krishna figure
Krishna depicted as a little boy
The same as Hare Krishna. Krishna tales have incorporated elements in myths of Indra. Krishna is someone that children maylove to hear of.

There are indications that many sayings in the Bhagavad Gita and later canonical book are the results of a growth within Vaishnavism, which is a dominant part of Hinduism. [SUMMARY]

The word 'Krishna' originally meant dark brown, dark blue or black. See a note on the first page of Vishnu Puranam or the Institutes of Vishnu in one of the oldest English translations. Krishna tends to be portrayed as blue. It carries symbolic meanings to Hindus.

'Hare', the first part of Hare (Hari) Krishna is an ancient god of Aryans. That god (Hare) once saved the world from drowning in the sea, by taking shape as a boar, diving deep and getting it up by use of his tusks. It is an old myth, but it does not match the geographical whereabouts of the planet we are on. Claims of many suggestive, old myths may not match the world we sense so very much.[cf. Clh].

Kriya Yoga

Kriya yoga is a system of yoga methods centred on very specific pranayama techniques for control of the breath (atem, prana), mind, and body in time. The number, content, and arrangement of kriya methods differs between kriya-dispensing organizations. There have also been little-known changes of the kriyas taught in SRF (Self-Realization Fellowship). Kriya yoga can be demanding, the training severe if it is intensive. The system of kriya yoga helps inward-turning by calming the organism, although the system can be rather demanding. And that is why it is said to work best for young, healthy, and yoga-fit persons that accommodate to the hard, intensive training.

In other words: So-called Harding Kriya is the way to catch the salmon.

  • The key element of kriya yoga: [Link]
  • Kriya yoga articles: [Link].

Lahiri Mahasaya

Shyama Charan Devi Sharman Lahiri, aka Lahiri Mahasaya, Lahiri Baba: Link.

A series that uses his teachings as the underlying basis for tenets: Link

In his own handwriting his name is: "Sri Shyama Charan Deva Sharman" [Ha 326n]. Some write Shyamacharan in one word; some Indian languages allow for. Using the guru's family name, Lahiri, is common, and so is adding 'Baba' and 'Mahasay(a)' to it. Lahiri Mahasay(a) and Lahiri Baba seem to be the most frequent ways of naming him in public. However, the guru also had other titles and appellatives.

He was born at the village Ghurni in the district of Nadia in Bengal. His conduct and diligence when attending school was exemplary. He was married at eighteen, and his bride was nine. They had two sons.

Shyama Charan was not for indiscriminate propaganda for kriya-yoga. He would generally instruct his devotees not to disturb their best patterns of living, and would normally ask his disciples to marry at the proper age. It is said he shunned the public gaze.

Love Peacock, Thomas

man Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866) was a Romantic satirist, eager to instruct, one who devised poetry as a help to remember better - a good device specially fit for children. These may be very good attainments:

To ... improve all that is good, and destroy or alleviate all that is evil, in physical and moral nature - have been the hope and aim of the greatest teachers and ornaments of our species. [T.L. Peacock]
You are welcome to laugh if it so please you. [T.L. Peacock]

The highest wisdom and the highest genius have been invariably accompanied with cheerfulness. [T.L. Peacock]

Besides, there is wisdom in his "We may be disappointed in our everyday realities, and ... we may make an ideality of the unattainable." [Cf. T.L. Peacock]

M5

M5 - what is that? It is a verse form among many other things. As such It is quite a novelty, and one that can be fairy well aligned to men from Gotham - that silly-looking tradition handed over in Europe or further.

The M5 surveys border on stories about the good men from Gotham; they get ever more intriguing the more you look into them, is today's bet. You have to get adamant to get intriguing. Mysticism and great wit is intriguing. Bluff may be intriguing also.

If you inspect "the Gotham study" very carefully, you may get food for thought, but it will hardly kill you ... It is not that much specified. Rather, significant parts of an M5 study brings us over and over to the edge of non-stultifying high witticism. Gotham-humour may thus contain delicate tact inside itself. It hardly insists much, no matter how it looks like from the onset - It is to be hoped. A carefully blurred M5 survey - if made with skill and tact - makes the carefully planned subject matter look intriguing, and thereby paves the way for guessing things into it, or getting back to it over and over. For such and many other reasons - some are not taken up here - the M5 helps cosy tale-telling with few, no or odd-looking solutions. The marring or intriguing scheme makes us ponder if there isn't more to this and that. Such free-wheeling wondering is hardly the sign of a mental frog: it must have all things pre-set.

