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Vishnu and the Goddess of the Earth:   Chap. 1
The Four Castes:   Chap. 2
Duties of a King:   Chap. 3
Weights and Measures:   Chap. 4
Criminal and Civil Law:   Chap. 5
Law of Debt:   Chap. 6
Writings:   Chap. 7
Witnesses:   Chap. 8
Ordeals:   Chaps. 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14
Inheritance:   Chaps. 15 - 16 - 17 - 18
Funeral Ceremonies:   Chaps. 19 - 20
Funeral Oblations:   Chap. 21
Impurity:   Chaps. 22 - 23
Women:   Chaps. 24 - 25 - 26
Sacraments:   Chaps. 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32
Crimes:   Chaps. 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42
Hells:   Chap. 43
Transmigration:   Chaps. 44 - 45
Penances:   Chaps. 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54 - 55 - 56 - 57
Duties of a Householder:   Chaps. 58 - 59 - 60 - 61 - 62 - 63 - 64 - 65 - 66 - 67 - 68 - 69 - 70
Rules for a Snataka:   Chap. 71
Self-restraint:   Chap. 72
Sraddhas:   Chaps. 73 - 74 - 75 - 76 - 77 - 78 - 79 - 80 - 81 - 82 - 83 - 84 - 85 - 86
Pious Gifts:   Chaps. 87 - 88 - 89 - 90 - 91 - 92 - 93
The Hermit:   Chaps. 94 - 95
The Ascetic:   Chap. 96
Meditation on Vishnu:   Chap. 97
Conclusion:   Chaps. 98 - 99 - 100


Institutes of Vishnu

The text is based on the translation by Julius Jolly on Clarendon Press, Oxford, in 1880. It is somewhat updated here.

An existential outlook first. If you want to see how ancient Hindus (including Aryans) decreed and conducted their lives, many and rare glimpses can be found. The following content is what ancient Hindus thought (conceived) of many things. Strong opinions based on the following text is not recommended, for (1) the laws and regulations here are at face value; (2) there can be other and older Hindu laws and regulations of living that conflict with laws and regulations of this collection, (3) commentaries may be needed to understand what is really meant and aimed at by what appear to be obscure phrases and the like. (4) In many cases commentators suggest a way out or around severe given regulations, and so on. (5) Note as well that the Institutes were changed with time, as the translator Julius Jolly points out.

From an existential angle it can be said that big words appear to scare the hell(s) out of many, and serve to conserve power and stability. Thereby much 'rigidism' could have hindered many novelties and helpful inventions. The conservatism of the caste system is well known and it does not always work well.

Inherited 'rigidism' is reflected by and was in part cemented by texts like this one. Through customs and fear proponents of rigidism were 'hatced' to carry on things as they were, year in, year out. Mental rigidism at large may conserve many good values, but it can also cost much as time goes on. A fit balance could need to be developed.

For all that, the Institutes of Vishnu is an interesting old cultural document and contains many old proverbs and outlooks that could be good to reflect on too.

Smriti glimpses. Vishnu Smriti is one of the latest Hindu works of the tradition that stipulates what are righteous deals under different circumstances - in other words, one of the latest books of the Dharmashastra tradition. It does not deal directly with the means of knowing dharma, unlike forerunners in this book tradition. The first known commentary on the Vishnu Smriti appeared in 1622. Julius Jolly translated the Vishnu Smriti into English in 1880.

The Vishnu Smriti seems to rely to a large extent on previous Dharmashastra texts, such as the Manu Samhita.

The Vishnu Smriti's frame story is a dialogue betwee Vishnu and the Earth (Prithvi) that at first is submerged under water. Vishnu rescues her, lifting her up out of the water and exposing her surface. Earth is grateful but worries about the future. Vishnu assures her that good people who take delight in fit conduct and orderliness, would care for the Earth and support her. Comforted, the Earth asks for some more information to benefit by, and Vishnu then goes into telling what is proper conduct and dharma.

On this edition

Nothing new has been furnished. Very many footnotes are removed. Selected topics from Jolly's introduction are found at the bottom. And a reference to his original book and a more recent reprint of it is given at bottom.

The aim has been to increase readability, such as by reducing the amount of capitalised letters in some Sanskrit words - but still the text is quite cumbersome if you don't know a lot of basic Hindu concepts. Another problem is that there are variant spellings: For example, j or g in some Indian names are used interchangeably. Thus, Pragapati and Prajapati, Yagnavalka and Yajnavalka, and so on. Diacritical marks have not been used.

A little glossary of yoga terms (link in bottom left corner) is added for help.


Institutes of Vishnu


THE NIGHT of Brahman being over, and the God sprung from the lotus (Brahman) having woke from his slumber, Vishnu purposing to create living beings, and perceiving the earth covered with water, (1)

Assumed the shape of a boar, delighting to sport in water, as at the beginning of each former Kalpa, and raised up the earth (from the water). (2)

His feet were the Vedas; his tusks the sacrificial stakes; in his teeth were the offerings; his mouth was the pyre; his tongue was the fire; his hair was the sacrificial grass; the sacred texts were his head; and he was (endowed with the miraculous power of) a great ascetic. (3)

His eyes were day and night; he was of superhuman nature; his ears were the two bundles of Kusa grass (for the Ishtis, or smaller sacrifices, and for the animal offerings); his ear-rings were the ends of those bundles of Kusa grass (used for wiping the ladle and other sacrificial implements); his nose (the vessel containing) the clarified butter; his snout was the ladle of oblations; his voice was similar in sound to the chanting of the Sama-veda; and he was of huge size. (4)

He was full of piety and veracity; beautiful; his strides and his strength were immense (like those of Vishnu); his large nostrils were penances; his knees the victim; and his figure colossal. (5)

His entrails were the (three) chanters of the Sama-veda; his member was the burnt-oblation; his scrotum was the sacrificial seeds and grains; his mind was the altar (in the hut for the wives and domestic uses of the sacrificer); the hindparts (of Vishnu) in his transformation were the Mantras; his blood was the Soma juice. (6)

His shoulders were the (great) altar; his smell was that of the (sacrificial cake and other) oblations; his speed was the oblations to the gods and to the manes and other oblations; his body was the hut for the wives and domestic uses of the sacrificer; he was majestic; and instructed with the initiatory ceremonies for manifold sacrifices (lasting one, or two, three, or twelve years, and others). (7)

His heart was the sacrificial fee; he was possessed of the (sacrificial and other) great Mantras employed in order to effect the union of the mind with the Supreme; he was of enormous size (like the long sacrifices lasting more than one day); his lovely, lips were the beginnings of the two hymns recited at the beginning of the animal sacrifice; his ornaments were the whirlpool of the milk poured into the heated vessel (at the Pravargya ceremony introductory to the Soma-sacrifice). (8)

All sorts of sacred texts (the Gayatri and others) were his path in marching; the mysterious Upanishads (the Vedanta) were his couch; he was accompanied by his consort Khaya (Lakshmi); he was in size like the Manisringa mountain. (9)

The lord, the creator, the great Yogin, plunging into the one ocean from love of the world, (10)

Raised up, with the edge of his tusks, the earth bounded by the sea together with its mountains, forests, and groves, which was immersed in the water of (the seven oceans now become) one ocean, and created the universe anew. (11)

Thus the whole earth, after having sunk into (the lower region called) Rasatala, was in the first place raised in the boar-incarnation by Vishnu, who took compassion on the living beings. (12)

Then, after having raised the earth, the destroyer of Madhu placed and fixed it on its own (former) seat (on the oceans) and distributed the waters on it according to their own (former) station, conducting the floods of the oceans into the oceans, the water of the rivers into the rivers, the water of the tanks into the tanks, and the water of the lakes into the lakes. (13,14)

He created the seven (lower regions called) Patalas and the seven worlds, the seven Dvipas and the seven oceans, and fixed their several limits. *) (15)

* The seven Patalas: Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Mahatala, Rasatala, Talatala, and Patala. The seven worlds: Bhur-loka, Bhuvar-loka, Svar-loka, Mahar-loka, Ganar-loka, Tapar-loka, and Satya-loka. The seven Dvipas or divisions of the terrestrial world: Gambu, Plaksha, Salmali, Kusa, Krau�ka, Saka, and Pushkara; each Dvipa is encircled by one of the seven oceans, viz. the seas of Lavana (salt-water), Ikshu (syrup), Sarpih (butter), Dadhi (sour milk), Dugdha (milk), Svadhu (treacle), and Udaka (water).

(He created) the rulers of the (seven) Dvipas and the (eight) guardians of the world (Indra and the rest), the rivers, mountains, and trees, the seven Rishis, who know (and practise) the law, the Vedas together with their Angas, the Suras, and the Asuras. (16)

(He created) Pisakas (ogres), Uragas (serpents), Gandharvas (celestial singers), Yakshas (keepers of Kubera's treasures), Rakshasas (goblins), and men, cattle, birds, deer and other animals, (in short) all the four kinds of living beings, and clouds, rainbows, lightnings, and other celestial phenomena or bodies (such as the planets and the asterisms), and all kinds of sacrifices. (17)

Bhagavat, after having thus created, in the shape of a boar, this world together with all animate and inanimate things in it, went away into a place hidden from the world. *) (18)

* The eight 'guardians of the world' (Lokapalas) are, Indra, Agni, Yama, Surya, Varuna, Pavana, Kubera, and Soma (M.5, 96). The seven Rishis, according to the Satapatha-brahmana, are, Gotama, Bharadvaga, Visvamitra, Gamadagni, Vasishtha, Kasyapa, and Atri. The six Vedangas are, Siksha (pronunciation), Khandas (metre), Vyakarana (grammar), Nirukta (etymology), Kalpa (ceremonial), and Gyotisha (astronomy). See Max M�ller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 108

Ganardana, the chief of the gods, having become invisible, the goddess of the earth began to consider, 'How shall I be able to sustain myself (from now on)?' (19)

'I will go to Kasyapa to ask: he will tell me the truth. The great Muni has my welfare under constant consideration.' (20)

Having thus decided on her course, the goddess, assuming the shape of a woman, went to see Kasyapa, and Kasyapa saw her. (21)

Her eyes were similar to the leaves of the blue lotus (of which the bow of Kama, the god of love, is made); her face was radiant like the moon in the autumn season; her locks were as dark as a swarm of black bees; she was radiant; her lip was (red) like the Bandhugiva flower; and she was lovely to behold. (22)

Her eyebrows were fine; her teeth exceedingly small; her nose handsome; her brows bent; her neck shaped like a shell; her thighs were constantly touching each other; and they were fleshy thighs, which adorned her loins. (23)

Her breasts were shining white, firm, plump, very close to each other, (decorated with continuous strings of pearls) like the projections on the forehead of Indra's elephant, and radiant like the gold (of the two golden jars used at the consecration of a king). (24)

Her arms were as delicate as lotus fibres; her hands were similar to young shoots; her thighs were resplendent like golden pillars; and her knees were hidden (under the flesh), and closely touching each other. (25)

Her legs were smooth and exquisitely proportioned; her feet exceedingly graceful; her loins fleshy; and her waist like that of a lion's cub. (26)

Her reddish nails shone (like rubies); her beauty was the delight of every looker-on; and with her glances she filled at every step all the quarters of the sky as it were with lotus-flowers. (27)

Radiant with divine lustre, she illuminated all the quarters of the sky with it; her clothing was most exquisite and perfectly white; and she was decorated with the most precious gems. (28)

With her steps she covered the earth as it were with lotuses; she was endowed with beauty and youthful charms; and made her approach with modest bearing. (29)

Having seen her come near, Kasyapa saluted her reverentially, and said, 'O handsome lady, O earth, radiant with divine lustre, I am acquainted with your thoughts. (30)

'Go to visit Ganardana, you large-eyed lady; he will tell you accurately how you shall sustain yourself from now on. (31)

For your sake, (goddess), whose face is lovely and whose limbs are beautiful, I have found out, by profound meditation, that his residence is in the milk-ocean (Kshiroda).' (32)

The goddess of the earth answered, 'Yes, (I shall do as you bid me), saluted Kasyapa reverentially, and went on to the Kshiroda sea, in order to see Kesava (Vishnu). (33)

She saw (then) the ocean, from which the Amrita arose. It was lovely, like the rays of the moon, and agitated by hundreds of waves produced by stormy blasts of wind. (34)

(With its waves) towering like a hundred Himalayas it seemed another terrestrial globe, calling near as it were the earth with its hands; the rolling waves. (35)

  With those hands it was as it were constantly producing the radiancy of the moon; and every stain of guilt was removed from it by Hari's (Vishnu's) residence within its limits. (36)

Because (it was entirely free from sin) therefore it was possessed of a pure and shining frame; its colour was white; it was inaccessible to birds and its seat was in the lower regions. (37)

It was rich in blue and tawny gems (sapphires, coral, and others), and looking therefore as if the atmosphere had descended on the earth, and as if a number of forests adorned with a multitude of fruits had descended on its surface. (38)

  Its size was immense, like that of the skin of (Vishnu's) serpent Sesha. After having seen the milk-ocean, the goddess of the earth saw the dwelling of Kesava (Vishnu) which was in it: (39)

(His dwelling), the size of which cannot be expressed in words, and, the sublimity of which is also beyond the power of utterance. In it she saw the destroyer of Madhu seated on Sesha. (40)

The lotus of his face was hardly visible on account of the lustre of the gems decorating the neck of the snake Sesha; he was shining like a hundred moons; and his splendour was equal to the rays of a myriad of suns. (41)

He was clad in a yellow robe (radiant like gold); imperturbable; decorated with all kinds of gems; and shining with the lustre of a diadem resembling the sun in colour, and with (splendid) ear-rings. (42)

Lakshmi was stroking his feet with her soft palms; and his attributes (the shell, the discus, the mace, and the lotus-flower) wearing bodies were attending on him on all sides. (43)

Having espied the lotus-eyed slayer of Madhu, she knelt down on the ground and addressed him as follows: (44)

'When formerly I was sunk into the region of Rasatala, I was raised by you, O God, and restored to my ancient seat, O Vishnu, thanks to your benevolence towards living beings. (45)

'Being there, how am I to maintain myself on it, O lord of the gods?' Having been thus addressed by the goddess, the god enunciated the following answer: (46)

  'Those who practise the duties ordained for each caste and for each order, and who act up strictly to the holy law, will sustain you, O earth; to them is your care committed.' (47)

Having received this answer, the goddess of the earth said to the chief of the gods, 'Communicate to me the eternal laws of the castes and of the orders. (48)

I desire to learn them from you; for you are my chief stay. Adoration be to you, O brilliant chief of the gods, who annihilatest the power of the (Daityas and other) enemies of the gods. (49)

'O Narayana (son of Nara), O Gagannatha (sovereign of the world); you hold the shell, the discus, and the mace (in your hands); you have a lotus (Brahman) springing from your navel; you are the lord of the senses; you are most powerful and endowed with conquering strength. (50)

'You are beyond the cognisance of the senses; your end is most difficult to know; you are brilliant; you hold the bow Sarnga; you are the boar; you are terrible; you are Govinda (the herdsman); you are of old; you are Purushottama (the spirit supreme). (51)

'Your hair is golden; your eyes are everywhere; your body is the sacrifice; you are free from stain; you are the "field." (the corporeal frame); you are the principle of life; you are the ruler of the world; you are lying on the bed of the ocean. (52)

'You are Mantra (prayer); you know the Mantras; you surpass all conception; your frame is composed of the Vedas and Vedangas; the creation and destruction of this whole world is effected through you. (53)

'You know right and wrong; your body is law; law springs from you; desires are gratified by you: your powers are everywhere; you are (imperishable like) Amrita (ambrosia); you are heaven; you are the destroyer of Madhu and Kaitasa. (54)

'You cause the increase of the great*), you are inscrutable; you are all you give shelter to all; you are the chief one you are free from sin; you are Gimuta; you are inexhaustible; you are the creator. (55)

* 'The great (brihat) means time, space, and the like. . . . He is called "all" because he is capable of assuming any shape.'

