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  1. The Song of the Avanti Brahmana
  2. The Philosophy of Sankhya

23. The Song of the Avanti Brahmin

Sukadeva said: Mukunda, the chief of the Dasarhas, having thus been respectfully requested by the best of his devotees, Uddhava, first acknowledged the fitness of his servant's statements. Then the Lord, whose glorious exploits are most worthy of being heard, began to reply to him. (23.1)

Krishna said: Disciple of Brihaspati, there is virtually no saintly man in this world capable of resettling his own mind after it has been disturbed by the insulting words of uncivilized men. (23.2)

Sharp arrows which pierce one's chest and reach the heart do not cause as much suffering as the arrows of harsh, insulting words that become lodged within the heart when spoken by uncivilized men. (23.3)

Dear Uddhava, in this regard a most pious story is told, and I shall now describe it to you. Please listen with careful attention. (23.4)

Once a certain sannyasi was insulted in many ways by impious men. However, with determination he remembered that he was suffering the fruit of his own previous karma. I will narrate to you his story and that which he spoke. (23.5)

In the country of Avanti there once lived a certain Brahmin who was very rich and gifted with all opulences, and who was engaged in the occupation of commerce. But he was a miserly person – lusty, greedy and very prone to anger. (23.6)

In his home, devoid of religiosity and lawful sense gratification, the family members and guests were never properly respected, even with words. He would not even allow sufficient gratification for his own body at the suitable times. (23.7)

Since he was so hardhearted and miserly, his sons, in-laws, wife, daughters and servants began to feel inimical toward him. Becoming disgusted, they would never treat him with affection. (23.8)

In this way the presiding deities of the five family sacrifices became angry at the Brahmin, who, being niggardly, guarded his wealth like a Yaksa, who had no good destination either in this world or the next, and who was totally deprived of religiosity and sense enjoyment. (23.9)

Magnanimous Uddhava, by his neglect of these gods he depleted his stock of piety and all his wealth. The accumulation of his repeated exhaustive endeavours was totally lost. (23.10)

Some of the wealth of this so-called Brahmin was taken away by his relatives, dear Uddhava, some by thieves, some by the whims of providence, some by the effects of time, some by ordinary men and some by government authorities. (23.11)

Finally, when his property was completely lost, he who never engaged in religiosity or sense enjoyment became ignored by his family members. Thus he began to feel unbearable anxiety. (23.12)

Having lost all his wealth, he felt great pain and lamentation. His throat choked up with tears, and he meditated for a long time on his fortune. Then a powerful feeling of renunciation came over him. (23.13)

The Brahmin spoke as follows: What great misfortune! I have simply tormented myself uselessly, struggling so hard for money that was not even intended for religiosity or material enjoyment. (23.14)

Generally, the wealth of misers never allows them any happiness. In this life it causes their self- torment, and when they die it sends them to hell. (23.15)

Whatever pure fame is possessed by the famous and whatever praiseworthy qualities are found in the virtuous are destroyed by even a small amount of greed, just as one's attractive physical beauty is ruined by a trace of white leprosy. (23.16)

In the earning, attainment, increase, protection, expense, loss and enjoyment of wealth, all men experience great labor, fear, anxiety and delusion. (23.17)

Theft, violence, speaking lies, duplicity, lust, anger, perplexity, pride, quarreling, enmity, faithlessness, envy and the dangers caused by women, gambling and intoxication are the fifteen undesirable qualities that contaminate men because of greed for wealth. Although these qualities are undesirable, men falsely ascribe value to them. One desiring to achieve the real benefit of life should therefore remain aloof from undesirable material wealth. (23.18-19)

Even a man's brothers, wife, parents and friends united with him in love will immediately break off their affectionate relationships and become enemies over a single coin. (23.20)

For even a small amount of money these relatives and friends become very agitated and their anger is inflamed. Acting as rivals, they quickly give up all sentiments of goodwill and will reject one at a moment's notice, even to the point of committing murder. (23.21)

Those who obtain human life, which is prayed for even by the gods, and in that human birth become situated as first-class Brahmins, are extremely fortunate. If they disregard this important opportunity, they are certainly killing their own self-interest and thus achieve a most unfortunate end. (23.22)

What mortal man, having achieved this human life, which is the very gateway to both heaven and liberation, would willingly become attached to that abode of worthlessness, material property? (23.23)

One who fails to distribute his wealth to the proper shareholders – the gods, sages, forefathers and ordinary living entities, as well as his immediate relatives, in-laws and own self – is maintaining his wealth simply like a Yaksa and will fall down. (23.24)

Discriminating persons are able to utilize their money, youth and strength to achieve perfection. But I have feverishly squandered these in the useless endeavour for further wealth. Now that I am an old man, what can I achieve? (23.25)