The M5-shaped text hardly specifies just how to get properly to grips with main points taken up. The M5 format shouldn't press points to make us sulks either. On the other hand it can bring us a long way towards how men from Gotham like to rise and shine- It is not far from artist gives at times.

Mantra

Some sound combinations (syllables or sets of syllables) are called mantras, or words of power used for many and devious ends, but also to the end of waking up to inside phenomena by "riding" or "gliding" on the mantra(s) used. The sounds are to be repeated mentally, and carefully guarded and cultivated. Compare. Meditation articles.

Makara

In many English translations of Bhagavad Gita, The Song of God, Hare Krishna appears to say he is the shark among other things, such as gambler fraud and death. [See Chapter 10:31-36] But the saying in 10:31 is, really: "I'm Makar(a)." This makarah or makara is a fable monster, half dolphin, half crocodile, Professor Paul Tuxen explains in his Danish translation. [Cf. Wy]

Up north we don't know how happy you may be over that piece of information. The able chef makes delicious soup of well chosen parts of the shark anyway, he seldoms worships and hails sharks over and above that level. [Cf. Bh; Wy; Abg]

Master

The globe needs effective citizens competent to do their own thinking. [Cf. William Mather Lewis]

Both experience and reasoning may be needed to benefit from symbolic terms. And appropriate training helps too. In time, good training may see to that the experiences get better. Then, eventually, some get a document that says they are "masters" of their trade or profession. "Master" fairly often suggests a profession, like butchery, a trade, or vocation, for example teacher. Find it in headmaster. Becoming a master consists in becoming full-fledged in what you are doing. "Master" is much like German Meister

In ancient and not so ancient China we find the term zi with a lot alternate spellings, the most frequent can be tzu and tse, and all are translated into "Master". Thus Master Lao or Laozi, Laotse, Lao Tzu. They tell of one and the same teacher. [Cf. Uon: "Han Fei part, p. 1]

Paramahansa Yogananda

Compare Alf - Born Mukunda Lal Ghosh in 1893, the emissary of Hinduism came to the United States in 1920 and remained till his death in 1952, except for travels to Alaska and especially India (1935-36) in between. He taught in many places that the world is unreal, illusory, a dream - and thereby debunked his gurus who sent him on his mission - and debunked his mission too, which was to spread kriya yoga. He also claimed to be allied to Jesus while dropping main teachings of the gospels - "A word to the wise will suffice ... "

See the main meanings of "paramahansa". [Link]

Yogananda had Yukteswar as his guru (mentor). He wrote an autobiography where he portrays aspects of his Utopia. But unlike Thomas More's Utopia, parts of Yogananda's ideal brotherhood-based community living has found expressions here and there, more or less. Yogananda had the vision that persons of like mind should band together in awareness of their Selves, and predicted there would be thousands of such self-sustaining communities devoted to high thinking and plain living.

Much about the guru: Autobiography of a Yogi

Peacock

"Birds will be birds, boys will be boys."

Did you know the peacock is India's national bird? and associated with such as Krishna in Hindu iconography?

The swan and peacock are large birds, but the pig is more - more weighty too. The peacock has impressive ways, but the pig comes much closer to a human. Birds will be birds, but a hog is much closer to normal man - and to be handy and human is taken to be better, among humans. Whistle a happy tune in honour of the not too uncommon men and women. They could count more.

Who gave the ... peacock his iris-hues? Will not that which provided for them provide for you?
- from Gems from the East by Helena Blavatsky

The rooster is quite like an ardent peacock, and could serve as an alternative to the icy cold climber in dangerous, slippery and dark public life.

QUAG

QUAG is a cult or a sect that is found "in the mire of the world". Its founder fronted queer teachings that don't make sense, like:

There is no material universe; its warp and woof is ... illusion. [Paramahansa Yogananda, Autobiography of a Yogi, ch. 30.

Implied is also that the founder, his QUAG, and his teachings are found in the world, and hence are illusions - of poor worth, to say the least. A little duck's "Quack, quack quack" may be intrinsically finer. If so, think "quack quack quack" to Yogananda teachings so as to save yourself from inferior teachings.

On some pages the figurative expression Bramble Farm (qv) may still be found. It stands for much the same.