'You increase the welfare (of the world), the waters spring from you; you are the seat of intelligence; action is not found in you; you preside over seven chief things; you are the teacher of religious rites; you are of old; you are Purushottama. (56)

'You are not to be shaken; you are undecaying; you are the producer of the atoms; you are kind to faithful attendants; you are the purifier (of sinners); you are the protector of all the gods you are the protector of the pious. (57)

'You are also the protector of those who know the Veda, O Purushottama. I have come, O Gagannatha, to the immovable Sakaspati (the lord of holy speech), the lord; (58)

'To him, who is very pious; invincible; Vasushena (who has treasures for his armies); who bestows largesses on his followers, who is endowed with the power of intense devotion; who is the germ of the ether; from whom the rays (of the sun and moon) proceed; (59)

'To Vasudeva; the great soul of the universe; whose eyes are like lotuses; who is eternal; the preceptor of the Suras and of the Asuras; brilliant; omnipresent; the great lord of all creatures; (60)

'Who has one body and four faces; who is the producer of (the five grosser elements, ether, air, fire, water, and earth), the producers of the world. Teach me concisely, O Bhagavat, the eternal laws ordained for the aggregate of the four castes, (61)

'Together with the customs to be observed by each order and with the secret ordinances.' The chief of the gods, thus addressed by the goddess of the earth, replied to her as follows: (62)

Learn from me, in a concise form, O radiant goddess of the earth, the eternal laws for the aggregate of the four castes, together with the customs to be observed by each order, and with the secret ordinances, (63)

'Which will effect the final liberation of the virtuous persons, who will support you. Be seated on this splendid golden seat, O handsome-thighed goddess. (64)

  'Seated at ease, listen to me proclaiming the sacred laws.' The goddess of the earth, thereupon, seated at case, listened to the sacred precepts as they came from the mouth of Vishnu. (65)


BRAHMANAS, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras are the four castes. (1)

  The first three of these are (called) twice-born. (2)

For them the whole number of ceremonies, which begin with the impregnation and end with the ceremony of burning the dead body, have to be performed with (the recitation of) Mantras. (3)

Their duties are: (4)

For a Brahmana, to teach (the Veda); (5)

For a Kshatriya, constant practice in arms; (6)

For a Vaisya, the tending of cattle; (7)

For a Sudra, to serve the twice-born; (8)

For all the twice-born, to sacrifice and to study (the Veda). (9)

  Again, their modes of livelihood are: (10)

For a Brahmana, to sacrifice for others and to receive alms; (11)

  For a Kshatriya, to protect the world (and receive due reward, in form of taxes); (12)

For a Vaisya, tillage, keeping cows (and other cattle), traffic, lending money on interest, and growing seeds; (13)

For a Sudra, all branches of art (such as painting and the other fine arts); (14)

In times of distress, each caste may follow the occupation of that next (below) to it in rank. (15)

Forbearance, veracity, restraint, purity, liberality, self-control, not to kill (any living obedience towards one's Gurus, visiting places of pilgrimage, sympathy (with the afflicted), (16)

Straightforwardness, freedom from covetousness, reverence towards gods and Brahmanas, and freedom from anger are duties common (to all castes). (17)


NOW THE duties of a king are: (1)

To protect his people, (2)

And to keep the four castes*) and the four orders in the practice of their several duties. (3)

* Student, householder, hermit, and ascetic.

Let the king fix his abode in a district containing open plains, fit for cattle, and abounding in grain; (4)

And inhabited by many Vaisyas and Sudras. *) (5)

* 'And there should be many virtuous men in it, as stated by Manu, VII, 69.'

There let him reside in a stronghold (the strength of which consists) either in (its being surrounded by) a desert, or in (a throng of) armed men, or in fortifications (of stone, brick, or others), or in water (enclosing it on all sides), or in trees, or in mountains (sheltering it against a foreign invasion). (6)

(While he resides) there, let him appoint chiefs (or governors) in every village; (7)

Also, lords of every ten villages; (8)

And lords of every hundred villages; (9)

And lords of a whole district. (10)

If any offence has been committed in a village, let the lord of that village suppress the evil (and give redress to those that have been wronged). (11)

If he is unable to do so, let him announce it to the lord of ten villages; (12)

If he too is unable, let him announce it to the lord of a hundred villages; (13)

If he too is unable, let him announce it to the lord of the whole district. (14)

The lord of the whole district must eradicate the evil to the best of his power. (15)

Let the king appoint able officials for the working of his mines, for the levying of taxes and of the fares to be paid at ferries, and for his elephants and forests. (16)

(Let him appoint) pious persons for performing acts of piety (such as bestowing gifts on the indigent, and the like); (17)

Skilled men for financial business (such as examining gold and other precious metals); (18)

Brave men for fighting; (19)

Stern men for acts of rigour (such as beating and killing); (20)

  Eunuchs for his wives (as their guardians). (21)

He must take from his subjects as taxes a sixth part every year of the grain; (22)

And (a sixth part) of all (other) seeds; (23)

Two in the hundred, of cattle, gold, and clothes; (24)

A sixth part of flesh, honey, clarified butter, herbs, perfumes, flowers, roots, fruits, liquids and condiments, wood, leaves (of the Palmyra, tree and others), skins, earthen pots, stone vessels, and anything made of split bamboo. (25)

  Let him not levy any tax on Brahmanas. (26)

For they pay taxes to him in the shape of their pious acts. (27)

  A sixth part both of the virtuous deeds and of the iniquitous acts committed by his subjects goes to the king. (28)

Let him take a tenth part of (the price of) marketable commodities (sold) in his own country; (29)

And a twentieth part of (the price of) goods (sold) in another country. (30)

Any (seller or buyer) who (fraudulently) avoids a toll-house (situated on his road), shall lose all his goods. (31)

Artizans (such as blacksmiths), manual labourers (such as carpenters), and Sudras shall do work for the king for a day in each month. (32)

The monarch, his council, his fortress, his treasure, his army, his realm, and his ally are the seven constituent elements of a state. (33)

(The king) must punish those who try to subvert any one among them. (34)

He must explore, by means of spies, both the state of his own kingdom and of his foe's. (35)

Let him show honour to the righteous; (36)

And let him punish the unrighteous. (37)

Towards his (neighbour and natural) enemy, his ally (or the power next beyond his enemy), a neutral power (situated beyond the latter), and a power situated between (his natural enemy and an aggressive power): let him adopt (alternately), as the occasion and the time require, (the four modes of obtaining success, viz.) negotiation, division, presents, and force of arms. (38)

Let him have resort, as the time demands, to (the six measures of a military monarch, viz.) making alliance and waging war, marching to battle and sitting encamped, seeking the protection (of a more powerful king) and distributing his forces. (39)

  Let him set out on an expedition in the months of Kaitra or Margasirsha; (40)

Or when some calamity has befallen his foe. (41)

Having conquered the country of his foe, let him not abolish (or disregard) the laws of that country. (42)

And when he has been attacked by his foe, let him protect his own realm to the best of his power. (43)

There is no higher duty for men of the military caste, than to risk their life in battle. (44)

Those who have been killed in protecting a cow, or a Brahmana, or a king, or a friend, or their own property, or their own wedded wife, or their own life, go to heaven. (45)

Likewise, those (who have been killed) in trying to prevent mixture of castes (caused by adulterous connections). (46)

A king having conquered the capital of his foe, should invest there a prince of the royal race of that country with the royal dignity. (47)

Let him not extirpate the royal race (48)

Unless the royal race bc of ignoble descent. (49)

He must not take delight in hunting, dice, women, and drinking; (50)

  Nor in defamation and battery. (51)

And let him not injure his own property (by bootless expenses). (52)

  He must not demolish (whether in his own town, or in the town of his foe conquered by him, or in a fort) doors which had been built there before his time (by a former king). (53)

He must not bestow largesses on unworthy persons (such as dancers, eulogists, bards, and the like). (54)

Of mines let him take the whole produce. (55)

Of a treasure-trove he must give one half to the Brahmanas; (56)

  He may deposit the other half in his own treasury. (57)

A Brahmana who has found a treasure may keep it entire. (58)

A Kshatriya (who has found a treasure) must give one fourth of it to the king, another fourth to the Brahmanas, and keep half of it to himself (59)

A Vaisya (who has found a treasure) must give a fourth part of it to the king, one half to the Brahmanas, and keep the (remaining fourth) part to himself. (60)

  A Sudra who has found a treasure must divide it into twelve parts, and give five parts to the king, five parts to the Brahmanas, and keep two parts to himself. (61)

Let the king compel him who (having found a treasure) does not announce it (to the king) and is found out afterwards, to give up the whole. (62)

Of a treasure anciently hidden by themselves let (members of) all castes, excepting Brahmanas, give a twelfth part to the king. (63)

The man who falsely claims property hidden by another to have been hidden by himself, shall be condemned to pay a fine equal in amount to the property falsely claimed by him. (64)

The king must protect the property of minors, of (blind, lame or other) helpless persons (who have no guide), and of women (without a guardian). (65)

  Having recovered goods stolen by thieves, let him restore them entire to their owners, to whatever caste they may belong. (66)

If he has been unable to recover them, he must pay (their value) out of his own treasury. (67)

Let him appease the onsets of fate by ceremonies averting evil omens and propitiatory ceremonies; (68)

And the onsets of his foe (let him repel) by force of arms. (69)

  Let him appoint as Purohita (domestic priest) a man conversant with the Vedas, Epics, the Institutes of Sacred Law, and (the science of) what is useful in life,*) of a good family, not deficient in limb, and persistent in the practice of austerities. (70)

* 'The science of what is useful in life' comprises the fine arts, except music, and all technical knowledge.'

And (let him appoint) ministers (to help and advise him) in all his affairs, who are pure, free from covetousness, attentive, and able. (71)

Let him try causes himself, accompanied by well-instructed Brahmanas. (72)

Or let him entrust a Brahmana, with the judicial business. (73)

  Let the king appoint as judges men of good families, for whom the ceremonies (of initiation and so forth) have been performed, and who are eager in keeping religious vows, impartial towards friend and foe, and not likely to be corrupted by litigants either by (ministering to their) lustful desires or by (stimulating them to) wrath or by (exciting their) avarice or by other (such practices). (74)

Let the king in all matters listen to (the advice of) his astrologers. (75)

Let him constantly show reverence to the gods and to the Brahmanas. (76)

Let him honour the aged; (77)

And let him offer sacrifices; (78)

And he must not suffer any Brahmana in his realm to perish with want; (79)

Nor any other man leading a pious life. (80)

Let him bestow landed property on Brahmanas. (81)

To those on whom he has bestowed (land) he must give a document, destined for the information of a future ruler, which must be written on a piece of (cotton) cloth, or a copper-plate, and must contain the names of his (three) immediate ancestors, a declaration of the extent of the land, and an imprecation against him who should appropriate the donation to himself, and should be signed with his own seal. (82)

Let him not appropriate to himself landed property bestowed (on Brahmanas) by other (rulers). (83)

Let him present the Brahmanas with gifts of every kind. (84)

Let him be on his guard, whatever he may be about. (85)

Let him be splendid (in apparel and ornaments). (86)

Let him be conversant with incantations dispelling the effects of poison and sickness. (87)

Let him not test any aliments, that have not been tried before (by his attendants, by certain experiments). (88)

Let him smile before he speaks to any one. (89)

Let him not frown even on (criminals) doomed to capital punishment. (90)

Let him inflict punishments, corresponding to the nature of their offences, on evil-doers. (91)

Let him inflict punishments according to justice (either personally or through his attendants). (92)

Let him pardon no one for having offended twice. (93)

He who deviates from his duty must certainly not be left unpunished by the king. (94)

Where punishment with a black hue and a red eye advances with irresistible might, the king deciding causes justly, there the people will prosper. (95)

Let a king in his own domain inflict punishments according to justice, chastise foreign foes with rigour, behave without duplicity to his affectionate friends, and with lenity to Brahmanas. (96)

Of a king thus disposed, even though he subsist by gleaning, the fame is far spread in the world, like a drop of oil in the water. (97)

That king who is pleased when his subjects are joyful, and grieved when they are in grief, will obtain fame in this world, and will be raised to a high station in heaven after his death. (98)


THE (VERY SMALL mote of) dust which may be discerned in a sun-beam passing through a lattice is called trasarenu (trembling dust). (1)

Eight of these (trasarenus) are equal to a nit. (2)

Three of the latter are equal to a black mustard-seed. (3)

Three of these last are equal to a white mustard-seed. (4)

Six of these are equal to a barley-corn. (5)

Three of these equal a Krishnala.

Five of these equal a Masha. (7)

Twelve of these are equal to half an Aksha. (8)

The weight of half an Aksha, with four Mashas added to it, is called a Suvarna. (9)

Four Suvarnas make a Nishka. (10)

Two Krishnalas of equal weight are equal to one Mashaka of silver. (11)

Sixteen of these are equal to a Dharana (of silver). (12)

A Karsha (or eighty Raktikas) of copper is called Karshapana. (13)

  Two hundred and fifty (copper) Panas are declared to be the first (or lowest) amercement, five hundred are considered as the middlemost, and a thousand as the highest. (14)


Great criminals should all be put to death. (1)

In the case of a Brahmana, no corporal punishment must be inflicted. (2)

A Brahmana must be banished from his own country, his body having been branded. (3)

For murdering another Brahmana, let (the figure of) a headless corpse be impressed on his forehead; (4)

For drinking spirits, the flag of a seller of spirituous liquor; (5)

  For stealing (gold), a dog's foot, (6)

For incest, (the mark of) a female part. (7)

If he has committed any other capital crime, he shall be banished, taking with him all his property, and unhurt. (8)

Let the king put to death those who forge royal edicts; (9)

And those who forge (private) documents; (10)

Likewise poisoners, incendiaries, robbers, and killers of women, children, or men; (11)

And such as steal more than ten Kumbhas of grain, (12)

Or more than a hundred Mashas of such things as are usually sold by weight (such as gold and silver); (13)

Such also as aspire to sovereignty, though being of low birth; (14)

  Breakers of dikes; (15)

And such as give shelter and food to robbers, (16)

Unless the king be unable (to protect his subjects against robbers); the duty which (17)

And a woman who violates she owes to her lord, the latter being unable to restrain her. (18)

With whatever limb an inferior insults or hurts his superior in caste, of that limb the king shall cause him to be deprived. (19)

If he places himself on the same seat with his superior, he shall be banished with a mark on his buttocks. he shall lose both lips; (20)

If he spits on him, (21)

If he breaks wind against him, his hindparts; (22)

If he uses abusive language, his tongue. (23)

If a (low-born) man through pride give instruction (to a member of the highest caste) concerning his duty, let the king order hot oil to be dropped into his mouth. (24)

If a (low-born man) mentions the name or caste of a superior revilingly, an iron pin, ten inches long, shall be thrust into his mouth (red hot). (25)

He who falsely denies the sacred knowledge, the country, or the caste (of such), or who says that his religious duties have not been fulfilled by (or that the initiatory and other sacramental rites have not been performed for) him, shall be fined two hundred Panas. (26)