Why must an intelligent man suffer by his constant vain efforts to get wealth? Indeed, this whole world is most bewildered by someone's illusory potency. (23.26)

For one who is in the grips of death, what is the use of wealth or those who offer it, sense gratification or those who offer it, or, for that matter, any type of fruitive activity, which simply causes one to again take birth in the material world? (23.27)

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who contains within Himself all the gods, must be satisfied with me. Indeed, he has brought me to this suffering condition and forced me to experience detachment, which is the boat to carry me over this ocean of material life. (23.28)

If there is any time remaining in my life, I will perform austerities and force my body to subsist on the bare necessities. Without further confusion I shall pursue that which constitutes my entire self- interest in life, and I shall remain satisfied within the self. (23.29)

Thus may the presiding gods of these three worlds kindly show their mercy on me. Indeed, Maharaja Khatvanga was able to achieve the spiritual world in a single moment. (23.30)

Krishna continued: His mind thus determined, that most excellent Avanti Brahmin was able to untie the knots of desire within his heart. He then assumed the role of a peaceful and silent sannyasi mendicant. (23.31)

He wandered about the earth, keeping his intelligence, senses and life air under control. To beg charity he traveled alone to various cities and villages. He did not advertise his advanced spiritual position and thus was not recognized by others. (23.32)

Kind Uddhava, seeing him as an old, dirty beggar, rowdy persons would dishonour him with many insults. (23.33)

Some of these persons would take away his sannyasi rod, and some the waterpot which he was using as a begging bowl. Some took his deerskin seat, some his chanting beads, and some would steal his torn, ragged clothing. Displaying these things before him, they would pretend to offer them back but would then hide them again. (23.34)

When he was sitting on the bank of a river about to partake of the food that he had collected by his begging, such sinful rascals would come and pass urine on it, and they would dare to spit on his head. (23.35)

Although he had taken a vow of silence, they would try to make him speak, and if he did not speak they would beat him with sticks. Others would chastise him, saying, "This man is just a thief." And others would bind him up with rope, shouting, "Tie him up! Tie him up!" (23.36)

They would criticize and insult him, saying, "This man is just a hypocrite and a cheat. He makes a business of religion simply because he lost all his wealth and his family threw him out." (23.37)

Some would ridicule him by saying, "Just see this greatly powerful sage! he is as steadfast as the Himalaya Mountains. By practice of silence he strives for his goal with great determination, just like a duck." Other persons would pass foul air on him, and sometimes others would bind this twice-born Brahmin in chains and keep him captive like a pet animal. (23.38-39)

The Brahmin understood that all his suffering – from other living beings, from the higher forces of nature and from his own body – was unavoidable, being allotted to him by providence. (23.40)

Even while being insulted by these low-class men who were trying to effect his downfall, he remained steady in his spiritual duties. Fixing his resolution in the mode of goodness, he began to chant the following song. (23.41)

The Brahmin said: These people are not the cause of my happiness and distress. Neither are the gods, my own body, the planets, my past work, or time. Rather, it is the mind alone that causes happiness and distress and perpetuates the rotation of material life. (23.42)

The powerful mind actuates the functions of the material modes, from which evolve the different kinds of material activities in the modes of goodness, ignorance and passion. From the activities in each of these modes develop the corresponding statuses of life. (23.43)

Although present along with the struggling mind within the material body, the Supersoul is not endeavouring, because he is already endowed with transcendental enlightenment. Acting as my friend, he simply witnesses from his transcendental position. I, the infinitesimal spirit soul, on the other hand, have embraced this mind, which is the mirror reflecting the image of the material world. Thus I have become engaged in enjoying objects of desire and am entangled due to contact with the modes of nature. (23.44)

Charity, prescribed duties, observance of major and minor regulative principles, hearing from scripture, pious works and purifying vows all have as their final aim the subduing of the mind. Indeed, concentration of the mind on the Supreme is the highest yoga. (23.45)

If one's mind is perfectly fixed and pacified, then tell me what need does one have to perform ritualistic charity and other pious rituals? And if one's mind remains uncontrolled, lost in ignorance, then of what use are these engagements for him? (23.46)

All the senses have been under the control of the mind since time immemorial, and the mind himself never comes under the sway of any other. He is stronger than the strongest, and his godlike power is fearsome. Therefore, anyone who can bring the mind under control becomes the master of all the senses. (23.47)

Failing to conquer this irrepressible enemy, the mind, whose urges are intolerable and who torments the heart, many people are completely bewildered and create useless quarrel with others. Thus they conclude that other people are either their friends, their enemies or parties indifferent to them. (23.48)