Reefing Speech

Here are a few words by Ralph W. Emerson:

"Speak what you think today in words as hard as cannon balls, and tomorrow speak what tomorrow thinks in hard words again, though it may contradict everything you said today." Does this have the ring of an apology for intellectual inconstancy? Then let the "great soul" bear in mind that "a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds."" - Prof. em. Adolphe Meyer quotes and comments on New England's thinker, Ralph Waldo Emerson in [Grt 261]

It happens Ralph Emerson alludes and uses figurative or half-figurative ways of wording, often with ancient roots from many places. Such refinery can afford man with tall, often agreeable ways of reefing. The Great Barrier Reef outside Australia serves as an example of "reefing". Or the reef around reefed islands in the Pacific Ocean. You may not see much of it, but it is there and does its bulwarking, often gracing work all the time, all the same. That is how it is in these waters.

Not only coral reefs help. In guru-loved literature God is also a boar that saved the world from drowning. [See Clh] What seems scraggy or outré may at times rise to entertain us.

1. The half-suggestion counts

Here is another look. We think you should go for what is solid first, before you swing yourself up into the trees of figurative ways of expression. Clever substitute names, or appellatives, as some may call them, often smuggle attitudes, and correct attitudes are often needed.

Jesus often used metaphors. They served him. He signalled "God communicating with man".

Teachers or Christs should be expected to work for the good of lambs. Sometimes a fit way to hint at subjective, inner or subtle experiences are by similes, metaphors, allegories and figures.

In some Norse myths - often poetic - God Thor fights and fishes a nasty snake, the Midtgardsormen, the offspring of a hollow sort of "giant", Loke. Implied: Thor often fought against the nasty offspring of figurative hollowness for the sake of decency, proficiency and fair dealings - well, survival, eventually. Thor stands for fondness of athletics and wading deeply too, and also helping beginners to move - Tjalve is one symbol of it. [Cf. Ng].

Salmon

Swiss Dr. Carl Gustav Jung uses the world Seele, soul, to represent deeper or inner sides of yourself, and also thinks that soul is of spirit.

Diving inside is likened to salmon's diving in many cases. All these are facets of the giant that Emerson refers to by "My giant goes with me."

A "giant" or a stupendous salmon - may both serve as hints or even metaphors of some aspects to inward sides of yourself, if you have them. Much depends on that -

It is further suggested that a salmon can be hooked and later "chopped up" and be eaten by a fisher's family.

Let us say your own deep heart is of your inner salmon that others may hook and eat of too, all to your inward loss, that is. Let us also say your salmon may grow if all goes well and you are not caught or trapped. That could be good for you. So let a free inner salmon finds ways for you here on earth to to perfect your spiritual nature, if you have such a nature, that is.

Still introducing metaphors, some old and some new: The idea-forming upper layers of the mind may be likened to a trout, by comparison. "From the trout and out" ordinary persons are grossly conscious. On such levels and in such realms are hard dangers, for example the danger of getting hooked or caught by sneaking fishers of men somehow! Those who imagine a fish is better off being fished, are misled - by the fishers of men and many others who profit from them.

The giant inner "salmon" or the giant:

  • MIND SOUL, GOD-LORD: The literature spells out many stages to become aware of. A good overview is made by Dr Daniel Goleman of Harvard University. [Cf. Yy]
  • HEART: The middle section is your interior heart and the seat of art and confluent thinking and these outlets. "Art is of a heart" and "To preserve one's heart is an art."
  • SPIRIT: The salmon's tail is the divine side - die Göttlichkeit of many German mystics, it is maintained for here and now.

The various levels of refinements are further spelled out by Goleman. they are very much identical with those made use of in Rae radionics, and may come close to the general parts of refined nature or mind according to such as ancient Pythagoras and Pythagoreans as well. [Salmon thinking]

Self-Realization Fellowship, SRF

A California-based religious society with meditation groups and centres in over 50 countries, they say.

Sheep

Sheep in the free are shy like small children, and not very easy to get close to all at once. The ram is not all docile either - and in the Book of Revelation the lamb stands for all right wisdom. However, in conventionally figurative use a sheep is someone that resembles a sheep in meekness, stupidity, or timidity, if not better. Fairly often 'sheep' in the Bible can be understood simply as follower. In some formalised settings it may stand for 'member' too. The figurative use of 'sheep' is very old. These are New Testament uses:

FACE "I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me." [John 10:14]

"The Father knows me and I know the Father - and I lay down my life for the sheep." [John 10:15, excerpt]

"I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen." [John 10:16]

"You do not believe because you are not my sheep." [John 10:26]

"My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me." [John 10:27]

Jesus to Peter: "Take care of my sheep." [John 21:16)

Jesus to Peter, "Feed my sheep." [John 21:18]

You do not have to be a follower of Jesus to be called a sheep. In the Old Testament Jehova addressed his said, chosen people as sheep, himself as their shepherd [in some Psalms too] - you may understand where Jesus got some main pictures and ideas from in the matter.