If a man is blind with one eye, or lame, or defective in any similar way, and another calls him so, he shall be fined two Karshapanas, though he speaks the truth. (27)

He shall be fined a hundred Karshapanas for defaming a Guru. (28)

  He shall pay the highest amercement for imputing to another (a great crime) entailing loss of caste; (29)

The second amercement for (imputing to another) a minor offence (such as the slaughter of a cow); (30)

The same for reviling a Brahmana versed in the three Vedas, or an old man, or a (whole) caste or corporation (of judges or others); (31)

For reviling a village or district, the lowest amercement; (32)

  For using insulting language (such as 'I shall visit your sister,' or 'I shall visit your daughter'), a hundred Karshapanas; (33)

For insulting a man by using bad language regarding his mother (such as 'I shall visit your mother' or the like speeches), the highest amercement. (34)

For abusing a man of his own caste, he shall be fined twelve Panas. (35)

For abusing a man of a lower caste, he shall be fined six (Panas). (36)

For insulting a member of the highest caste or of his own caste (he having been insulted by him) at the same time, the same fine is ordained; (37)

  Or (if he only returns his insult, a fine amounting to) three Karshapanas. (38)

The same (punishment is ordained) if he calls him bad names. (39)

  An adulterer shall be made to pay the highest amercement if he has had connection with a woman of his own caste; (40)

For adultery with women of a lower caste, the second amercement; (41)

  The same (fine is ordained) for a bestial crime committed with a cow. (42)

He who has had connection with a woman of one of the lowest castes, shall be put to death. (43)

For a bestial crime committed with cattle (other than cows) he shall be fined a hundred Karshapanas. (44)

(The same fine is ordained) for giving a (blemished) damsel in marriage, without indicating her blemish (whether the bride be sick, or no longer a maid, or otherwise faulty); (45)

And he shall have to support her. (46)

He who says of an unblemished damsel, that she has a blemish (shall pay) the highest amercement. (47)

For killing an elephant, or a horse, or a camel, or a cow, (the criminal) shall have one hand, or one foot, lopped off. (48)

A seller of forbidden meat (such as pork, shall be punished in the same way). (49)

He who kills domestic animals, shall pay a hundred Karshapanas. (50)

  He shall make good their value to the owner of those animals. (51)

  He who kills wild animals, shall pay five hundred Karshapanas. (52)

  A killer of birds, or of fish, (shall pay) ten Karshapanas. (53)

  A killer of insects shall pay one Karshapanas. (54)

A feller of trees yielding fruit (shall pay) the highest amercement. (55)

A feller of trees yielding blossoms only (shall pay) the second amercement. (56)

He who cuts creepers, shrubs, or climbing plants (shall pay) a hundred Karshapanas. (57)

He who cuts grass (shall pay) one Karshapanas. (58)

And all such offenders (shall make good) to the owners (of the trees or plants cut down by them) the revenue which they yield. (59)

If any man raises his hand (against his equal in caste, with intent to strike him, he shall pay) ten Karshapanas; (60)

If he raises his foot, twenty; (61)

If he raises a piece of wood, the first amercement; (62)

If he raises a stone, the second amercement; (63)

If he raises a weapon, the highest amercement. (64)

If he seizes him by his feet, by his hair, by his garment, or by his hand, he shall pay ten Panas as a fine. (65)

If he causes pain to him, without fetching blood from him, (he shall pay) thirty-two Panas; (66)

For fetching blood from him, sixty-four. (67)

For mutilating or injuring a hand, or a foot, or a tooth, and for slitting an ear, or the nose, the second amercement (is ordained). (68)

For rendering a man unable to move about, or to eat, or to speak, or for striking him (violently, the same punishment is ordained). (69)

For wounding or breaking an eye, or the neck, or an arm, or a bone, or a shoulder, the highest amercement (is ordained). (70)

For striking out both eyes of a man, the king shall (confine him and) not dismiss him from jail as long as he lives; (71)

Or he shall order him to be mutilated in the same way (i.e. deprived of his eyes). (72)

Where one is attacked by many, the punishment for each shall be the double of that which has been ordained for (attacks by) a single person. (73)

(The double punishment is) likewise (ordained) for those who do not give assistance to one calling for help, though they happen to be on the spot, or (who run away) after having approached it. (74)

All those who have hurt a man, shall pay the expense of his cure. (75)

Those who have hurt a domestic animal (shall also pay the expense of his cure). (76)

He who has stolen a cow, or a horse, or a camel, or an elephant, shall have one hand, or one foot, cut off; (77)

He who has stolen a goat, or a sheep, (shall have) one hand (cut off). (78)

He who steals grain (of those sorts which grow in the rainy season), shall pay eleven times its value as a fine; (79)

Likewise, he who steals grain (of those sorts, which grow in winter and spring, such as rice and barley). (80)

A stealer of gold, silver, or clothes, at a value of more than fifty Mashas, shall lose both hands. (81)

He who steals a less amount than that, shall pay eleven times its value as a fine. (82)

A stealer of thread, cotton, cow-dung, sugar, sour milk, milk, butter-milk, grass, salt, clay, ashes, birds, fish, clarified butter, oil, meat, honey, basketwork, canes of bamboo, earthenware, or iron pots, shall pay three times their value as a fine. (83)

(The same fine is ordained for stealing) dressed food. (84)

For stealing flowers, green (grain), shrubs, creepers, climbing plants or leaves, (he shall pay) five Krishnalas. (85)

For stealing pot-herbs, roots, or fruits (the same punishment is ordained). (86)

He who steals gems, (shall pay) the highest amercement. (87)

He who steals anything not mentioned above, (shall make good) its value (to the owner). (88)

Thieves shall be compelled to restore all stolen goods to the owners. (89)

After that, they shall suffer the punishment that has been ordained for them. (90)

He who does not make way for one for whom way ought to be made, shall be fined twenty-five Karshapanas. (91)

(The same fine is ordained) for omitting to offer a seat to (a guest or others) to whom it ought to be offered. (92)

For neglecting to worship such as have a claim to be worshipped, (the same fine is ordained); (93)

Likewise, for neglecting to invite (at a Sraddha) a Brahmana, one's neighbour; (94)

And for offering him no food, after having invited him. (95)

He who does not eat, though he has received and accepted an invitation, shall give a gold Mashaka as a fine; (96)

And the double amount of food to his host. (97)

He who insults a Brahmana by offering him uneatable food (such as excrements and the like, or forbidden food, such as garlic, must pay) sixteen Suvarnas (as a fine). (98)

(If he insults him by offering him) such food as would cause him to be degraded (were he to taste it, he must pay) a hundred Suvarnas. (99)

(If he offers him) spirituous liquor, he shall be put to death. (100)

  If he insults a Kshatriya (in the same way), he shall have to pay half of the above amercement; (101)

If he insults a Vaisya, half of that again; (102)

If he insults a Sudra, the first amercement. (103)

If one who (being a member of the Kandala or some other low caste) must not be touched, intentionally defiles by his touch one who (as a member of a twice-born caste) may be touched (by other twice-born persons only), he shall be put to death. (104)

If a woman in her courses (touches such a person), she shall be lashed with a whip. (105)

If one defiles the highway, or a garden, or the water (by voiding excrements) near them (or in any other way), he shall be fined a hundred Panas; (106)

  And he must remove the filth. (107)

If he demolishes a house, or a piece of ground (a court-yard or the like), or a wall or the like, he shall have to pay the second amercement; (108)

And he shall have it repaired (at his own cost). (109)

If he throws into another man's house (thorns, spells, or other) such things as might hurt some one, he shall pay a hundred Panas. (110)

(The same punishment is ordained) for falsely denying the possession of common property; (111)

And for not delivering what has been sent (for a god or for a Brahmana). (112)

(The same punishment is) also (ordained) for father and son, teacher (and pupil), sacrificer and officiating priest, if one should forsake the other, provided that he has not been expelled from caste. (113)

And he must return to them (to the parents and the rest). (114)

  (The same punishment is) also (ordained) for hospitably entertaining a Sudra or religious ascetic at an oblation to the gods or to the manes; (115)

  16. And for following an unlawful occupation (such as studying the Vedas without having been initiated); (116)

And for breaking open a house on which (the king's) seal is laid; (117)

And for making an oath without having been asked to do so (by the king or a judge); (118)

And for depriving cattle of their virility. (119)

The fine for the witnesses in a I dispute between father and son shall be ten Panas. (120)

For him who acts as surety for either of the two parties in such a contest, the highest amercement (is ordained). (121)

(The same punishment is ordained) for forging a balance, or a measure; (122)

Also, for pronouncing them incorrect, although they are correct. (123)

(The same punishment is) also (ordained) for selling adulterated commodities; (124)

And for a company of merchants who prevent the sale of a commodity (which happens to be abroad) by selling it under its price. (125)

(The same punishment is ordained) for those (members of such a company) who sell (an article belonging to the whole company for more than it is worth) on their own account. (126)

He who does not deliver to the purchaser a commodity (sold), after its price has been paid to him, shall be compelled to deliver it to him with interest; (127)

And he shall be fined a hundred Panas by the king. (128)

If there should be a loss on a commodity purchased, which the purchaser refuses to accept (though it has been tendered to him), the loss shall fall on the purchaser. (129)

He who sells a commodity on which the king has laid an embargo, shall have it confiscated. (130)

A ferry-man who takes a toll payable (for commodities conveyed) by land shall be fined ten Panas. (131)

Likewise, a ferry-man, or an official at a toll-office, who takes a fare or toll from a student, or Vanaprastha (hermit), or a Bhikshu (ascetic or religious mendicant), or a pregnant woman, or one about to visit a place of pilgrimage; (132)

  And he shall restore it to them. (133)

Those who use false dice in gaming shall lose one hand. (134)

Those who resort to (other) fraudulent practices in gaming shall lose two fingers (the thumb and the index). (135)

Cutpurses shall lose one hand. (136)

Cattle being attacked, during day-time, by wolves or other ferocious animals, and the keeper not going (to repel the attack), the blame shall fall on him; (137)

And he shall make good to the owner the value of the cattle that has perished. (138)

If he milks a cow without permission, (he shall pay) twenty-five Karshapanas (as a fine). (139)

If a female buffalo damages grain, her keeper shall be fined eight Mashas. (140)

If she has been without a keeper, her owner (shall pay that fine). (141)

(For mischief done by) a horse, or a camel, or an ass (the fine shall be the same). (142)

(For damage done by) a cow, it shall be half. (143)

(For damage done by) a goat, or a sheep, (it shall be) half of that again. (144)

For cattle abiding (in the field), after having eaten (grain), the fine shall be double. (145)

And in every case the owner (of the field) shall receive the value of the grain that has been destroyed. (146)

There is no offence if the damage has been done near a highway, near a village, or (in a field adjacent to) the common pasture-ground for cattle; (147)

Or (if it has been done) in an uninclosed field; (148)

Or if the cattle did not abide long; (149)

Or if the damage has been done by bulls that have been set at liberty, or by a cow shortly after her calving. (150)

He who commits members of the highest (or Brahmana) caste to slavery, shall pay the highest amercement. (151)

An apostate from religious mendicity shall become the king's slave. (152)

A hired workman who abandons his work before the term has expired shall pay the whole amount (of the stipulated wages) to his employer . (153)

And he shall pay a hundred Panas to the king. (154)

What has been destroyed through his want of care, (he must make good) to the owner; (155)

Unless the damage have been caused by an accident. (156)

If an employer dismisses a workman (whom he has hired) before the expiration of the term, he shall pay him his entire wages; (157)

And (he shall pay) a hundred Panas to the king; (158)

Unless the workman have been at fault. (159)

He who, having promised his daughter to one suitor, gives her in marriage to another, shall be punished as a thief; (160)

Unless the (first) suitor have a blemish. (161)

The same (punishment is ordained for a suitor) who abandons a faultless girl; (162)

(And for a husband who forsakes) a (blameless) wife. (163)

He who buys unawares in open market the property of another man (from one not authorised to sell it) is not to blame; (164)

(But) the owner shall recover his property. (165)

If he has bought it in secret and under its price, the purchaser and the vendor shall be punished as thieves. (166)

He who embezzles goods belonging to a corporation (of Brahmanas, and which have been sent to them by the king or by private persons), shall be banished. (167)

He who violates their established. rule (shall) also (be banished). (168)

He who retains a deposit shall restore the commodity deposited to the owner, with interest. (169)

The king shall punish him as a thief. (170)

(The same punishment is ordained for him) who claims as a deposit what he never deposited. (171)

A destroyer of landmarks shall be compelled to pay the highest amercement and to mark the boundary anew with landmarks. (172)

He who (knowingly) eats forbidden food effecting loss of caste shall be banished. (173)

He who sells forbidden food (such as spirituous liquor and the like), or food which must not be sold, and he who breaks an image of a deity, shall pay the highest amercement; (174)

Also, a physician who adopts a wrong method of cure in the case of a patient of high rank (such as a relative of the king's); (175)

The second amercement in the case of another patient; (176)

The lowest amercement in the case of an animal. (177)

He who does not give what he has promised, shall be compelled to give it and to pay the first amercement. (178)

To a false witness his entire property shall be confiscated. (179)

  (The same punishment is ordained) for a judge who lives by bribes. (180)

He who has mortgaged more than a bull's hide of land to one creditor, and without having redeemed it mortgages it to another, shall be corporally punished (by whipping or imprisonment). (181)

If the quantity be less, he shall pay a fine of sixteen Suvarnas. (182)

That land, whether little or much, on the produce of which one man can subsist for a year, is called the quantity of a bull's hide. (183)

If a dispute should arise between two (creditors) concerning (a field or other immovable property) which has been mortgaged to both at the same time, that mortgagee shall enjoy its produce who holds it in his possession, without having obtained it by force. (184)

What has been possessed in order and with a legitimate title (such as purchase, donation, and the like), the possessor may keep; it can never be taken from him. (185)

Where (land or other) property has been held in legitimate possession by the father (or grandfather), the son's right to it, after his death, cannot be contested; for it has become his own by force of possession. (186)

If possession has been held of an estate by three (successive) generations in due course, the fourth in descent shall keep it as his property, even without a written title. (187)

He who kills (in his own defence a tiger or other) animal with sharp nails and claws, or a (goat or other) horned animal (excepting cows), or a (boar or other) animal with sharp teeth, or an assassin, or an elephant, or a horse, or any other (ferocious animal by whom he has been attacked), commits no crime. (188)

Any one may unhesitatingly slay a man who attacks him with intent to murder him, whether his spiritual teacher, young or old, or a Brahmana, or even (a Brahmana) versed in many branches of sacred knowledge. (189)

By killing an assassin who attempts to kill, Whether in public or in private, no crime is committed by the slayer: fury recoils on fury. (190)

Assassins should be known to be of seven kinds: such as try to kill with the sword, or with poison, or with fire, such as raise their hand in order to pronounce a curse, such as recite a deadly incantation from the Atharva-veda, such as raise a false accusation which reaches the ears of the king, (191)

And such as have illicit intercourse with another man's wife. The same designation is given to other (evil-doers) who deprive others of their worldly fame or of their wealth, or who destroy religious merit (by ruining pools, or other such acts), or property (such as houses or fields). (192)

Thus I have declared to you fully, O Earth, the criminal laws, enumerating at full length the punishments ordained for all sorts of offences. (193)

Let the king dictate due punishments for other offences also, after having ascertained the class and the age (of the criminal) and the amount (of the damage done or sum claimed), and after having consulted the Brahmanas (his advisers). (194)