Persons who identify with this body, which is simply the product of the material mind, are blinded in their intelligence, thinking in terms of "I" and "mine." Because of their illusion of "this is I, but that is someone else," they wander in endless darkness. (23.49)

If you say that these people are the cause of my happiness and distress, then where is the place of the soul in such a conception? This happiness and distress pertain not to the soul but to the interactions of material bodies. If someone bites his tongue with his own teeth, at whom can he become angry in his suffering? (23.50)

If you say that the gods who rule the bodily senses cause suffering, still, how can such suffering apply to the spirit soul? This acting and being acted on are merely interactions of the changeable senses and their presiding deities. When one limb of the body attacks another, with whom can the person in that body be angry? (23.51)

If the soul himself were the cause of happiness and distress, then we could not blame others, since happiness and distress would be simply the nature of the soul. According to this theory, nothing except the soul actually exists, and if we were to perceive something besides the soul, that would be illusion. Therefore, since happiness and distress do not actually exist in this concept, why become angry at oneself or others? (23.52)

And if we examine the hypothesis that the planets are the immediate cause of suffering and happiness, then also where is the relationship with the soul, who is eternal? After all, the effect of the planets applies only to things that have taken birth. Expert astrologers have moreover explained how the planets are only causing pain to each other. Therefore, since the living entity is distinct from these planets and from the material body, against whom should he vent his anger? (23.53)

If we assume that fruitive work is the cause of happiness and distress, we still are not dealing with the soul. The idea of material work arises when there is a spiritual actor who is conscious and a material body that undergoes the transformation of happiness and distress as a reaction to such work. Since the body has no life, it cannot be the actual recipient of happiness and distress, nor can the soul, who is ultimately completely spiritual and aloof from the material body. Since karma thus has no ultimate basis in either the body or the soul, at whom can one become angry? (23.54)

If we accept time as the cause of happiness and distress, that experience still cannot apply to the spirit soul, since time is a manifestation of the Lord's spiritual potency and the living entities are also expansions of the Lord's spiritual potency manifesting through time. Certainly a fire does not burn its own flames or sparks, nor does the cold harm its own snowflakes or hail. In fact, the spirit soul is transcendental and beyond the experience of material happiness and distress. At whom, therefore, should one become angry? (23.55)

The false ego gives shape to illusory material existence and thus experiences material happiness and distress. The spirit soul, however, is transcendental to material nature; he can never actually be affected by material happiness and distress in any place, under any circumstance or by the agency of any person. A person who understands this has nothing whatsoever to fear from the material creation. (23.56)

I shall cross over the insurmountable ocean of nescience by being firmly fixed in the service of the lotus feet of Krishna. This was approved by the previous acaryas, who were fixed in firm devotion to the Lord, Paramatma, the Lord. (23.57)

Krishna said: Thus becoming detached on the loss of his property, this sage gave up his moroseness. He left home, taking sannyasa, and began to travel about the earth. Even when insulted by foolish rascals he remained unswerved from his duty and chanted this song. (23.58)

No other force besides his own mental confusion makes the soul experience happiness and distress. His perception of friends, neutral parties and enemies and the whole material life he builds around this perception are simply created out of ignorance. (23.59)

Dear Uddhava, fixing your intelligence on me, you should thus completely control the mind. This is the essence of the science of yoga. (23.60)

Anyone who listens to or recites to others this song of the sannyasi, which presents scientific knowledge of the Absolute, and who thus meditates on it with full attention, will never again be overwhelmed by the dualities of material happiness and distress. (23.61)


24. The Philosophy of Sankhya

Krishna said: Now I shall describe to you the science of Sankhya, which has been perfectly established by ancient authorities. By understanding this science a person can immediately give up the illusion of material duality. (24.1)

Originally, during the Krita-yuga, when all men were very expert in spiritual discrimination, and also previous to that, during the period of annihilation, the seer existed alone, nondifferent from the seen object. (24.2)

That one Absolute Truth, remaining free from material dualities and inaccessible to ordinary speech and mind, divided Himself into two categories – the material nature and the living entities who are trying to enjoy the manifestations of that nature. (24.3)

Of these two categories of manifestation, one is material nature, which embodies both the subtle causes and manifests products of matter. The other is the conscious living entity, designated as the enjoyer. (24.4)

When material nature was agitated by my glance, the three material modes – goodness, passion and ignorance – became manifest to fulfill the pending desires of the conditioned souls. (24.5)

From these modes arose the primeval sutra, along with the mahat-tattva. By the transformation of the mahat-tattva was generated the false ego, the cause of the living entities' bewilderment. (24.6)