And, by the way, the so-called "good shepherd" let millions of sheep be slaughtered as martyrs in the Roman empire. That was after he allegedly had become "gospel-almighty" - Take heed. Looking sheepish won't quite do.

SRF Walrus Board

The SRF Walrus was an Internet message board. It was up and running until ca. 2011. The board was started by a disenchanted SRF monastic and supported by others of more or less similar, saddening experiences and intent. It contained many tales of hard experiences in Self-Realization Fellowship, attempts at analysing them, and other ways of seeking to come to grips with what had happened.

. Among the 28,246 postings on the Walrus on 16 January 2009, most were anonymous. Its contributors had much on their mind. On a mingled, somehow figurative level, walrus burgers, walrus sausages and other walrus products may be tough to handle, as walrus blubber is alarmingly toxic these days and the meat may not be perfectly toxic-free either.

So can we still make any decent use of the Walrus (Board)? The way of making sausages is to take such as fat and meat, potato and flour, and eventually press the hard-to-define result into some rinsed intestines at hand, cook them, and enjoy the eating. Incidentally, the process of making sausages and of writing doctorate theses is about the same, only that the first one is concrete and the latter is figurative. In our days it is as it should be to make a declaration of what is inside the product. But on older days they said, "The sausage is heavenly, for God only knows what is inside it."

Just bear in mind that toxic blubber and blabber may be no small danger. The SRF Walrus Board had a reputation of that kind among many eager Yogananda devotees. and was eventually rather shunned. Contributors had had their say and perhaps moved on, others had been banned, and so on. The board closed down after nine years or so. But there is a backup site of it as it appeared in 2006. [SRF Walrus Backup Site].

Synopsis

The alias is vers-o-gram here and there. The artistic and vector-mathematics-based summary we call synopsis here, easily gives me keynotes for a lot fit poetry of half-poetry. I may summarise in some other ways, but the synopsis version is special and the finest in my opinion. It is rooted in the tick tack toe layout, the basic gridwork of which it shares. It has three basic leaps, so numbered. It is hoped that you'll take the time to ponder it, for very careful analyses are underneath most often.

The poetry I speak of here, is usually to be judged in the bright light of the great tick tack toe study that precedes it.

It might be good help to take a good look at the hinted-at existential, structural, phenomenological and body-aligned all-round angling attacked at its rear, if you understand the symbols given. The angling at hand is right behind a number sign, this one: #. So: #2 suggests a neck-and throat angling (aligned to Taurus) #4 a female-breast angling aligned to Cancer, and so on. We divide our body, nature's cyclic living and social life in twelve very neatly correlable parts. We juxtapose for those alignments.

The numbers behind our #2 or #4, can be suggested levels of accomplishment to be had in advance one way or other, before you do anything peculiar in the matter.

If you do such things as hinted at, maybe you get ample vthought-help to evolve according to the tick tack toe fairy tale route as hinted at - if you're careful and the tenor of the whole ascent route (design) fits in and suits you. However, you have to work on that route, sift and gauge and judge on your own, so that your common adaptations don't go amiss in any bad way. There are many steps to master in a climb.

If this new sort of haiku-linked poetry doesn't suit you, neither in form nor content, use of this novelty might turn into a mare that rides you like a donkey. And why? Because It is hardly fit or good enough in your sets of circumstances or whatever. In tick tack toe poetry, which this is one form of, much is really up to you or those in power in your surroundings. It is no use denying it. Just think, compare and feel into much at hand, and be wary all along, and maybe the synopsis helps along the way. It is to be hoped, not feared.

The name vers-o-gram is free, hard-boiled play on top of a term coined by Paramahansa Yogananda, founder of SRF. The short extracts he devised under some counterpart heading (par-a-gram), had no intrinsic structure for us to train ourselves by, and very often the gist inside them was commonplace sayings with not much inside them. Much of his sermonising seems outdated already.

Much is mastered over and above that world avatar's best outputs. I thought you might like to know it.