  That detestable judge who dismisses without punishment such as deserve it, and punishes such as deserve it not, shall incur twice as heavy a penalty as the criminal himself. (195)

A king in whose dominion there exists neither thief, nor adulterer, nor calumniator, nor robber, nor murderer, attains the World of Indra. (196)


A CREDITOR shall receive his principal back from his debtor exactly as he had lent it to him. (1)

(As regards the interest to be paid), he shall take in the direct order of the castes two, three, four, or five in the hundred by the month (if no pledge has been given). (2)

Or let debtors of any caste pay as much interest as has been promised by themselves. (3)

After the lapse of one year let them pay interest according to the above rule, even though it have not been agreed on. (4)

By the use of a pledge (to be kept only) interest is forfeited. (5)

  The creditor must make good the loss of a, pledge, unless it was caused by fate or by the king. (6)

(The pledge must) also (be restored to the debtor) when the interest has reached its maximum amount (on becoming equal to the principal, and has all been paid). (7)

But he must not restore an immovable pledge without special agreement (till the principal itself has been paid). (8)

That immovable property which has been delivered, restorable when the sum borrowed is made good, (the creditor) must restore when the sum borrowed has been made good. (9)

Property lent bears no further interest after it has been tendered, but refused by the creditor. (10)

On gold the interest shall rise no higher than to make the debt double; (11)

On grain, (no higher than to make it) threefold;. (12)

On cloth, (no higher than to make it) fourfold; (13)

On liquids, (no higher than to make it) eightfold; (14)

Of female slaves and cattle, the offspring (shall be taken as interest). (15)

On substances from which spirituous liquor is extracted, on cotton, thread, leather, weapons, bricks, and charcoal, the interest is unlimited. (16)

On such objects as have not been mentioned it may be double. (17)

  A creditor recovering the sum lent by any (lawful) means shall not be reproved by the king. (18)

If the debtor, so forced to discharge the debt, complains to the king, he shall be fined in an equal sum. (19)

If a creditor sues before the king and fully proves his demand, the debtor shall pay as a fine to the king a tenth part of the sum proved; (20)

And the creditor, having received the sum due, shall pay a twentieth part of it. (21)

If the whole demand has been contested by the debtor, and even a part of it only has been proved against him, he must pay the whole. (22)

There are three means of proof in case of a demand having been contested, viz. a writing, witnesses, and proof by ordeal. (23)

A debt contracted before witnesses should be discharged in the presence of witnesses. (24)

A written contract having been fulfilled, the writing should be torn. (25)

Part only being paid, and the writing not being at hand, let the creditor give an acquittance. (26)

If he who contracted the debt should die, or become a religious ascetic, or remain abroad for twenty years, that debt shall be discharged by his sons or grandsons; (27)

But not by remoter descendants against their will. (28)

He who takes the assets of a man, leaving or not leaving male issue, must pay the sum due (by him); (29)

And (so must) he who has the care of the widow left by one who had no assets. (30)

A woman (shall) not (be compelled to pay) the debt of her husband or son; (31)

Nor the husband or son (to pay) the debt of a woman (who is his wife or mother); (32)

3.. Nor a father to pay the debt of his son. (33)

A debt contracted by parceners shall be paid by any one of them who is present. (34)

And so shall the debt of the father (be paid) by (any one of) the brothers (or of their sons) before partition. (35)

But after partition they shall severally pay according to their shares of the inheritance. (36)

A debt contracted by the wife of a herdsman, distiller of spirits, public dancer, washer, or hunter shall be discharged by the husband (because he is supported by his wife). (37)

(A debt of which payment has been previously) promised must be paid by the householder; (38)

And (so must he pay that debt) which was contracted by any person for the behoof of the family. (39)

He who on receiving the whole amount of a loan, promises to repay the principal on the following day (or some other date near at hand), but from covetousness does not repay it, shall give interest for it. (40)

Suretiship is ordained for appearance, for honesty, and for payment; the first two (sureties, and not their sons), must pay the debt on failure of their engagements, but even the sons of the last (may be compelled to pay it). (41)

When there are several sureties (jointly bound), they shall pay their proportionate shares of the debt, but when they are bound severally, the payment shall be made (by any of them), as the creditor pleases. (42)

If the surety, being harassed by the creditor, discharges the debt, the debtor shall pay twice as much to the surety. (43)


DOCUMENTS are of three kinds: (1)

Attested by the king, or by (other) witnesses, or unattested. (2)

  A document is (said to be) attested by the king when it has been executed (in a court of judicature), on the king ordering it, by a scribe, his servant, and has been signed by his chief judge, with his own hand. (3)

It is (said to be) attested by, witnesses when, having been written anywhere, and by any one, it is signed by witnesses in their own hands. (4)

It is (said to be) unattested when it has been written (by the party himself) with his own hand. (5)

Such a document, if it has been caused to be written by force, makes no evidence. (6)

Neither does any fraudulent document (make evidence); (7)

Nor a document (which), though attested, (is vitiated) by the signature of a witness bribed (by one party) or of bad character; (8)

Nor one written by a scribe of the same description; (9)

Nor one executed by a woman, or a child, or a dependant person, or one intoxicated or insane, or one in danger or in bodily fear. (10)

(That instrument is termed) proof which is not adverse to peculiar local usages, which defines clearly the nature of the pledge given, and is free from confusion in the arrangement of the subject matter and (in the succession of) the syllables. (11)

If the authenticity of a document is contested, it should be ascertained by (comparing with it other) letters or signs (such as the flourish denoting the word Sri and the like) or documents executed by the same man, by (enquiring into) the probabilities of the case, and by (finding out such writings as show) a mode of writing similar (to that contained in the disputed document). (12)

Should the debtor, or creditor, or witness, or scribe be dead, the authenticity of the document has to be ascertained by (comparing with it other) specimens of their handwriting. (13)


NOW FOLLOW (the laws regarding) witnesses. (1)

The king cannot be (made a witness); nor a learned Brahmana; nor an ascetic; nor a gamester; nor a thief; nor a person not his own master; nor a woman; nor a child; nor a perpetrator of the acts called sahasa (violence); nor one over-aged (or more than eighty years old); nor one intoxicated or insane; nor a man of bad fame; nor an outcast;nor one tormented by hunger or thirst; nor one oppressed by a (sudden) calamity (such as the death of his father or the like), or wholly absorbed in evil passions; (2)

  Nor an enemy or a friend; nor one interested in the subject matter; nor one who does forbidden acts; nor one formerly perjured; nor an attendant; (3)

Nor one who, without having been appointed, comes and offers his evidence; (4)

Nor can one man alone be made a witness. (5)

In cases of theft, of violence, of abuse and assault, and of adultery the competence of witnesses must not be examined too strictly. (6)

Now (those who are fit to be) witnesses (shall he enumerated): (7)

  Descendants of a noble race, who are virtuous and wealthy, sacrificers, zealous in the practice of religious austerities, having male issue, well versed in the holy law, studious, veracious, acquainted with the three Vedas, and aged (shall be witnesses). (8)

If he is endowed with the qualities just mentioned, one man alone can also be made a witness. (9)

In a dispute between two litigants, the witnesses of that party have to be examined from which the plaint has proceeded. (10)

Where the claim has been refuted as not agreeing with the facts (as e. g. the sum claimed having been repaid by the debtor), there the witnesses of the defendant have to be examined as well. (11)

An appointed witness having died or gone abroad, those who have heard his deposition may give evidence. (12)

(The evidence of) witnesses is (of two kinds): either of what was seen, or of what was heard. (13)

Witnesses are free from blame if they give true evidence. (14)

Whenever the death of a member of any of the four castes (would be occasioned by true evidence, they are free from blame) if they give false evidence. (15)

  In order to expiate the sin thus committed, such a witness), if he belongs to a twice-born caste, must pour an oblation in the fire, consecrating it with the texts called Kushmandi. (16)

If he is a Sudra, he must feed ten cows for one day. (17)

A false witness may be known by his altered looks, by his countenance changing colour, and by his talk wandering from the subject. (18)

Let the judge summon the witnesses, at the time of sunrise, and examine them after having bound them by an oath. (19)

A Brahmana he must address thus, 'Declare.' (20)

A Kshatriya he must address thus, 'Declare the truth.' (21)

A Vaisya he must address thus, 'Your kine, grain, and gold (shall yield you no fruit, if you were to give false evidence).' (22)

A Sudra he must address thus, 'You shall have to atone for all (possible) heavy crimes (if you were to give false evidence).' (23)

Let him exhort the witnesses (with the following speeches): (24)

  'Whatever places (of torture) await (the killer of a Brahmana and other) great criminals and (the killer of a cow and other) minor offenders, those places of abode are ordained for a witness who gives false evidence; (25)

'And the fruit of every virtuous act he has done, from the day of his birth to his dying day, shall be lost to him. (26)

'Truth makes the sun spread his rays. (27)

'Truth makes the moon shine. (28)

'Truth makes the wind blow. (29)

'Truth makes the earth bear (all that is on it). (30)

'Truth makes waters flow. (31)

'Truth makes the fire burn. (32)

'The atmosphere exists through truth. (33)

'So do the gods. (34)

'And so do the offerings. (35)

'If veracity and a thousand horse-sacrifices are weighed against each other, (it is found that) truth ranks even higher than a thousand horse-sacrifices. (36)

'Those who, though acquainted with the facts, and appointed to give evidence, stand mute, are equally criminal with, and deserve the same punishment as, false witnesses.' (After having addressed them) thus, let. the king examine the witnesses in the order of their castes. (37)

That plaintiff whose statement the witnesses declare to be true, shall win his suit; but he whose statement they declare to be wrong, shall certainly lose it. (38)

If there is contradictory evidence, let the king decide by the plurality of witnesses; if equality in number, by superiority in virtue; if parity in virtue, by the evidence of the best among the twice-born. (39)

Whenever a perjured witness has given false evidence in a suit, (the king) must reverse the judgment; and whatever has been done, must be considered as undone. (40)


NOW FOLLOWS (the rule regarding) the performance of ordeals. (1)

  In cases of a criminal action directed against the king, or of violence (they may be administered) indiscriminately. (2)

In cases of (denial of) a deposit or of (alleged) theft or robbery they must be administered each according to the value (of the property claimed). (3)

  In all such cases the value (of the object claimed) must be estimated in gold. (4)

Now if its value amounts to less than one Krishnala, a Sudra must be made to swear by a blade of Durva grass, (which he must hold in his hand); (5)

If it amounts to less than two Krishnala, by a blade of Tila; (6)

  If it amounts to less than three Krishnala, by a blade of silver; (7)

  If it amounts to less than four Krishnala, by a blade of gold; (8)

  If it amounts to less than five Krishnala, by a lump of earth taken from a furrow; (9)

If it amounts to less than half a Suvarna, a Sudra must be made to undergo the ordeal by sacred libation; (10)

If it exceeds that amount, (the judge must administer to him) any one of the (other) ordeals, viz. the ordeal by, the balance, by fire, by water, or by poison, considering duly (the season, and so on) (11)

If the amount (of the matter in contest) is twice as high (as in each of the last-mentioned cases), a Vaisya must (in each case) undergo that ordeal which has (just) been ordained (for a Sudra); (12)

A Kshatriya (must undergo the same ordeals), if the amount is thrice as high; (13)

A Brahmana, if it is four times as high. He is, however, not subject to the ordeal by sacred libation. (14)

No judge must administer the (ordeal by) sacred libation to a Brahmana; (15)

Except if it be done as a preliminary proof of his dealing fairly in some future transaction. (16)

Instead of (administering the ordeal by) sacred libation to a Brahmana (in suits regarding an object, the value of which amounts to less than two Suvarnas), let the judge cause him to swear by a lump of earth taken from a furrow. (17)

To one formerly convicted of a crime (or of perjury) he must administer one of the ordeals, even though the matter in contest be ever so trifling. (18)

  But to one who is known (and esteemed) among honest men and virtuous, he must not (administer any ordeal), even though the matter in contest be ever so important. (19)

The claimant must declare his willingness to pay the fine (which is, due in case of his being defeated); (20)

And the defendant must go through the ordeal. (21)

In cases of a criminal action directed against the, king, or of violence (an ordeal may be administered) even without (the claimant) promising to pay the fine (due in case of defeat in ordinary suits). (22)

To women, Brahmanas, persons deficient in an organ of sense, infirm (old) men, and sick persons, the (ordeal by the) balance must be administered. (23)

But it must not be administered to them while a wind is blowing. (24)

  The (ordeal by) fire must not be administered to lepers, to infirm persons, or to blacksmiths; (25)

Nor must it ever be administered in autumn or summer. (26)

The (ordeal by) poison must not be administered to lepers, bilious persons, or Brahmanas; (27)

Nor during the rainy season. (28)

The (ordeal by) water must not be administered to persons afflicted with phlegm or (another) illness, to the timid, to the asthmatic, nor to those who gain their subsistence from water (such as fishermen and the like); (29)

Nor during (the two cold seasons) Hemanta and Sisira (or from middle of November to middle of March); (30)

The (ordeal by) sacred libation must not be administered to atheists; (31)

Nor when the country is afflicted with disease or pestilence. (32)

  Let the judge summon the defendant at the time of sunrise, after having, fasted on the previous day and bathed in his clothes, and make him go through all the ordeals in the presence of (images of) the gods and of the (assessors and other) Brahmanas. (33)


NOW FOLLOWS the (rule regarding the ordeal by) balance. (1)

The transverse beam, by which the balance is to be suspended, should be fastened on two posts, four Hastas above the ground (each), and should be made two Hastas long. (2)

The beam of the balance should be made of strong wood (such as that of the Khadira or Tinduka trees), five Hastas long, and the two scales must be suspended on both sides of it, (and the whole suspended on the transverse beam by means of an iron hook). (3)

A man out of the guild of goldsmiths, or of braziers, should make it equal on both sides. (4)

Into the one scale the person (who is to be tried by this ordeal) should be placed, and a stone (or earth or bricks) or some other (equivalent) of the same weight into the other. (5)

The equivalent and the man having been made equal in weight and (the position of the scales) well marked, the man should be caused to descend from the balance. (6)

Next (the judge) should adjure by (the following) imprecations the balance (7)

And the person appointed to look after the weighing: (8)

Those places of torture which have been prepared for the murderer of a Brahmana, or for a false witness, the same places are ordained for a who person appointed to look after the weighing, who acts fraudulently in his office. (9)

'You, O balance (dhata), are called by the same name as holy law (dharma); you, O balance, know what mortals do not comprehend. (10)

'This man, being arraigned in a cause, is weighed on you. Therefore, may you deliver him lawfully from this perplexity.' (11)

After that the judge should have him placed into the one scale again. If he rises in it, he is freed from the charge according to law. (12)

In case of the strings bursting, or of the splitting of the transverse beam, the man should be placed in the scale once more. Thus the facts will be ascertained positively, and a just sentence be the result.