False ego, which is the cause of physical sensation, the senses, and the mind, encompasses both spirit and matter and manifests, in three varieties: in the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. (24.7)

From false ego in the mode of ignorance came the subtle physical perceptions, from which the gross elements were generated. From false ego in the mode of passion came the senses, and from false ego in the mode of goodness arose the eleven gods. (24.8)

Impelled by me, all these elements combined to function in an orderly fashion and together gave birth to the universal egg, which is my excellent place of residence. (24.9)

I Myself appeared within that egg, which was floating on the causal water, and from my navel arose the universal lotus, the birthplace of self-born Brahma. (24.10)

Brahma, the soul of the universe, being endowed with the mode of passion, performed great austerities by my mercy and thus created the three planetary divisions, called Bhur, Bhuvar and Svar, along with their presiding deities. (24.11)

Heaven was established as the residence of the gods, Bhuvarloka as that of the ghostly spirits, and the earth system as the place of human beings and other mortal creatures. Those mystics who strive for liberation are promoted beyond these three divisions. (24.12)

Brahma created the region below the earth for the demons and the Naga snakes. In this way the destinations of the three worlds were arranged as the corresponding reactions for different kinds of work performed within the three modes of nature. (24.13)

By mystic yoga, great austerities and the renounced order of life, the pure destinations of Maharloka, Janoloka, Tapoloka and Satyaloka are attained. But by devotional yoga, one achieves my transcendental abode. (24.14)

All results of fruitive work have been arranged within this world by me, the supreme creator acting as the force of time. Thus one sometimes rises up toward the surface of this mighty river of the modes of nature and sometimes again submerges. (24.15)

Whatever features visibly exist within this world – small or great, thin or stout – certainly contain both the material nature and its enjoyer, the spirit soul. (24.16)

Gold and earth are originally existing as ingredients. From gold one may fashion golden ornaments such as bracelets and earrings, and from earth one may fashion clay pots and saucers. The original ingredients gold and earth exist before the products made from them, and when the products are eventually destroyed, the original ingredients, gold and earth, will remain. Thus, since the ingredients are present in the beginning and at the end, they must also be present in the middle phase, taking the form of a particular product to which we assign for convenience a particular name, such as bracelet, earring, pot or saucer. We can therefore understand that since the ingredient cause exists before the creation of a product and after the product's destruction, the same ingredient cause must be present during the manifest phase, supporting the product as the basis of its reality. (24.17)

A material object, itself composed of an essential ingredient, creates another material object through transformation. Thus one created object becomes the cause and basis of another created object. A particular thing may thus be called real in that it possesses the basic nature of another object that constitutes its origin and final state. (24.18)

The material universe may be considered real, having nature as its original ingredient and final state. Maha-Visnu is the resting place of nature, which becomes manifest by the power of time. Thus nature, the almighty Visnu and time are not different from me, the Supreme Absolute Truth. (24.19)

As long as the Lord continues to glance on nature, the material world continues to exist, perpetually manifesting through procreation the great and variegated flow of universal creation. (24.20)

I am the basis of the universal form, which displays endless variety through the repeated creation, maintenance and destruction of the planetary systems. Originally containing within itself all planets in their dormant state, my universal form manifests the varieties of created existence by arranging the coordinated combination of the five elements. (24.21)

At the time of annihilation, the mortal body of the living being becomes merged into food. Food merges into the grains, and the grains merge back into the earth. The earth merges into its subtle sensation, fragrance. Fragrance merges into water, and water further merges into its own quality, taste. That taste merges into fire, which merges into form. Form merges into touch, and touch merges into ether. Ether finally merges into the sensation of sound. The senses all merge into their own origins, the presiding gods, and they, gentle Uddhava, merge into the controlling mind, which itself merges into false ego in the mode of goodness. Sound becomes one with false ego in the mode of ignorance, and all-powerful false ego, the first of all the physical elements, merges into the total nature. The total material nature, the primary repository of the three basic modes, dissolves into the modes. These modes of nature then merge into the unmanifest form of nature, and that unmanifest form merges into time. Time merges into the Supreme Lord, present in the form of the omniscient Maha-purusa, the original activator of all living beings. That origin of all life merges into me, the unborn Supreme Soul, who remains alone, established within himself. It is from him that all creation and annihilation are manifested. (24.22-27)

Just as the rising sun removes the darkness of the sky, similarly, this scientific knowledge of cosmic annihilation removes all illusory duality from the mind of a serious student. Even if illusion somehow enters his heart, it cannot remain there. (24.28)

Thus I, the perfect seer of everything material and spiritual, have spoken this knowledge of Sankhya, which destroys the illusion of doubt by scientific analysis of creation and annihilation. (24.29)



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