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Muktikopanishad and Sarvasara-Upanishad in Short

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Muktikopanishad in Short

Adhyaya 1

The monkey warrior, Hanuman, asks Rama: "What are Vedantas?"

Rama: "Through the out-breath of Myself, the Vedas were generated as many."

Hanuman: "How many are the Vedas and their branches? What are the Upanishads? Please, tell."

Rama: "The Vedas are said to be four in all, and their branches are many. So also the Upanishads. The oldest Veda, Rigveda, has twenty-one branches. There are 109 branches in Yajurveda, and one thousand branches in Samaveda. And there are fifty branches in Atharvanaveda. In each branch, there is one Upanishad."

Hanuman: "Is there one kind of salvation only, or several kinds of it?"

Rama: "There is only one true emancipation. Further, the twice-born who is of virtuous conduct and who, without diverting his intelligence on any other, meditates suitably on Me, the All-Atma, attains Samipya (nearness) to Me.

"Certain Upanishads can do away with the three Bhavanas [of doubt, vain thought, and false thought], conferring Jnana and Vairagya, and destroying the three Vasanas [impressons of book-lore, world and body].

"The 108 Upanishads must not be imparted to an atheist, an ungrateful person, one intent on vicious actions, one having no devotion towards Me, or one who loses his path in the cave of books. On no account shall they be given to one devoid of devotion. Only after a thorough examination should they be imparted to a disciple doing service (to a Guru), to a well-disposed son, or to one of a good family, and being of bright enough.

"Something like this is stated in a Rik (verse): "Vidya (Saraswati) went to a Brahmana greeted him thus: 'Protect me. I shall be thy treasure. Do not confide me to the envious, to one not treading the right path, or to the rogue.

"Persons desirous of emancipation and having developed the four means of salvation should, with presents in their hands, approach a Guru full of faith, of good family, proficient in Vedas, scripture-loving, of good qualities, straightforward, intent upon the welfare of all beings, and an ocean of compassion; and after studying under him the 108 Upanishads according to the rules,, he should ever keep studying, thinking and reflecting upon them."

Adhyaya 2

Hanuman: "What is Jivanmukti?"

Rama: "Jivanmukti is accomplished through human efforts. Regarding it, there are verses: 'The efforts of man are stated to be of two kinds, those that transcend scriptures and those that are according to scriptures and tend to Reality. Chitta has to be fondled through human efforts. Practise the state of a mind devoid of Vasana [sense-impression and other mind-waves]. Through the abandoning of the [thought of the] reality of the universe, Vasana does not arise. So long as you are without a mind of great discrimination and are not a knower of the Supreme Seat, so long should you follow whatever has been decided by the teacher and the authorities of the sacred books.

"The Vasanas of enjoyment decay in time.

"To the tree of the mind having the ever-growing branches of modifications, there are two seeds. One is the fluctuation of Prana, and the other is the firmness of Vasana.

"Through the force of the practice of Dhyana: supreme bliss.

"We should seek the effulgence within.

"The following is said in the Rig [-Veda] also: 'The wise ever see the Supreme Seat of Vishnu."

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Sarvasara-Upanishad in Short

Jagrat is that [state] during which Atma enjoys the gross objects of senses as sound, etc.

Turiya is that state during which Atma is a witness to the three states of waking, dreaming, and deep sleep.

Karta (the actor) is the one who possesses the body and the internal organs through their respective desires proceeding from the idea of pleasure and pain.

Kutastha is he who is found without exception in the Buddhi of all creatures from Brahma down to ants, and who is shining as Atma and dwells as witness to the Buddhi of all creatures.

Antaryamin is the Atma that shines as the ordainer.

Who is Pratyagatma? He is of the nature of truth, wisdom, eternity and bliss. He has no vehicles of body. He is abstract wisdom. He is of the nature of mere consciousness. He is that which shines as Chaitanya and Brahman.

Who is Paramatma? He is associated with truth, wisdom, eternity, bliss, omniscience, etc.

What is Brahman? Absolute Consciousness devoid of particularities, which is Sat (Be-ness), which is without a second, which is bliss and which is Maya-less.

And what is Satya (the true)? It is the Sat (Be-ness) which is the aim of the Vedas. It is not affected by the three periods of time and continues to exist during them. It is that which is. It is one without a second.

And what is Jnana (wisdom)? It is self-light.

And what is Ananta (the eternal)? It is without origin and destruction. It is not subject to birth, growth, manhood, decay, old age and death). It is free from all Upadhis. It permeates the created universe.

And what is Ananda (bliss)? It is the seat of all sentient beings, pure, and of Chidananda (consciousness-bliss).

There are three kinds of "substances", Sat (Be-ness), Asat (not-Be-ness) and Mithya (Illusion). Sat alone is Brahman. Asat is that which is not. Mithya is the illusory ascription to Brahman of the universe that is not.

What is fit to be known is Brahman, the Atma alone.

What is Maya? The root of not-Atma is Maya. She appears in Brahman like clouds, etc., in the sky, and seems indescribable.

Words

This Upanishad and the next form a glossary of some of the terms of Vedanta.

'Sarva-Sara' is the all-essence or quintessence.

The organs of sense, action, and the internal organs of Manas, Buddhi, China and Ahankara, each is animated by a Devata or intelligential principle.

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