NOW FOLLOWS the (rule regarding the ordeal by) fire. (1)

He must make seven circles, sixteen Angulas in breadth each, the intervals being of the same breadth. (2)

Thereupon he must place seven leaves of the holy fig-tree into the hands of the person (about to perform the ordeal), who must turn his face towards the east and stretch out both arms. (3)

Those (leaves) and his hands he must bind together with a thread. (4)

  Then he must place into his hands a ball made of iron, red-hot, fifty Palas in weight, and smooth. (5)

Having received this, the person must proceed through the (seven) circles, without either walking at a very hurried pace, or lingering on his way. (6)

  Finally, after having passed the seventh circle, he must put down the ball on the ground. (7)

That man whose hands are burnt ever so little, shall be deemed guilty; but if he remains wholly unburnt, he is freed from the charge. (8)

If he lets the ball drop from fear, or if there exists a doubt as to whether he is burnt or not, let him take the ball once more, because the proof has not been decided. (9)

At the beginning (of the whole ceremony) the judge shall cause the person to rub some rice in his hands, and shall mark (with red sap, or the like, the already existing scars, eruptions of the skin, and so on, which will thus have become visible). Then the judge, after having addressed the iron ball (with the following prayer), shall place it in his hands: (10)

'You, fire, dwell in the interior of all creatures, like a witness. Fire, you know what mortals do not comprehend. (11)

'This man being arraigned in a cause, desires to be cleared from guilt. Therefore may you deliver him lawfully from this perplexity.' (12)


NOW FOLLOWS the (rule regarding the ordeal by) water. (1)

(The defendant must enter) water which is free from mud, aquatic plants, (crabs and other) vicious animals, (porpoises or other) large rapacious animals living in water, fish, leeches, and other (animals or plants), (2)

The water having been addressed with the Mantras (mentioned hereafter), he must enter it, seizing the knees of another man, who must be free from friendship or hatred, and must dive into the water up to his navel. (3)

At the same time another man must discharge an arrow from a bow, which must neither be too strong nor too weak. (4)

That arrow must be fetched quickly by another man. (5)

He who is not seen above the water in the mean time is proclaimed innocent. But in the contrary case he is (declared) guilty, even though one limb of his only has become visible. (6)

'You, O water, dwellest in the interior of all creatures, like a witness. O water, you know what mortals do not comprehend. (7)

'This man being arraigned in a cause, desires to be cleared from guilt. Therefore may you deliver him, lawfully from this perplexity.' (8)


NOW FOLLOWS the (rule regarding the ordeal by) poison. (1)

All (other) sorts of poison must be avoided (in administering this ordeal), (2)

Except poison from the Sringa tree, which grows on the Himalayas. (3)

  (Of that) the judge must give seven grains, mixed with clarified butter, to the defendant (while reciting the prayer hereafter mentioned). (4)

If the poison is digested easily, without violent symptoms, he shall recognise him as innocent, and dismiss him at the end of the day. (5)

'On account of your venomous and dangerous nature you are destruction to all living creatures; you, O poison, knowest what mortals, do not comprehend. (6)

  'This man being arraigned in a cause, desires to be cleared from guilt. Therefore may you deliver him lawfully from this perplexity.' (7)


NOW FOLLOWS the (rule regarding the ordeal by) sacred libation. (1)

  Having invoked terrible deities (such as Durga, the Adityas or others, the defendant) must drink three handfuls of water in which (images of) those deities have been bathed, (2)

Uttering at the same time the words, 'I have not done this,' with his face turned towards the deity (in question). (3)

He to whom (any calamity) happens within a fortnight or three weeks (such as an illness, or fire, or the death of a relative, or a heavy visitation by the king), (4)

Should be known to be guilty; otherwise (if nothing adverse happens to him), he is freed from the charge. A just king should honour (with presents of clothes, ornaments, and so on) one who has cleared himself from guilt by an ordeal. (5)


NOW THERE are twelve kinds of sons. (1)

The first is the son of the body, viz. he who is begotten (by the husband) himself on his own lawfully wedded wife. (2)

The second is the soil begotten on a wife, viz. one begotten by a kinsman allied by funeral oblations, or by a member of the highest caste, on an appointed (wife or widow). (3)

The third is the son of an appointed daughter. (4)

She is called an appointed daughter, who is given away by her father with the words, 'The son whom she bears be mine.' (5)

A damsel who has no brother is also (in every case considered) an appointed daughter, though she has not been given away according to the rule of an appointed daughter. (6)

The son of a twice-married woman is the fourth. (7)

She who, being still a virgin, is married for the second time is called twice married (punarbhu). (8)

She also is called twice married (punarbhu) who, though not legally married more than once, has lived with another man before her lawful marriage. (9)

The son of an unmarried damsel is the fifth. (10)

(He is called so who is) born by an unmarried daughter in the house of her father. (11)

And he belongs to the man who (afterwards) marries the mother. (12)

  The son who is secretly born in the house is the sixth. (13)

He belongs to him in whose bed he is born. (14)

The son received with a bride is the seventh. (15)

He (is called so who) is the son of a woman married while she was pregnant. (16)

And he belongs to the husband (of the pregnant bride). (17)

The adopted son (dattaka) is the eighth. (18)

And he belongs to him to whom he is given by his mother or father. (19)

The son bought is the ninth. (20)

And he belongs to him by whom he is bought. (21)

The son self-given is the tenth. (22)

And he belongs to him to whom he gave himself (23)

The son cast away is the eleventh. (24)

(He is called so) who was forsaken by his father or mother (or by both). (25)

And he belongs to him by whom he is received. (26)

The son born by any woman whoever is the twelfth. (27)

Amongst these (sons) each preceding one is preferable (to the one next in order). (28)

And he takes the inheritance (before the next in order). (29)

And let him maintain the rest. (30)

He should marry unmarried (sisters) in a manner correspondent with the amount of his property. (31)

Outcasts, eunuchs, persons incurably diseased, or deficient (in organs of sense or actions, such as blind, deaf, dumb, or insane persons, or lepers) do not receive a share. (32)

They, should be maintained by those who take the inheritance. (33)

  And their legitimate sons receive a share. (34)

But not the children of an outcast; (35)

Provided they were born after (the commission of) the act on account of which the parents were outcasted. (36)

Neither do children begotten (by husbands of an inferior caste) on women of a higher caste receive a share, (37)

Their sons do not even receive a share of the wealth of their paternal grandfathers. (38)

They should be supported by the heirs. (39)

And he who inherits the wealth, presents the funeral oblation (to the deceased). (40)

Amongst wives of one husband also the son of one is the son of all (and must present funeral oblations to them after their death). (41)

Likewise, amongst brothers begotten by, one (father, the son of one is the son of all, and must present funeral oblations to them all). (42)

Let a son present the funeral oblations to his father, even though he inherit no property. (43)

Because he saves (trayate) his father from the hell called Put, therefore (a male child) is called put-tra (protector from Put, son) by Svayambhu himself (44)

He (the father) throws his debt on him (the son); and the father obtains immortality, if he sees the face of a loving son. (45)

Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a grandson he obtains immortality, and through the soil's grandson he gains the world of the sun. (46)

No difference is made in this world between the son of a son and the son of a daughter; for even a daughter's son works the salvation of a childless man, just like a son's son. (47)


ON WOMEN equal in caste (to their husbands) sons are begotten, who are equal in caste (to their fathers). (1)

On women of lower caste than their husbands sons are begotten, who follow the caste of their mothers. (2)

On women of higher caste than their husbands sons are begotten, who are despised by the twice-born. (3)

Among these, the son of a Sudra with a Vaisya woman is called Ayogava. (4)

The Pukkasa and Magadha are sons of a Vaisya and Sudra respectively with a Kshatriya woman. (5)

The Kandala, Vaidehaka, and Suta are the sons of a Sudra, Vaisya, and Kshatriya respectively with a Brahmana woman. (6)

Besides these, there are innumerable other mixed castes produced by further intermixture between those that have been mentioned. (7)

Ayogavas must live by artistic performances (such as public wrestling, dancing, and the like). (8)

Pukkasas must live by hunting. (9)

Magadhas must live by calling out in public the good qualities (of saleable commodities). (10)

Kandalas must live by executing criminals sentenced to death. (11)

  Vaidehakas must live by keeping (dancing girls and other public) women and profiting by what they earn. (12)

Sutas must live by managing horses. (13)

Kandalas must live out of the town, and their clothes must be the mantles of the deceased. In this their condition is different (from, and lower than that of the other mixed castes). (14)

All (members of mixed castes) should have intercourse (of marriage, and other community) only between themselves. (15)

(In the lower castes also) the son inherits the property of his father. (16)

All members of those mixed castes, whether their descent has been kept secret or is generally known, may be found out by their acts. (17)

Desertion of life, regardless of reward, in order to save a Brahmana, or a cow, or for the sake of a woman or child, may confer heavenly bliss even on (members of those) base castes. (18)


If a father makes a partition with his sons, he may dispose of his self-acquired property as he thinks best. (1)

But in regard to wealth 'inherited of the paternal grandfather, the ownership of father and son is equal. (2)

(Sons), who have separated from their father, should give a share to (a brother) who is born after partition. (3)

The wealth of a man who dies without male issue goes to his wife; (4)

  On failure of her, to his daughter; (5)

On failure of her, to his father; (6)

On failure of him, to his mother; (7)

On failure of her, to his brother; (8)

On failure of him, to his brother's son; (9)

On failure of him, to the relations called Bandhu; (10)

On failure of them, to the relations called Sakulya; (11)

On failure of them, to a fellow-student; (12)

On failure of him, it goes to the king, with the exception of a Brahmana's property. (13)

The property of a Brahmana goes to (other) Brahmanas. (14)

The wealth of a (deceased) hermit shall be taken by his spiritual teacher; (15)

Or his pupil (may take it). (16)

But let a reunited coparcener take the share of his reunited coparcener who has died (without issue), and a uterine brother that of his uterine brother, and let them give (the shares of their deceased coparceners and uterine brothers) to the sons of the latter. (17)

What has been given to a woman by her father, mother, sons, or brothers, what she has received before the sacrificial fire (at the marriage ceremony), what she receives on supersession, what has been given to her by her relatives, her fee (Sulka), and a gift subsequent, are called 'woman's property' (Stridhana). (18)

If a woman married according to (one of the first) four rites, beginning with the Brahma rite, dies without issue, that (Stridhana) belongs to her husband. (19)

(If she has been married) according to (one of) the other (four reprehensible rites), her father shall take it. (20)

If she dies leaving children, her wealth goes in every case to her daughter. (21)

Ornaments worn by women when their husbands were alive, the heirs shall not divide among themselves; if they divide them, they become outcasts. (22)

(Coparceners) descended from different fathers must adjust their shares according to the fathers. Let each take the wealth due to his father, no other (has a right to it). (23)##�


18 IF THERE are four sons of a Brahmana (springing from four different wives) of the four castes, they shall divide the whole estate of their father into ten parts. (1)

Of these, let the soil of the Brahmana wife take four parts; (2)

  The son of the Kshatriya wife, three parts; (3)

The son of the Vaisya wife, two parts; (4)

The son of the Sudra wife, a single part. (5)

Again, if there are three sons of a Brahmana (by wives of different castes), but no son by a Sudra (wife) among them, they shall divide the estate into nine parts. (6)

(Of these) let them take, each in the order of his caste, shares amounting to four, three, and two parts of the whole respectively. (7)

(If there are three sons by wives of different castes, but) no Vaisya among them, they shall divide the estate into eight parts, and take four parts, three parts, and one part respectively. (8)

(If there are three sons, but) no Kshatriya among them, they shall divide it into seven parts, and take four parts, two parts, and a single part respectively. (9)

If there is no Brahmana, among them, they hall divide it into six parts, and take three parts, two parts, and a single part respectively. (10)

If there are sons of a Kshatriya by a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, and a Sudra wife, the mode of division shall be the same (i.e. the estate shall be divided into six parts, and so on) (11)

Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmana, the one belonging to the Brahmana and the other to the Kshatriya caste, they shall divide the estate into seven parts; and of these the Brahmana son shall take four parts; (12)

The Kshatriya son, three parts. (13)

Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmana, and the one belongs to the Brahmana and the other to the Vaisya caste, the estate shall be divided into six parts; and of these, the Brahmana shall take four parts; (14)

The Vaisya, two parts. (15)

Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmana, and the one belongs to the Brahmana and the other to the Sudra caste, they shall divide the estate into five parts; (16)

And of these, the Brahmana shall take four parts; (17)

The Sudra, a single part. (18)

Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmana or a Kshatriya, and the one belongs to the Kshatriya and the other to the Sudra caste, they shall divide the estate into five parts; (19)

And of these, the Kshatriya shall take three parts; (20)

The Sudra, one part. (21)

Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmana or a Kshatriya, and the one belongs to the Kshatriya, the other to the Sudra caste, they shall divide the estate into four parts; (22) And of these, the Kshatriya shall take three parts; (23)

The Sudra, a single part. (24)

Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmana or a Vaisya or a Sudra, and the one belongs to the Vaisya, the other to the Sudra caste, they shall divide the estate into three parts; (25)

And of these, the Vaisya shall take two parts; (26)

The Sudra, a single part, (27)

If a Brahmana has an only son, he shall take the whole estate, provided he be a Brahmana, Kshatriya, or Vaisya. (28)

If a Kshatriya has (an only son who is) either a Kshatriya or a Vaisya, (the rule shall be the same.) (29) If a Vaisya has (an only son who is) Vaisya, (the rule shall also be the same); (30)

(And so shall the only) son of a Sudra (be sole heir) to his Sudra (father). (31)

A Sudra, who is the only son of a father belonging to a twice-born caste, shall inherit one-half of his property; (32)

The other half shall devolve in the same way as the property of one who died without leaving issue. (33)

Mothers shall receive shares proportionate to their son's shares; (34)

And so shall unmarried daughters. (35)

Sons, who are equal in caste (to their father), shall receive equal shares. (36)

A best part (the twentieth part of the inheritance, and so on) shall be given to the eldest, as his additional share. (37)

If there are two sons by a Brahmana and one by a Sudra wife, the estate shall be divided into nine parts; and of these, the two sons of the Brahmana wife shall take two parts, the one son of the Sudra wife, a single part. (38)

If there are two sons by a Sudra, and one son by a Brahmana wife, the estate shall be divided into six parts; and of these, the son of the Brahmana wife shall take four parts, and the two sons of the Sudra wife together shall take two parts. (39)

  On the same principles the shares have to be adjusted in other cases also. (40)

If (brothers), who after a previous division of the estate live again together as parceners, should make a second partition, the shares must be equal in that case, and the eldest has no right to an additional share. (41)

What a brother has acquired by, his own efforts, without using the patrimony, he must not give up (to his brothers or other co-heirs), unless by his own free will; for it was gained by his own exertion. (42)

And if a man recovers (a debt or other property), which could not before be recovered by his father, he shall not, unless by his own free will, divide it with his sons; for it is an acquisition made by himself. (43)

Apparel, vehicles (carriages or riding-horses), and ornaments (such as are usually worn according to the custom of the caste), prepared food, water (in a well or pool), females (slaves or mistresses of the deceased), property destined for pious uses or sacrifices, a common pasture-ground, and a book, are indivisible.