Third Eye, the

Also called the Spiritual Eye and so on. Here are two pages on it: [Link 1] [Link 2]

Trout

The soul of your deep mind is called the trout. When you come across the word 'trout' on this site, the chances are that you have come across a figurative term then. We have evolved a "symbol park" to assist thinking. The soul is not easily seen, to hint at it, and what is more: It is a composite term. There are many nuances, and there are more than just one single view of how the soul is to be understood. So for the sake of artistic developments inside the long art of living and not succumbing to dross, let us use 'trout' to hint at it. We could have used 'flame' or 'inlet' too, but 'trout' is to the point if we stay with fish - This is a divine term. Jesus is called fish. Maybe you know that. Now, by metaphor the trout is the soul as It is called. It may be compared to an inlet from deep inside, from what is ordinarily serving as unconscious levels of deep mind. As for the great mackerel, see here.

Vishnu

Many regard Sri Krishna as an incarnation (embodiment) of the God Vishnu. There are some ancient stories of Vishnu. They tell in highly figurative ways of how the world is made - to allude at very subtle phenomena, figurative langage is used to suggest them.

It is said of the blessed god:

He exists both with and without characteristics that one form is [described as] beyond description and that the wise see it as white . . . Being both far and near [He] is said to be indifferent to possessions. The color, shape and other attributes of this first form [of Vishnu] are not without existence, but they exist in imagination." [Clh 66]

That protector-god also sleeps on a serpent in the ocean of milk in the cosmic water. [Clh 60-62, 66]

One ancient story from Classical Hindu Mythology [Clh 30]:

Once Brahma came out of the Lotus in Visnu's Navel

Once there was a solitary sea. In that undisturbed desolation slept the god Narayana, supreme person, lying on the bed that was the serpent Sesa. The all-knowing one who is contemplated by wise men, was large-eyed.

Once during his sleep there arose in play from his navel a pure lotus, wondrous and divine, core of the three worlds. Bright as the morning sun, it had a heavenly fragrance. It so happened:

The universal soul, Brahma, who had made the eternal Vishnu, appeared and Vishnu said smilingly in a voice as deep as the rumbling of a cloud. "Bhoh! Bhoh! I am the supreme person. See inside me the entire world and also yourself."

Brahma said, "I am creator and ordainer, facing all directions."

Vishnu then entered Brahma and saw all three worlds in the belly of the god, and was astonished. He then emerged from Brahma's mouth and said, "In the same way, enter my eternal belly and see these wonderful worlds."

Brahma did. He saw these worlds, and no end or limit. Brahma roamed around inside the belly, and saw no end or limit. The doors out again were shut. But Brahma, the one born from a golden egg, found passage through the navel. Then the four-faced Brahma displayed himself on the lotus, lustrous as the inside of a flower, and shone there radiantly, resting on the lotus. [Clh 30-31]

This is what a human lives in. Deep inside is plenty support, and also creativity, and categories like "supreme". If you should think you grasp this, consider that experiencing such things first-hand could be the fare of good yogis, as suggested by Vivekananda somewhere, and also that there is no adequate proof to give.

There is some more on Vishnu in a Krishna work on-site. The Sanskrit classis The Institutes of Vishnu is also here.

Walnut burgers and sausages

Making vegetarian dinners by meat substitutes is a good idea on a troubled planet, where inhuman treatment of domesticated animals and other humans is not uncommon. By replacing meat with finely ground walnuts (and other high-protein foods) we get dishes rich in amino acids (proteins).

A well balanced vegetarian diet contains enough of all the essential amino acids (which the body cannot make itself), and all the needed minerals and natural vitamins for body growth and upkeep, and some fiber for the intestines to work on.

Also worth knowing is that there are differences among humans, different health conditions and corresponding, diifferent food needs too. The size of inner organs varies widely, and how they work varies too. With age some organs do not yield as well either. So there is quite a lot to take into account if one cannot sense what is needed through peculiar cravings for certain foods. Books for vegetarians give alternative-minded ones many pieces of useful information.

Whisky Drinking (Figurative)

When you drink whisky and are inexperienced, you gasp a bit. When you do a certain pranayama method called kriya and are a beginner, you gasp a bit. With practice no one else hears that you gasp. Then you breathe or pant slowly, measuredly, and widen your throat also. An exact method - it is core kriya yoga - is spelled out here: [Link]

And if this is not enough information for you, there are whole pages devoted to the very secretive whisky-drinking way that can also be called kraya yoga and more.

Wolf

"Who's afraid of the big, bad wolf?" An endearing song begins like that. A biblical wolf tends to be a dangerous and hungry guide:

"Watch out for false prophets. They come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves. By their fruit you will recognise them ... a bad tree bears bad fruit." - Matthew 7;15-17

Yukteswar

The Hindu swami Sri Yukteswar was first known as Priya Nath Karar (1855-1936) of Calcutta. Years after his wife died after giving him a daughter, he became a swami monk. One of his disciples tells in his autobiography [q.v.] that the swaminame was Yukteswar, not Sri Yukteswar.

