Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902) was born in a Samurai family, and maintained a prominent position in the literary world despite tuberculosis. He often wrote about it.
In 1892 Shiki began to feel it was needed to free poetry from centuries-old rules prescribing topics and vocabulary. In an essa in the newspaper Nihon in 1900, he introduced the word shasei ("delineation from nature") to describe his stance: a poet should present things as they really are, and write in the language of contemporary speech.
His articles stimulated renewed interest in the haiku poet Buson.
Haiku by ShikiWhile I turned my head
I'd just passed . . .
Melted into mist
So enviable . . .
A mountain village
The summer river:
Hanging the lantern
Green shadow-dances . . .
For a cool evening
Now my loneliness
Long the summer day . . .
By that fallen house
Oh! I ate them all
Such a little child
Eleven brave knights
I gave the greetings
At our last parting
Oh sorry tom-cat
on the grave . . .
And my old sadness
Roaring winter storm
But when I halted
Now in late autumn
None broke the silence . . .
Flower in the stream
Night is bright with stars
You stupid scarecrow!
In the farther field
One fallen flower
Come come! Come out!
Ah! Brave dragon-fly . . .
Many solemn nights
Beilenson, Peter, tr. Japanese Haiku. New York: Peter Pauper Press, 1955.
Blyth, Reginald Horace. Haiku. Vol 1: Eastern Culture, Tokyo: The Hokuseido Press, 1949.
Blyth, Reginald Horace. Haiku. Vol 2: Spring, Tokyo: The Hokuseido Press, 1950.
Blyth, Reginald Horace. Haiku. Vol 3: Summer - Autumn. Tokyo: The Hokuseido Press, 1952.
Blyth, Reginald Horace. Haiku. Vol 4: Autumn - Winter. Tokyo: The Hokuseido Press, 1952.
Bownas, Geoffrey, and Anthony Thwaite. Japanese Verse. Rev. ed. London: Penguin Classics, 2009.
Dørumsgaard, Arne. De sorte svalene: Moderne japansk poesi. Første samling. Meiji-perioden (1868-1912). Oslo: Dreyer, 1967, ⍽▢⍽ Arne Dørumsgaard introduces Shiki and tells from the changes in Japanese culture during Shiki's life. Ten haiku by Shiki are included among many others.
Hakutaini, Yoshinobu. Haiku and Modernist Poetics. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009.
Haugen, Paal-Helge. Blad frå ein austleg hage: hundre Haiku-dikt (Leaves from an Eastern Garden: A Hundred Haiku). Oslo: Det norske Samlaget, 1965.
Isaacson, Helen Shikego, comp, tr. 300 Haiku Works. Part 8. Winchester, VA: The Haiku Foundation, 2010. ⍽▢⍽ Haiku of the Shiki School. The work originates in the University of Groningen's Haiku Project Data Base.
Rosenstock, Gabriel. Haiku: The Gentle Art of Disappearing. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009.
Sher, Gail. The Haiku Masters: Four Poetic Diaries. Emeryville, CA: Night Crane Press, 2008.
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