He must not cause a member of a twice-born caste to be carried out by a Sudra (even though he be a kinsman of the deceased); (1)

Nor a Sudra by a member of a twice-born caste. (2)

A father and a mother shall be carried out by their sons (who are equal in caste to their parents). (3)

But Sudras must never carry out a member of a twice-born caste, even though he be their father. (4)

Those Brahmanas who carry out (or follow the corpse of) a (deceased) Brahmana who has no relatives shall attain a mansion in heaven. (5)

Those who have carried out a dead relative and burnt his corpse, shall walk round the pile from left to right, and then plunge into water, dressed in their clothes. (6)

After having offered a libation of water to the deceased, they must place one ball of rice on blades of Kusa grass, (and this ceremony has to be repeated on each subsequent day, while the period of impurity lasts.) (7)

Then, having changed their dress, they must bite Nimba leaves between their teeth, and having stepped on the stone threshold, they must enter the house. (8)

  Then they must throw unbroken grains into the fire. (9)

On the fourth day they must collect the bones that have been left. (10)

And they must throw them into water from the Ganges. (11)

As many bones of a man are contained in the water of the Ganges, so many thousands of years will he reside in heaven. (12)

While the term of impurity lasts, they must continually offer a libation of water and a ball of rice to the deceased. (13)

And they must eat food which has been bought, or which they have received unsolicited. (14)

And they, must eat no meat. (15)

And they must sleep on the ground. (16)

And they must sleep apart. (17)

When the impurity is over, they must walk forth from the village, have their beards shaved, and having cleansed themselves with a paste of sesamum, or with a paste of mustard-seed, they must change their dress and re-enter the house. (18)

  There, after reciting a propitiatory prayer, they must honour the Brahmanas. (19)

The gods are invisible deities, the Brahmanas are visible deities. (20)

The Brahmanas sustain the world. (21)

It is by the favour of the Brahmanas that the gods reside in heaven; a speech uttered by Brahmanas (whether a curse or a benediction) never fails to come true. (22) What the Brahmanas pronounce, when highly pleased (as, if they promise sons, cattle, wealth, or some other boon to a man), the gods will ratify; when the visible gods are pleased, the invisible gods are surely pleased as well. (23)

The mourners, who lament the loss of a relative, shall be addressed by men gifted with a tranquil frame of mind with such consolatory speeches as I shall now recite to you, O Earth, who art cherished to my, mind. (24)


THE NORTHERN progress of the sun is a day, with the gods. (1)

The southern progress of the sun is (with them) a night. (2)

A year is (with them) a day and a night; (3)

Thirty such are a month; (4)

Twelve such months are a year. (5)

Twelve hundred years of the gods are a Kaliyuga. (6)

Twice as many (or two thousand four hundred) are a Dvapara (Yuga). (7)

Thrice as many (or three thousand six hundred) are a Treta (Yuga). (8)

Four times as many (or four thousand eight hundred) are a Krita Yuga. (9)

(Thus) twelve thousand years make a Katuryuga (or period of four Yugas). (10)

Seventy-one Katuryugas make a Manvantara (or period of a Manu). (11)

  A thousand Katuryugas make a Kalpa. (12)

And that is a day of the forefather (Brahman). (13)

His night also has an equal duration. (14)

If so many such nights and days are put together that, reckoned by the month and by the year, they make up a period of a hundred years (of Brahman) it is called the age of one Brahman. (15)

A day of Purusha (Vishnu) is equal in duration to the age of one Brahman. (16)

When it ends, a Mahakalpa is over. (17)

The night following on it is as long. (18)

The days and nights of Purusha that have gone by are innumerable; (20

  And so are those that will follow. (20)

For Kala (time) is without either beginning or end. (21)

Thus it is, that in this Kala (time), in whom there is nothing to rest on, and who is everlasting, I can espy nothing created in which there is the least stability. (22)

The sands in the Ganges and (the waters pouring down from the sky) when Indra sends rain can be counted, but not the number of 'Forefathers' (Brahmans) who have passed away. (23)

In each Kalpa, fourteen chiefs of the gods (Indras) go to destruction, as many rulers of the world (kings), and fourteen Manus. (24)

And so have many thousands of Indras and hundred thousands of princes of the Daityas (such as Hiranyakasipu, Hiranyaksha, and others) been destroyed by Kala, (time). What should one say of human beings then? (25)

'Many royal Rishis too (such as Sagara), all of them renowned for their virtues, gods and Brahmanical Rishis (such as Kasyapas) have perished by the action of Kala. (26)

Those even who have the power of creating and annihilating in this world (the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies) continually perish by the act of Kala; for Kala (time) is hard to overcome. (27)

Every creature is seized on by Kala and carried into the other world. It is the slave of its actions (in a former existence). Wherefore then should you wail (on its death)? (28)

Those who are born are sure to die, and those who have died are sure to be born again. This is inevitable, and no associate can follow a man (in his passage through mundane existence). (30).

As mourners will not help the dead in this world, therefore (the relatives) should not weep, but perform the obsequies to the best of their power. (30)

As both his good and bad actions will follow him (after death) like associates. what does it matter to a man whether his relatives mourn over him or no? (31)

  But as long as his relatives remain impure, the departed spirit finds no rest, and returns to visit (his relatives), whose duty it is to offer tip to him the funeral ball of rice and the water libation. (32)

Till the Sapindikarana has been performed, the dead man remains a disembodied spirit (and is afflicted with hunger and thirst). Give rice and a jar with water to the man who has passed into the abode of disembodied spirits. (33)

Having passed into the abode of the manes (after the performance of the Sapindikarana) he enjoys in the shape of celestial food his portion of the Sraddha (funeral oblation); offer the Sraddha, therefore, to him who has passed into the abode of the manes. (34)

Whether he has become a god, or stays in hell, or has entered the body of an animal, or of a human being, he will receive the Sraddha offered to him by his relatives. (35)

The dead person and the performer of the Sraddha are sure to be benefitted by its performance. Perform the Sraddha always, therefore, abandoning bootless grief. (36)

This is the duty which should be constantly discharged towards a dead person by his kinsmen; by mourning a man will neither benefit the dead nor himself. (37)

Having seen that no help is to be had from this world, and that his relations are dying (one after the other), you must choose virtue for your only associate, O ye men. (38)

Even were he to die with him, a kinsman is unable to follow his dead relative: all excepting his wife are forbidden to follow him on the path of Yama. (39)

  Virtue alone will follow him, wherever he, may go; therefore do your duty unflinchingly in this wretched world. (40)

To-morrow's business should be done to-day, and the, afternoons business in the forenoon; for death will not wait, whether a person has done it or not. (41)

While his mind is fixed on his field, or traffic, or his house, or while his thoughts are engrossed by some other (beloved) object, death suddenly carries him away as his, prey, as a she-wolf catches a lamb. (42)

Kala (time) is no one's friend and no one's enemy: when the effect of his acts in a former existence, by which his present existence is caused, has expired, he snatches a man away forcibly. (43)

He will not die before his time has come, even though he has been pierced by a thousand shafts; he will not live after his time is out, even though he has only been touched by the point of a blade of Kusa grass. (44)

Neither drugs, nor magical formulas, nor burnt-offerings, nor prayers will save a man who is in the bonds of death or old age. (45)

An impending evil cannot be averted even by a hundred precautions; what reason then for you to complain? (46)

Even as a calf finds his mother among a thousand cows, an act formerly done is sure to find the perpetrator. (47)

Of existing beings the beginning is unknown, the middle (of their career) is known, and the end again unknown; what reason then for you to complain? (48)

  As the body of mortals undergoes (successively the vicissitudes of) infancy, youth, and old age, even so will it be transformed into another body (hereafter); a sensible man is not mistaken about that. (49)

As a man puts on new clothes in this world, throwing aside those which he formerly wore, even so the self of man puts on new bodies, which are in accordance with his acts (in a former life). (50)

No weapons will hurt the self of man, no fire burn it, no waters moisten it, and no wind dry it up. (51)

It is not to be hurt, not to be burnt, not to be moistened, and not to be dried up; it is imperishable, perpetual, unchanging, immovable, without beginning. (52)

It is (further) said to be immaterial, passing all thought, and immutable. Knowing the self of man to be such, you must not grieve (for the destruction of his body). (53)


Now then, (on the day) after the impurity is over, let him bathe duly (during the recitation of Mantras), wash his hands and feet duly, and sip water duly, (and having invited some Brahmanas), as many as possible, who must cleanse themselves in the same way and turn their faces towards the north, let him bestow presents of perfumes, garlands, clothes and other things (a lamp, frankincense, and the like) on them, and hospitably entertain them. (1)

At the Ekoddishta (or Sraddha for one recently deceased) let him alter the Mantras so as to refer to (the) one person (deceased) (2)

Close to the food left (by the Brahmanas) let him offer a ball of rice, at the same time calling out his name and (that of) his race. (3)

The Brahmanas having taken food and having been honoured with a gift, let him offer, as imperishable food, water to the Brahmanas, after having called out the name and Gotra of the deceased; and let him dig three trenches, each four Angulas in breadth, their distance from one another and their depth also measuring (four Angulas), and their length amounting to one Vitasti (or twelve Angulas). (4)

Close by the trenches let him light three fires, and having added fuel to them, let him make three oblations (of boiled rice) in each (fire, saying), (5)

  'Svadha and reverence to Soma, accompanied by the manes. (6)

'Svadha and reverence to Agni, who conveys the oblations addressed to the manes. (7)

'Svadha and reverence to Yama Angiras.' (8)

Then let him offer balls of rice as (ordained) before (in Sutra 3) on the three mounds of earth (adjacent to the three trenches). (9)

After having filled the three trenches with rice, sour milk, clarified butter, honey, and meat, let him mutter (the Mantra), 'This is for you.' (10)

This ceremony he must repeat monthly, on the day of his death. (11)

  At the close of the year let him give food to the Brahmanas, after having fed the gods first, in honour of the deceased and of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather. (12)

At (the Ekoddishta belonging to) this ceremony let him perform the burnt-offering, the invitation, and (the offering of) water for washing the feet. (13)

Then he must pour the water for washing the feet and the Arghya (water libation) destined for the deceased person into the three vessels containing the water for washing the feet, and the three other vessels containing the Arghya of his three ancestors. At the same time he must mutter (the two Mantras), 'May earth unite you ,' and 'United your minds'. (14)

Near the leavings he must make (and put) four balls of rice. (15)

  Let him show out the Brahmanas, after they have sipped water duly and have been presented by him with their sacrificial fee. (16)

Then let him knead together the ball of the deceased person with the three balls (of the three ancestors), as (he has mixed up) his water for washing the feet and his Arghya (with theirs). (17)

Let him do the same (with the balls placed) near the three trenches. (18)

Or (see Sutra 12) the Sapindikarana must be performed on the thirteenth, after the monthly Sraddha has been performed on the twelfth day. (20

For Sudras it should be performed on the twelfth day, without Mantras. (20)

If there be an intercalary month in that year, he must add one day to the (regular days of the) monthly Sraddha. (21)

The ceremony of investing women with the relationship of Sapinda has to be performed in the same manner. Later, he must perform a Sraddha every year, while he lives, (on the anniversary of the deceased relative's death). (22)

He, for whom the ceremony of investing him with the, relationship of Sapinda is performed after the lapse of a year, shall be honoured by the gift, (on each day) of that year, of food and a jar with water to a Brahmana. (23)


The impurity of a Brahmana caused by the birth or death of Sapindas lasts ten days. (1)

In the case of a Kshatriya (it lasts) twelve days. (2)

In the case of a Vaisya (it lasts) fifteen days. (3)

In the case of a Sudra (it lasts) a month. (4)

The relationship of Sapinda ceases with the seventh man (in descent or ascent). (5)

During the period of impurity oblations (to the Visvedevas), gifts and receiving of alms, and study have to be interrupted. (6)

No one must eat the food of one impure (unless he be a Sapinda of his). (7)

He who eats but once the food of Brahmanas or others, while they are impure, will remain impure as long as they. (8)

When the (period of) impurity is over, he must perform a penance (as follows): (9)

If a twice-born man has eaten (the food) of a member of his own caste, while the latter was impure, he must approach a river and plunge into it, mutter the (hymn of) Aghamarshana three times, and, after having emerged from the water, must mutter the Gayatri one thousand and eight times. (10)

If a Brahmana has eaten the food of a Kshatriya, while the latter was impure, he is purified by performing the same penance and by fasting (on the previous day). (11)

(The same penance is ordained for) a Kshatriya who has eaten the food of a Vaisya, while the latter was impure. (12)

(The same penance is ordained for) a Brahmana (who has eaten the food) of an impure Vaisya; but he must fast besides during the three (previous) days. (13)

  If a Kshatriya or a Vaisya (have eaten the food) of a Brahmana or a Kshatriya respectively, who were impure, they must approach a river and mutter the Gayatri five hundred times. (14)

A Vaisya, who has eaten the food of a Brahmana, while the latter was impure, must (go to a river and) mutter the Gayatri one hundred and eight times. (15)

  A twice-born man (who has eaten the food), of a Sudra, while the latter was impure must (go to a river and) perform the Pragapatya (penance). (16)

A Sudra (who has eaten the food) of an impure man of a twice-born caste must bathe (in a river). (17)

A Sudra (who has eaten the food) of another Sudra, while the latter was impure, must bathe (in a river) and drink Pa�kagavya. (18)

Wives and slaves in the direct order of the castes (i. e. who do not belong to a higher caste than their lord) remain impure as long as their lord. (19)

  If their lord is dead (or if they live apart from him, they remain impure) as long as (members of) their own caste. (20)

If Sapindas of a higher caste (are born or have died) the period of impurity has for their lower caste relations the same duration as for members of the higher caste. (21)

A Brahmana (to whom) Sapindas of the Kshatriya, Vaisya, or Sudra castes (have been born or have died) becomes pure within six nights, or three nights, or one night, respectively. (22)

A Kshatriya (to whom Sapindas of the) Vaisya or Sudra castes (have been born or have died) is purified within six and three nights, respectively. (23)

A Vaisya (to whom Sapindas of the) Sudra caste (have been born or have died) becomes pure within six nights. (24)

In a number of nights equal to the number of months after conception, a woman is purified from an abortion. (25)

The relatives of children that have died immediately after birth (before the cutting of the navel-string), and of still-born children, are purified at once. (26)

(The relatives) of a child that has died before having teethed (are also purified) at once. (27)

For him no ceremony with fire is performed, nor offering of water. (2 (9

. For a child that has teethed but has not yet been shorn, purity is obtained in one day and night; (30

For a child that has been shorn but not initiated, in three nights; (30)

From that time forward (i. e. for initiated persons) in the time that has been mentioned above (in Sutra 1 seq.) (31)

In regard to women, the marriage ceremony is (considered as their) initiation. (32)

For married women there is no impurity for the relatives on the father's side. (33)

If they happen to stay at their father's house during childbirth or if they die there, (their distant relatives are purified) in one night, and their parents (in three nights). (34)

If, while the impurity, caused by a birth lasts, another impurity caused by childbirth intervenes, it ends when the former impurity terminates. (35)

If it intervenes when one night (only of the period of impurity remains, the fresh impurity terminates) two days later. (36)

If it intervenes when one watch (only of the last night remains, the impurity ends) three days later. (37)

The same rule is observed if a relative dies during a period of impurity caused by the death (of another relative). (38)

If a man, while staying in another country, hears of the birth or death (of a relative), he becomes purified after the lapse of the period still wanting (to the ten days). (39)

if the period of impurity, but not a whole year, has elapsed, (he is purified in one night.) (40)

After that time (he is purified) by a bath. (41)

If his teacher or maternal grandfather has died, (he is purified) in three nights. (42)

Likewise, if sons other than a son of the body have been born or have died, and if wives who had another husband before have been delivered of a child or have died. (43)

(He becomes pure) in one day, if the wife or son of his teacher, or his Upadhyaya (sub-teacher), or his maternal uncle, or his father-in-law, or a brother-in-law, or a fellow-student, or a pupil has died. (44)

The impurity has the same duration (as in the cases last mentioned), if the king of that country in which he lives has died. (45)

Likewise, if a man not his Sapinda has died at his house. (46)

The relatives of those who have been killed by (falling from) a precipice, or by fire, or (have killed themselves by) fasting, or (have been killed by) water, in battle, by lightning, or by the king (on account of a crime committed by them), do not become impure; (47)

Nor do kings (become impure) while engaged in the discharge of their ditties (such as the protection of their subjects, the trial of lawsuits, and so on) (48)

