It is possible to use more rendition markers than cf. (confer), and using quotation marks. On this page there are assorted technical abbreviations or renditions. Such codes should make it very easy to identify what kind of rendering we deal with. Rendition markers are typically put in square brackets on this site - , and on occasion in round brackets () as well. Rendition markers are shorthand ways of telling what sort of statements we are dealing with, in addition to verbatim quotes - for there are many ways to modify am original expression if we feel up to it. Below you can see some extended rendition markers and purposes they serve.
Markers, Their Meanings and Good Uses
Abr --- Abridged
Comment: Here is a common abbreviation. Abridgements bring basic meanings to the fore more easily as long as they are understood. So there are lists of common abbreviations and what they stand for. Interestingly, the more we abridge a sentence, the more possible meanings it may acquire, so there is a limits into this craft too. That some abridgements may seem foolish or tendentious at first glance, but if they acquire some set meanings, they enter special books that tell about them - dozens of such books exist, and also also dictionaries in forms like 'abr." (abridged, abridgement), abbr. (abbreviated, abbreviation) and 'abbrev. (abbreviated, abbreviation).
Cf (from 'confer') --- compare
Comment: One more common abridgement in regular use throughout the academic world. It is used to refer to another text, a source, or something else.
Cr --- Crossed, or au contraire
Comment: A mark of disagreement that could be used if your response you refer to, signals "to the contrary". It is a mark for pinpointing that you disagree or gainsay something or someone.
Mod --- Modified
Comment: 'Mod' is a brief way of telling: "I render something; it is modified by me." On this site, 'Mod' is used when I tone down an utterance by someone who is talking big, but regardless of that a sensible kernel or more are found. 'Mod' is a brief way of signalling that. One may also tailor several phrases from different authors and come up with a blend that has not been found on the Internet at least. Where tough reservations or other articulations are preferrable, or stern carefulness seems best needed. May also be used to denote a mishmash "quote", i.e., a concoction of isolated segments put together.
Opp --- "Opposed to," against, or "contrast it with -"
Comment: Clearly against statements, claims or tenets alluded to or referred to, as the case may be.
Hum (or heh) --- Humorous abstract
Comment: For the fun of it. However, persons differ. What one person finds humorous, another does not, and that is a caveat.
With (+ or |) --- Selected keynotes assembled.
Comment: 'With' signals that the phrase or paragraph in question is a lot influenced by some other or otherss. "With"may also be used for shuffled gist or when I twist and turn statements and phrases of others, and end up with something others did not say or write in a way like that. In such a case one either claims the changed phrases or segments are one's own, or suggest an influence somewhere, whatever that influence might be.
Like a new dress sown from other pieces
A tailor or fashion-designer may produce a modest or fashionable dress from several pieces of cloth. Similarly with meanings, one-liners and other phrases or periods. There are skills that go into it, tastes and flair.
Some have borrowed phrases or one-liners from others and put their own names behind that. It is not uncommon in the citation area. And some borrow and change the phrases for some reason, and get a new angle, a new outlook, something interesting that owes a little here, a little there, but which is new. In such cases I either put an asterix behind the phrase, or TK or something, or nothing. I tend to prefer "nothing" a lot.
Standardised abbreviations can make writing much easier and more accurate. Here are some regular ones: [Link]
Ellipses. If we want to remove something from the quotation in order to make it more pregnant to our purposes, more "snappy", and so on, we cut off what is not so fit for our own ends and to the point, and put three dots in place of what is left out. The omission of a word, phrase, line, paragraph, or more from a quoted passage is indicated by an ellipsis. It is a standard way of doing it, although different style manuals instruct us to put the omission marks differently. Style manuals offer specified ways of omitting parts of quotations. The Chicago Manual of Style [Csm] is a good and big one.
It could be that in some circumstances, a quotatoin with a wealth of ellipses becomes annoying, and we do not want that. In such cases we may render, paraphrase, passages in question. It is one of the ways to avoid plagiarising others. Paraphrases coupled with salient quotations (abbreviated or not) make up a large part of academic writing.
It is a good task for a matter-of-fact writer not to change the meaning and tone of the original expression he renders or quotes with omitted parts.
I quote a period by Dana Ullman, MPH:
Great Britain's Royal Family, Mahatma Gandhi, John D. Rockefeller, Sr., Tina Turner, and Yehudi Menuhin don't have much in common, except for the fact that they all have been strong supporters of homeopathic medicine. (1) There is one simple reason that these and other respected individuals the world over have supported homeopathic medicine: it works. ◦Ref.]
Nice words. Are they fair? That should be our first concern, methinks. Dropping that issue for now, the period may be abridged in several ways without introducing any bias or opinion of our own:
1. Using "With" - Instead of ellipses far and wide
Great Britain's Royal Family, Mahatma Gandhi, John D. Rockefeller, Sr., Tina Turner, and Yehudi Menuhin have been strong supporters of homeopathic medicine. [With Dana Ullman.
NOTE: A referred-to period has been abbreviated, the significant meaning is still intact, and you show that you render - and in part how - by the bracketed with and the likable house rules that accompany its use. It is, simply, a non-elaborate way of rendering that may be fit in some circumstances.
2. Using "Mod" - Modifying means
'Mod' equals paraphrasing also:
The one reason why the Royal Family and other celebrities have supported homeopathic medicine, is that it works, writes Dana Ullman.Instead of writing "writes Dana Ullman" and similar, likable phrases fit for paraphrases in well schooled writings, we may modify one or more phrases of his and let others know that they have been modified here, while you refer to the source as our style guide tells us to do:
The one reason why the Royal Family and other celebrities have supported homeopathic medicine, is that it works [Mod Dana Ullman].
Thus, [Mod Dana Ullman] typically means "Dana Ullman as rendered /modified by me". Again, the "mod" helps keeping some things "sweet and short," hopefully. I have found it too useful to discard it. Maybe I never will.
3. "Abr" - Abridging things, sometimes with offhand-looking effects etc
If we cut away much of one or more sentences, sometimes the phrases and segments we end up with yet express fairly what the author we cite or "cite" could have in mind. The general aim is to reduce nuisances.
Yet it happens that an abbreviation give rise to divergent interpretations. Some things depend on which standards are to be met, but fun may be had with quotations and half-quotations, and that is a fit point for lovers of fun.
By closing the gaps" that ellipes mark, there is a chance that some extract-like, terse statements may look funny, or biased, or wrong, and so on. If you are free to seem offhand-like and casual, thorough abbreviations may help a laugh or three. It depends on the skills of writers and the mental associations called forth in readers.
So: We may insert three dots in a row to show where something is left out (ellipses), or we can use markers at the end of the line or paragraph that say so in one or more ways and may prove all right or helpful; and that is the idea of very sound study methods. [Cf. lojong]
Coded markers like cf. and abr. and the rest of them - also acronyms for whole works and much else - can make referring and reading easier. So it is much used. A well defined corpus of works, such as the books of the Bible, can be referred to by abridged book titles.