Yukteswar means "united to God." Giri is a classificatory distinction of one of the ten ancient Swami branches. Sri means "holy"; it is not a name but a title of respect. [Autobiography of a Yogi Chap. 12, note 3]

Another source tells Sri is part of the monastic name, and writes Sriyuktshvar, but we stick to Yogananda in this, so 'Yukteswar' is supposed to be enough.

Yukteswar is quoted by Yogananda for terse and quite gnomic utterances. The term "gnome" stems from Greek "gnome" - It is derived from "know". And "gnomic" means "marked by aphorisms," "giving vent to much general, apparent truth" "mystical, wise sentences". Hence, 'gnomic' refers to a terse style of expressing oneself.

Pages about Yukteswar:


Omphaloid Lexicon, Literature  

Abg: Braarvig, Jens, tr. Bhagavadgita. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1990.

Ap: Mieder, Wolfgang (main ed.), Stewart A. Kingsbury, and Kelsie E. Harder. A Dictionary of American Proverbs. (Paperback) New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Au: Yogananda, Paramahansa. Autobiography of a Yogi. 13th ed. Los Angeles: Self-Realization Fellowship (SRF), 1998.

Clh: Dimmitt, Cornelia, ed., and J. A. B. van Buitenen, tr. Classical Hindu Mythology. Philadelphia: Temple University, 1978.

Dao: Ramløv, Preben. Danske folkeeventyr. København: Gyldendal, 1983.

Dis: Biedermann, Hans. Dictionary of Symbolism. Tr. James Hulbert. Oxford: Facts on File, 1992.

Dm: Jagadiswarananda Swami, tr. Devi Mahatmyam. Madras: Ramakrishna Math, 1953.

Dp: Fergusson, Rosalind. The Penguin Dictionary of Proverbs. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983.

EB: Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, or the yearly Suite DVD. London: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Gh: Hjortsø, Leo. Græske guder og helte. 2. utg. København: Politiken, 1984.

Goa: Nikhilananda, Swami, tr. The Gospel of Ramakrishna. Abridged ed. New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1974.

Grt: Meyer, Adolphe. Grandmasters of Educational Thought. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.

Grt: Meyer, Adolphe. Grandmasters of Educational Thought. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.

Gyl: Berne, Eric. Games People Play. Reissue ed. London: Penguin, 2010.

Ha: Yogananda, Paramahansa. Autobiography of a Yogi. 12th ed. Los Angeles: Self-Realization Fellowship (SRF), 1981.

Hom: Berne, Eric. What Do You Say After You Say Hello? The Psychology of Human Destiny. New York: Bantam, 1973.

Ids: Hall, James. Illustrated Dictionary of Symbols in Eastern and Western Art. Paperback ed. Boulder, CO: Westwood Press, 1996.

Ma: Pargiter, Frederick Eden, tr. Markandeya Purana. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 1904.

Mmb: Buzan, Tony. Mind Maps for Business: Revolutionise Your Business Thinking and Practise. Harlow: BBC Active / Pearson Educational, 2010.

Ng: Munch, Peter Andreas Norrøne gude- og heltesagn. Rev. ed. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1981. Online English text

Pan: Rajan, Chandra, tr. Visnu Sarma: The Panchatantra. London: Penguin Classics, 1995.

Plm: Gross, Ronald. Peak Learning: A Master Course in Learning How to Learn. Rev. ed. New York: J. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999.

Sh: Raghunathan, N., tr. Srimad Bhagavatam, Vols 1-2. Madras: Vighneswara, 1976.

Si: Shastri, J. ed. Siva Purana, Vols 1-4. Delhi: Banarsidass, 1969.

Sivn: Pavitrananda, Swami, tr. Siva-Mahimnah Stotram. 5th ed. Mayavati: Advaita, 1976.

Trap: Nida, Eugene, and Charles Taber. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: United Bible Societies / Brill, 1974.

Uon: Watson, Burton, tr. Basic Writings of Mo Tzu, Hsün Tzu, and Han Fei Tzu. New York: Columbia University, 1964.

WP: Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.

Wy: Tuxen, Poul, tr. Bhagavadgita. Herrens Ord. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1962.

Yy: Goleman, David. The Varieties of the Meditative Experience. London: Rider, 1975.

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