  Devotees fulfilling a vow (also do not become impure); (49)

Nor do sacrificers engaged in a sacrificial ceremony; (50)

Nor workmen (such as carpenters or others) while engaged in their work; (51)

Nor those who perform the king's orders, if the king wishes them to be pure. (52)

Nor (can impurity arise) during the installation of the monument of a deity, nor during a marriage ceremony, if those ceremonies have actually begun; (53)

  Nor when the whole country is afflicted with a calamity; (54)

Nor in times if great public distress (such as an epidemic or a famine). (55)

Suicides and outcasts do not cause impurity or receive offerings of water. (56)

On the death-day of an outcast a female slave of his must upset a pot with water with her feet, (saying, 'Drink you this.') (57)

He who cuts the rope by which (a suicide) has hung himself, becomes pure by performing the Taptakrikkhra ('hot penance'). (58)

So does he who has been (in any way) concerned with the funeral of a suicide; (59)

And he who sheds tears for such. (60)

He who sheds tears for any deceased person together with the relations of the latter (becomes pure) by a bath. (61)

If he has done so, before the bones (of the deceased) had been collected, (he becomes pure) by bathing with his apparel. (62)

If a member of a twice-born caste has followed the corpse of a dead Sudra, he must go to a river, and having plunged into it, mutter the Aghamarshana three times, and then, after having emerged from it, mutter the Gayatri one thousand and eight times. (63)

(If he has followed) the corpse of a dead member of a twice-born caste, (the same expiation is ordained, but he must mutter the Gayatri) one hundred and eight times only. (64)

If a Sudra has followed the corpse of a member of a twice-born caste, he must bathe. (65)

Members of any caste, who have come near to the smoke of a funeral pile, must bathe. (66)

(Bathing is also ordained) after sexual intercourse, bad dreams (of having been mounted on an ass, or the like), when blood has issued from the throat, and after having vomited or been purged; (67)

Also, after tonsure of the head; (68)

And after having touched one who has touched a corpse (a carrier of a corpse), or a woman in her courses, or a Kandala (or other low-caste persons, such as Svapakas), or a sacrificial post; (69)

And (after having touched) the corpse of a five-toed animal, except of those kinds that may be eaten, or their bones still moist with fat. (70)

In all such ablutions he must not wear his (defiled) apparel without having washed it before. (71)

A woman in her courses becomes pure after four days by bathing. (72)

  A woman in her courses having touched another woman in her courses, who belongs to a lower caste than she does, must not eat again till she is purified. (73)

  If she has (unawares) touched a woman of her own caste, or of a higher caste than her own, she becomes pure at once, after having taken a bath. (74)

Having sneezed, having slept, having eaten, going to eat or to study, having drunk (water), having bathed, having spat, having put on his garment, having walked on the high road, having discharged urine or voided excrements, and having touched the bones no longer moist with fat of a five-toed animal, he must sip water; (75)

Likewise, if he has talked to a Kandala or to a Mlekkha (barbarian). (76)

If the lower part of his body, below the navel, or one of his fore-arms, has been defiled by one of the impure excretions of the body, or by one of the spirituous liquors or of the intoxicating drinks (hereafter mentioned), he is purified by cleansing the limb in question with earth and water. (77)

If another part of his body (above the navel) has been defiled, (he becomes pure by cleansing it) with earth and water, and by bathing. (78)

If his mouth has been defiled (he becomes pure) by fasting, bathing, and drinking Pa�kagavya; (79)

Likewise, if his lip has been defiled. (80)

Adeps, semen, blood, dandruff, urine, f�ces, earwax, nail-parings, phlegm, tears, rheum, and sweat, are the twelve impure excretions of the body. (81)

  Distilled from sugar, or from the blossoms of the Madhuka. (Madhvi wine), or from flour: these three kinds of spirituous liquor have to be discerned; as one, so are all: none of them must be tasted by the twice-born. (82)

Again, distilled from the blossoms of the Madhuka tree (Madhuka wine), from molasses, from the fruits of the Tanka (or Kapittha tree), of the jujube tree, of the Khargura tree, or of the breadfruit tree, from wine-grapes, from Madhuka blossoms (Madhvika wine), Maireya, and the sap of the cocoanut tree: (83)

These ten intoxicating drinks are unclean for a Brahmana; but a Kshatriya and a Vaisya commit no wrong in touching (or drinking) them. (84)

A pupil having performed (on failure of other mourners) the funeral of his dead Guru, becomes pure after ten nights, like those (kinsmen) who carry out the dead. (85)

A student does not infringe the rules of his order by carrying out, when dead, his teacher, or his sub-teacher, or his father, or his mother, or his Guru. (86)

A student must not offer a libation of water to a deceased relative (excepting his parents) till the term of his studentship has expired; but if, after its expiration, he offers a libation of water, he becomes pure after three nights. (87)

  Sacred knowledge (see 92), religious austerities (see 90 (?)), fire (see 23,33), holy food (Pa�kagavya), earth (see 91), the mind, water (see 91), smearing (with cow-dung and the like, see 23,56), air (see 23,40, (the morning and evening prayers and other) religious acts, the sun, and time (by the lapse of the ten days of impurity and the like) are purifiers of animate objects. (88)

Of all pure things, pure food is pronounced the most excellent; for he who eats pure food only, is truly pure, not he who is only purified with earth and water. (89)

By forgiveness of injuries the learned are purified; by liberality, those who have done forbidden acts; by muttering of prayers, those who have sinned in secret; by religious austerities, those who best know the Veda. (90)

By water and earth is purified what should be purified (because it has been defiled); a river is purified by its current (carrying away all slime and mud); a woman, whose thoughts have been impure, by her menses,; and the chief among the twice-born (the Brahmanas), by renouncing the world. (91)

Bodies (when defiled) are purified by water; the mind is purified (from evil thoughts) by truth; the soul (is purified or freed from worldly vanity) by sacred learning and austerities; the understanding (when unable to resolve some doubt), by knowledge. (92)

Thus the directions for purifying animate bodies have been declared to you; hear now the rules for cleaning all sorts of inanimate objects. (93)


What has been defiled by the impure excretions of the body, by spirits, or by intoxicating drinks, is impure in the highest degree. (1)

All vessels made of iron (or of other metals or of composition metals such as bell-metal and the like), which are impure in the highest degree, become pure by exposure to the fire. (2)

Things made of gems or stones or water-shells, (such as conch-shells or mother-of-pearl, become pure) by digging them into the earth for seven days. (3)

Things made of horns (of rhinoceroses or other animals), or of teeth (of elephants or other animals), or of bone (of tortoises or other animals, become pure) by planing them. (4)

Vessels made of wood or earthenware must be thrown away. (5)

Of a garment, which has been defiled in the highest degree, let him cut off that part which, having been washed, is changed in colour. (6)

Objects made of gold, silver, water-shells, or gems, when (they are only defiled by leavings of food, and the like, and) not smeared (with greasy substances), are cleansed with water. (7)

So are stone cups and vessels used at Soma-sacrifices (when not smeared). (8)

Sacrificial pots, ordinary wooden ladles, and wooden ladles with two collateral excavations (used for pouring clarified butter on a sacrificial fire) are cleansed with hot water (when not smeared). (9)

Vessels used for oblations (of butter, fruits, and the like are cleansed) by rubbing them with the hand (with blades of Kusa grass) at the time of the sacrifice. (10)

Sword-shaped pieces of wood for stirring the boiled rice, winnowing baskets, implements used for preparing grain, pestles and mortars (are cleansed) by sprinkling water over them. (11)

So are beds, vehicles, and seats (when defiled even by the touch of a Sudra). (12)

Likewise, a large quantity (of anything). (13)

Grain, skins (of antelopes, and so on), ropes, woven cloth, (fans and the like) made of bamboo, thread, cotton, and clothes (which have only just come from the manufactory, or which are dyed with saffron and will not admit of washing for that reason, are cleansed in the same way, when there is a large quantity of them); (14)

Also, pot-herbs, roots, fruits, and flowers; (15)

Likewise, grass, firewood, dry cow-dung (used as fuel), and leaves (of the Madhuka, Palasa, or other trees). (16)

The same (when smeared with excrements and the like, are cleansed) by washing (17)

And so (have the objects mentioned in Sutra 14, if defiled without being smeared, to be cleansed by washing), when there is only a small quantity of them; (18)

Silk and wool, with saline earths; (20

(Blankets or plaids) made of the hair of the mountain-goat, with the fruits of the soap plant; (20)

Clothes made of the bark of trees, with B�l fruit; (21)

Linen cloth, with white sesamum; (22)

Likewise, things made of horns, bone, or teeth; (23)

(Rugs or covers) made of deer's hair, with lotus-seeds; (24)

Vessels of copper, bell-metal, tin, and lead, with acidulated water; (25)

Vessels of white copper and iron, with ashes; (26)

Wooden articles, by planing; (27)

Vessels made of fruits (such as cocoa-nuts, bottle-gourds, and Be) fruits), by (rubbing them with) cows' hair. (28)

Many things in a heap, by sprinkling water over them; (29)

Liquids (such as clarified butter, milk, and so on), by straining them; (30)

Lumps of sugar and other preparations from the sugar-cane, stored up in large quantities (exceeding a Drona) and kept in one's own house(2), by water and fire; (31)

All sorts of salt, in the same manner; (32)

Earthern vessels (if smeared with excrements and the like), by a second burning; (33)

Images of gods (if smeared), by cleansing them in the same way as the material (of which they are made is generally cleansed), and then installing them anew (in their former place). (34)

Of undressed grain let him remove so much only as has been defiled, and the remainder let him pound in a mortar and wash. (35)

A quantity of prepared grain not exceeding a Drona is not spoiled by being defiled (by dogs, crows, and other unclean animals). (36)

He must throw away thus much of it only as has been defiled, and must sprinkle over the remainder water, into which a piece of gold has been dropped, and over which the Gayatri has been pronounced, and must hold it tip before a goat (or before a horse) and before the fire. (37)

That (food) which has been nibbled by a bird (except a crow or other such birds that must not be eaten or touched), smelt at by a cow, sneezed on, or defiled by (human) hair, or by insects or worms, is purified by earth scattered over it. (38)

  As long as the scent or moisture, caused by any unclean substance, remains on the defiled object, so long must earth and water be constantly applied in all purifications of inanimate objects. (39)

A goat and a horse are pure, as regards their mouths, but not a cow, nor the impure excretions of a man's body; roads are purified by the rays of the moon and of the sun, and by the winds. (40)

Mire and water on the high road, that has been touched by low-caste people, by dogs, or by crows, as well as buildings constructed with burnt bricks, are purified by the wind. (41)

For everybody let him (the Akarya or spiritual guide) carefully direct the performance of purificatory ceremonies, with earth and water, when he has been defiled in the highest degree. (42)

Stagnant water, even if a single cow only has quenched her thirst with it, is pure, unless it is quite filled with (hair or other) unclean objects; it is the same with water on a rock (or on the top of a mountain). (43)

From a well, in which a five-toed animal (whether man or beast, but not one of the five-toed animals whose flesh may be eaten), has died, or which has been defiled in the highest degree, he must take out all the waters and dry up the remainder with a cloth. (44)

If it is a well constructed with burnt bricks (or stones,) he must light a fire and afterwards throw Pa�kagavya into it, when fresh water is coming forth. (45)

For small reservoirs of water and for ponds the same mode of purification has been prescribed as for wells, O Earth; but large tanks (excepting Tirthas) are not defiled (by dead animals, and so on) (46)

The gods have declared, as peculiar to Brahmanas, three causes effecting purity: if an (existing) impurity has not been perceived by them; if they, sprinkle the object (supposed to be impure) with water; and if they commend it, in doubtful cases, with their speech, (saying, 'This or that shall be pure.') (47)

The hand of a (cook or other) artizan, things exposed for sale in a shop (though they may, have passed through the hands of many customers), food given to a Brahmana (by other Brahmanas, or by, Kshatriyas, and so on, but not by Sudras), and all manufactories or mines (of sugar, salt, and the like, but not distilleries of spirituous liquor), are always pure. (48)

The mouth of a woman is always pure (for the purpose of a kiss); a bird is pure on the fall of fruit (which he has pecked); a sucking calf (or child), on the flowing of the milk; a dog, on his catching the deer. (49)

Flesh of an animal which has been killed by dogs is pronounced pure; and so is that of an animal slain by other carnivorous creatures (such as tigers) or by huntsmen such as Kandalas (Svapakas, Kshattris, or other low-caste men). (50)

The cavities above the navel must be considered as pure; those below it are impure; and so are all excretions that fall from the body. (51)

Flies, saliva dropping from the mouth, a shadow, a cow, an elephant, a horse, sun-beams, dust, the earth, air, fire, and a cat are always pure. (52)

  Such drops as fall from the mouth of a man on any part of his body do not render it impure, nor do hairs of the beard that enter his mouth, nor remnants of his food adhering to his teeth. (53)

Drops which trickle on the feet of a man holding water for others to sip it, are considered as equal to waters springing from the earth: by them he is not soiled. (54)

He who is anyhow touched by anything impure, while holding things in his hands, is purified by sipping water, without laying the things on the ground. (55)

  A house is purified by scouring it with a broom and plastering the ground with cow-dung, and a manuscript or book by sprinkling water over it. Land is cleansed by scouring, by plastering it with cow-dung, (56)

By sprinkling, by scraping, by burning, or by letting cows (or goats) pass (a day and a night) on it. Cows are auspicious purifiers, on cows depend the worlds, (57)

Cows alone make sacrificial oblations possible (by producing sacrificial butter), cows take away every sin. The urine of cows, their dung, clarified butter, milk, sour milk, and Gorokana: (58)

Those six excellent (productions) of a cow are always propitious. Drops of water falling from the horns of a cow are productive of religious merit, and have the power to expiate all sins (of those who bathe in, or rub themselves with, them). (59)

Scratching the back of a cow destroys all guilt, and giving her to eat procures exaltation in heaven. (60)

In the urine of cows dwells the Ganges, prosperity (dwells) in the dust (rising from their couch), good fortune in cow-dung, and virtue in saluting them. Therefore should they be constantly saluted. (61)


Now a Brahmana may take four wives in the direct order of the (four) castes; (1)

A Kshatriya, three; (2)

A Vaisya, two; (3)

A Sudra, one only. (4)

Among these (wives), if a man marries one of his own caste, their hands shall be joined. (5)

In marriages with women of a different class, a Kshatriya bride must hold an arrow in her hand; (6)

A Vaisya bride,. a whip; (7)

A Sudra bride, the skirt of a mantle. (8)

No one should marry a woman belonging to the same Gotra, or descended from the same Rishi ancestors, or from the same Pravaras. (9)

Nor (should he marry) one descended from his maternal ancestors within the fifth, or from his paternal ancestors within the seventh degree; (10)

Nor one of a low family (such as an agriculturer's, or an attendant of the king's family); (11)

Nor one diseased; (12)

Nor one with a limb too much (as e. g. having six fingers); (13)

  Nor one with a limb too little; (14)

Nor one whose hair is decidedly red; (15)

Nor one talking idly. (16)

There are eight forms of marriage (17)

The Brahma, Daiva, Arsha, Pragapatya, Gandharva, Asura, Rakshasa, and Paisaka forms. (18)

The gift of a damsel to a fit bridegroom, who has been invited, is called a Brahma marriage. (20

If she is given to a Ritvig (priest), while he is officiating at a sacrifice, it is called a Daiva marriage. (20)

If (the giver of the bride) receives a pair of kine in return, a is called an Arsha marriage. (21)

