Jerome Bruner Ideas Applied to Norwegian Americans
According to metaphysical Jaina theory, anything in the universe can - theoretically and in thought at the very least - be related to anything else in the universe. Accordingly, Jerome Bruner's ideas (mainly from 1996) from the fields of psychology and education can be said to pertain to Norwegian Americans too.
Norwegian Americans have been studied by Odd S. Lovoll. His book The Promise Fulfilled (1998) uses questionaire statistics for assessments and verbalisations.
There are other and later expressions of Norwegian Americans than the burlesque humour strip Han Ola og han Per by Peter Rosendahl - for example songs. songs, representatives, life stories, good ideas and other cultural outlets and much else. Bruner (1996) reflects on such issues in his cultural psychology (1990, 1996).
About one third of the Norwegians emigrated to the U.S.A. between 1835 and 1910, hoping for a good life, or if not good, better than back home, and if not better, a return ticked might be wise. Since most Norwegian Americans around 2000 were middle class Americans, many could have succeeded fairly well until then. However, social characteristics, conditions and comparisons are not all that simple. Therefore it could be good to follow up by asking such as,
To ask fine questions could matter much in the long run. What is more, it helps to discriminate too when it comes to our own nourishment - material, social, intellectual, mental, moral, cultural-habitual, and so on, as the case may be. Handling information sensibly can be trained also.
Cultural Studies is a scholarly field of field of research, approaches and teachings. It was first developed by British academics in the late 1950s, 60s and 70s. The field has since been taken up and transformed by scholars in many arenas around the world.
Hallmarks of the field of Cultural Studies:
Cultural studies concerns itself with the meaning and practices of everyday life; how people do particular things in a given culture; in any given practice; and how they use various objects.
Communication technology has moved very rapidly and has got a definite effect on outlooks. Hence, human culture is getting more unified.
Cultural Studies in the United States was grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition that occupied itself with understanding effects of such as mass culture.
The feminist cultural analyst, theorist and art historian Griselda Pollock contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of art history and psychoanalysis. The writer Julia Kristeva was an influential voice in the turn of the century, contributing to Cultural Studies from the field of art and psychoanalytical French feminism.
And why is consumerism considered part of culture? One big aim of government economic policy is to maintain consumer spending levels, for those levels indicate or serve economic effectiveness, regardless that humankind's present rrate of consumption is leading the planet to a point where it can no longer be sustained, threatening the human race and more. This is a major issue in Cultural Studies: the mass media's influence on consumers.
Academic reception: Some scholars and disciplines like to dismiss Cultural Studies for its methodological openness and loose-looking disciplinarity. Still, its core strategies of critique and analysis have had a profound influence in social sciences and humanities. It is a living field of studies and explorations (cf. the book list).
Barker, Martin, and Anne Beezer, eds. Reading into Cultural Studies. London: Taylor and Francis e-Library, 2005.
Bruner, Jerome. Acts of Meaning (the Jerusalem-Harvard Lectures). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.
⸻. The Culture of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.
During, Simon. Cultural Studies: A Critical Introduction. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2005.
Hall, Gary, and Clare Birchall, eds. New Cultural Studies: Adventures in Theory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.
Kövecses, Zóltan. Metaphor in Culture: Universality and Variation. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Longhurst, Brian, et al. Introducing Cultural Studies. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2008.
Lovoll, Odd S. The Promise Fulfilled: A Portrait of Norwegian Americans Today. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.
Miller, Toby, ed. A Companion to Cultural Studies. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.
Pickering, Michael, ed. Research Methods for Cultural Studies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008.
Rosendahl, Peter J. Han Ola og Han Per. A Norwegian-American Comic Strip. En norsk-amerikansk tegneserie, edited by Joan N. Buckley and Einar Haugen. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1984 (Original printed in the Decorah-Posten).
⸻. More han Ola og han Per. A Norwegian-American Comic Strip. En norsk-amerikansk tegneserie. Edited by Joan N. Buckley and Einar Haugen. Bilingual Edition. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1988.
Schönpflug, Ute, ed. Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Storey, John. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2012.
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