(If she is given to a suitor) by his demand, it is called a Pragapatya marriage. (22)

A union between two lovers, without the consent of mother and father, is called a Gandharva marriage. (23)

If the damsel is sold (to the bridegroom), it is called an Asura marriage. (24)

If he seizes her forcibly, it is called a Rakshasa marriage. (25)

  If he embraces her in her sleep, or while she is unconscious, it is called a Paisaka marriage. (26)

Among those (eight forms of marriage), the four first forms are legitimate (for a Brahmana); (27)

And so is the Gandharva form for a Kshatriya. (28)

A son procreated in a Brahma marriage redeems (or sends into the heavenly abodes hereafter mentioned) twenty-one men (viz. ten ancestors, ten descendants, and him who gave the damsel in marriage). (30

A son procreated in a Daiva marriage, fourteen; (30)

A son procreated in an Arsha marriage, seven; (31)

A son procreated in a Pragapatya marriage, four. (32)

He who gives a damsel in marriage according to the Brahma rite, brings her into the world of Brahman (after her death, and enters that world himself). (33)

  (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Daiva rite, (brings her) into Svarga (or heaven, and enters Svarga himself). (34)

(He who gives her in marriage) according to the Arsha rite, (brings her) into the world of Vishnu (and enters that world himself). (35)

(He who gives her in marriage) according to the Pragapatya rite, (brings her) into the world of the gods (and enters that world himself). (36)

(He who gives her in marriage) according to the Gandharva rite, will go to the world of Gandharvas. (37)

A father, a paternal grandfather, a brother, a kinsman, a maternal grandfather, and the mother (are the persons) by whom a girl may be given in marriage. (38)

On failure of the preceding one (it devolves on) the next in order (to give her in marriage), in case he is able. (39)

When she has allowed three monthly periods to pass (without being married), let her choose a husband for herself; three monthly periods having passed, she has in every case full power to dispose of herself (as she thinks best). (40)

A damsel whose menses begin to appear (while she is living) at her father's house, before she has been betrothed to a man, has to be considered as a degraded woman: by taking her (without the consent of her kinsmen) a man commits no wrong. (41)


Now the duties of a woman (are as follows): (1)

To live in harmony with her husband; (2)

To show reverence (by embracing their feet and such-like attentions) to her mother-in-law, father-in-law, to Gurus (such as elders), to divinities, and to guests; (3)

To keep household articles (such as the winnowing basket and the rest) in good array; (4)

To maintain saving habits; (5)

To be careful with her (pestle and mortar and other) domestic utensils; (6)

Not to practise incantations with roots (or other kinds of witchcraft); (7)

To observe auspicious customs; (8)

Not to decorate herself with ornaments (or to partake of amusements) while her husband is absent from home; (9)

Not to resort to the houses of strangers (during the absence of her husband); (10)

Not to stand near the doorway or by the windows (of her house); (11)

  Not to act by herself in any matter; (12)

To remain subject, in her infancy, to her father; in her youth, to her husband; and in her old age, to her sons. (13)

After the death of her husband, to preserve her chastity, or to ascend the pile after him. (14)

No sacrifice, no penance, and no fasting is allowed to women apart from their husbands; to pay obedience to her lord is the only means for a woman to obtain bliss in heaven. (15)

A woman who keeps a fast or performs a penance in the lifetime of her lord, deprives her husband of his life, and will go to hell. (16)

A good wife, who perseveres in a chaste life after the death of her lord, will go to heaven like (perpetual) students, even though she has no son. (17)


If a man has several wives of his own caste, he shall perform his religious duties together with the eldest (or first-married) wife. (1)

(If he has several) wives of divers castes (he shall perform them) even with the youngest wife if she is of the same caste as himself. (2)

On failure of a wife of his own caste (he shall perform them) with one belonging to the caste next below his own; so also in cases of distress (i.e. when the wife who is equal in caste to him happens to be absent, or when she has met with a calamity); (3)

But no twice-born man ever with a Sudra wife. (4)

A union of a twice-born man with a Sudra wife can never produce religious merit; it is from carnal desire only that he marries her, being blinded by lust. (5)

  Men of the three first castes, who through folly marry a woman of the lowest caste, quickly degrade their families and progeny to the state of Sudras. (6)

  If his oblations to the gods and manes and (his hospitable attentions) to guests are offered principally through her hands, the gods and manes (and the guests) will not eat such offerings, and he will not go to heaven. (7)


The Nishekakarman (ceremony of impregnation) must be performed when the season fit for procreating children distinctly appears (for the first time). (1)

The Pumsavana (ceremony to cause the birth of a male) must be performed before the embryo begins to move. (2)

The Simantonnayana (ceremony of parting the hair) should take place in the sixth or eighth month (of pregnancy). (3)

The Gatakarman (birth-ceremony) should take place on the birth of the child. (4)

The Namadheya (naming-rite) must be performed as soon as the term of impurity (caused by the birth of the child) is over. (5)

(The name to be chosen should be) auspicious in the case of a Brahmana; (6)

Indicating power in the case of a Kshatriya; (7)

Indicating wealth in the case of a Vaisya; (8)

Indicating contempt in the case of a Sudra. (9)

The Adityadarsana, (ceremony of taking the child out to see the sun) should take place in the fourth month (after birth). (10)

The Annaprasana (ceremony of first feeding) should take place in the sixth month. (11)

The Kudakarana '(tonsure rite) should take place in the third year . (12)

For female children the same ceremonies, (beginning with the birth ceremony, should be performed, but) without Mantras. (13)

The marriage ceremony only has to be performed with Mantras for them. (14)

The initiation of Brahmanas (should take plate) in the eighth year after conception; (15)

Of Kshatriyas, in the eleventh year after conception; (16)

Of Vaisyas,, in the twelfth year after conception; (17)

Their girdles should be made of Mu�ga grass, a bow-string, and Balbaga (coarse grass) respectively. (18)

Their sacrificial strings and their garments should be made of cotton, hemp, and wool respectively. (19)

The skins (which they wear) should be those of a black antelope, of a tiger, and of a he-goat respectively. (20)

Their staves should be made of Palasa, Khadira, and Udumbara wood respectively. (21)

Their staves should be of such a length as to reach the hair, the forehead, and the nose respectively. (22)

Or all (kinds of staves may be used for all castes indiscriminately). (23)

And they should not be crooked, nor should the bark be stripped off. (24)

In begging alms, they should put in the word 'Lady' at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of their request (according to their caste). (25)

The ceremony of initiation must not be delayed beyond the sixteenth year in the case of a Brahmana; beyond the twenty-second, in the case of a Kshatriya; and beyond the twenty-fourth, in the case of a Vaisya. (26)

After that, the youths belonging to any of those three castes, who have not been initiated at the proper time, are excluded from initiation, and contemned by the twice-born, and are called Vratyas. (27)

That skin, that cord, that girdle, that staff, and that garment which has been given to any one (on his initiation), that he must for ever wear when performing any religious observance. (28)

His girdle, his skin, his staff, his string, and his ewer he must throw into the water when broken (or spoiled by use), and receive others consecrated with Mantras. (29)


Now students shall dwell at their Guru's (spiritual teacher's) house. (1)

They shall recite their morning and evening prayers. (2)

(A student) shall mutter the morning prayer standing, and the evening prayer sitting. (3)

He shall perform twice a day (in the mornings and evenings) the religious acts of sprinkling the ground (round the altar) and of putting fuel on the fire. (4)

He must plunge into the waters like a stick. (5)

Let him study when called (by his teacher). (6)

He shall act so as to please his Guru (spiritual teacher) and to be serviceable to him. (7)

He shall wear his girdle, his staff, his skin, and his sacrificial string. (8)

He shall go begging at the houses of virtuous persons, excepting those of his Guru's (and of his own) relatives. (9)

He may eat (every morning and evening) some of the food collected by begging, after having received permission to do so from his Guru. (10)

He must avoid Sraddhas, factitious salt, food turned sour, stale food, dancing, singing, women, honey, meat, ointments, remnants of the food (of other persons than his teacher), the killing of living beings, and rude speeches. (11)

He must occupy a low couch. (12)

He must rise before his Guru and go to rest after him. (13)

He must salute his Guru, after having performed his morning devotion. (14)

Let him embrace his feet with crossed hands. (15)

The right foot with his right hand, and the left foot with his left. (16)

After the salutation (abhivadaye, 'I salute') he must mention his own name and add the word 'bhos' (Venerable Sir) at the end of his address. (17)

He must not speak to his Guru while he is himself standing, or sitting, or lying, or eating, or averting his face. (18)

And let him speak, if his teacher sits, standing up; if he walks, advancing towards him; if he is coming near, meeting him; if he runs, running after him; (19)

If his face is averted, turning round so as to face him; (20)

If he is at some distance, approaching him; (21)

If he is in a reclining position, bending to him; (22)

Let him not sit in a careless attitude (such as e. g. having a cloth tied round his legs and knees, while sitting on his hams) before the eyes of his teacher, (23)

Neither must he pronounce his mere name (without adding to it the word Sri or a similar term at the beginning). (24)

He must not mimic his gait, his manner, his speech, and so on. (25)

  Where his Guru is censured or foully belied, there let him not stay. (26)

Nor must he sit on the same seat with him, (27)

Unless it be on a rock, on a wooden bench, in a boat, or in a carriage. (28)

If his teacher's teacher is near, let him behave towards him as if he were his own teacher. (29)

He must nor salute his own Gurus without his teacher's leave. (30)

  Let him behave towards the son of his teacher, who teaches him the Veda, as towards his teacher, even though he be younger or of an equal age with himself; (31)

  But he must not wash his feet, (32)

Nor eat the leaving of his food. (33)

Thus let him acquire by heart one Veda, or two Vedas, or (all) the Vedas. (34)

Thereupon, the Vedangas (that treating of phonetics and the rest). (35)

He who, not having studied the Veda, applies himself to another study, will degrade himself, and his progeny with him, to the state of a Sudra. (36)

From the mother is the first birth; the second, from the girding with the sacrificial string. (37)

In the latter, the Savitri hymn is his mother, and the teacher his father. (38)

It is this which entitles members of the three higher castes to the designation of 'the twice-born.' (39)

Previous to his being girded with the sacrificial string, a member of these castes is similar to a Sudra (and not allowed to study the Veda). (40)

A student shall shave all his hair, or wear it tied in one lock. (41)

  After having mastered the Veda, let him take leave of his teacher and bathe, after having presented, him with a gift. (42)

Or let him spend the remainder of his life at his teacher's house. (43)

If, while he is living there, his teacher should die, let him behave to his teacher's son as towards his teacher himself; (44)

Or towards one of his wives, who is equal to him in caste. (45)

On failure of such, let him pay homage to the fire, and live as a perpetual student. (46)

A Brahmana who passes thus without tiring (of the discharge of his duties) the time of his studentship will attain to the most exalted heavenly abode (that of Brahman) after his death, and will not be born again in this world. (47)

A voluntary effusion of the semen by a twice-born youth (in sexual intercourse with a woman), during the period of his studentship, has been pronounced a transgression of the rule prescribed for students by expounders of the Vedas well acquainted with the system of duties. (48)

Having loaded himself with that crime, be must go begging to seven houses, clothed only with the skin of an ass, and proclaiming his deed. (49)

Eating once a day only a meal consisting of the alms obtained at those (houses), and bathing at the three Savanas (dawn, noon, and evening), he will be absolved from guilt at the end of the year. (50)

After an involuntary effusion of the semen during sleep, a twice-born student must bathe (on the next morning), worship the sun (by offerings of perfumes and the like), and mutter three times the Mantra, 'Again shall my strength return to me.' (51)

He who for seven days omits to collect alms and to kindle the sacred fire, must perform the penance of an Avakirnin (breaker of his vow), provided that he has not been prevented from the discharge of his duties by an illness. (52)

If the sun should rise or set while a student is purposely indulging in sleep, ignoring (the precepts of law), he must fast for a day, muttering (the Gayatri one thousand and eight times). (53)


He who having initiated a youth and instructed him in the Vratas, teaches him (one branch of) the Veda (together with its Angas, such as that relating to phonetics, and the rest) is called Akarya (teacher). (1)

He who teaches him (after he has been initiated by another) either (an entire branch of the Veda) in consideration of a fee, or part of a Veda (without taking a fee), is called Upadhyaya (sub-teacher). (2)

He who performs sacrifices (whether based on Sruti or on Smriti) is called Ritvig (officiating priest). (3)

He must not engage a priest for the performance of sacrifices without having ascertained (his descent, character, and conduct). (4)

Neither must he admit to his teaching (one whom he does not know). (5)

  And he must not initiate such a one. (6)

If one answers improperly, or the other asks improperly, that one (or both) will perish or incur hatred. (7)

A proper question is, e. g. if the pupil modestly says, 'I don't know about this, therefore I want to be instructed.' An improper question is, e.g. if he says, 'Why do you pronounce this thus wrongly?' An improper answer is an answer to an improper question. (Nand.)

If by instructing a pupil neither religious merit nor wealth are acquired, and if no sufficient attention is to be obtained from him (for his teacher's words), in such soil divine knowledge must not be sown: it would perish like fine seed in barren soil. (8)

The deity of sacred knowledge approached a Brahmana (and said to him), 'Preserve me, I am your treasure, reveal me not to a scorner, nor to a wicked man, nor to one of uncontrolled passions: thus I shall be strong (9)

'Reveal me to him, as to a keeper of your gem, O Brahmana, whom you shall know to be pure, attentive, possessed of a good memory, and chaste, who will not grieve you, nor revile you.' (10)


After having performed the Upakarman ceremony on the full moon of the month Sravana, or of the month Bhadra, the student must (pass over the two next days without studying, and then) study for four months and a half. (1)

After that, the teacher must perform out of town the ceremony of Utsarga for those students (that have acted up to this injunction); but not for those who have failed to perform the ceremony of Upakarman. (2)

During the period (subsequent on the ceremony of Upakarman and) intermediate between it and the ceremony of Utsarga, the student must read the Vedangas. (3)

  He must interrupt his study for a day and a night on the fourteenth and eighth days of a month. (4)

(He must interrupt his study for the next day and night) after a season of the year has begun, (and for three nights) after an eclipse of the moon. (5)

(He must not study for a day and a night) when Indra's flag is hoisted or taken down. (6)

(He must not study) when a strong wind is going, (7)

(He must not study for three days) when rain, lightning, and thunder happen out of season. (8)

(He must not study till the same hour next day) in the case of an earthquake, of the fall of a meteor, and when the horizon is preternaturally red, as if on fire. (9)

(He must not study) in a village in which a corpse lies; (10)

Nor during a battle; (11)

Nor while dogs are barking, jackals yelling, or asses braying; (12)

  Nor while the sound of a musical instrument is being, heard; (13)

  Nor while Sudras or outcasts are near; (14)

Nor in the vicinity of a temple, of a burial-ground, of a place where four ways meet, or of a high road; (15)

Nor while immersed in water; (16)

Nor with his foot placed on a bench; (17)

Nor while riding on an elephant, a horse, or a camel, (or in a carriage drawn by any of those animals), or being borne in a boat, or in a carriage drawn by oxen; (18)

Nor after having vomited; (19)

Nor after having been purged; (20)

Nor during an indigestion. (21)

When a five-toed animal has passed between the teacher and the pupil (the latter must interrupt his study for a day and a night). (22)

When a king or a learned Brahmana (who has mastered one Veda), or a cow, or a Brahmana (in general) has met with an accident (he must not study). (23)

After the Upakarman (he must not study for three days). (24)

And after the Utsarga, (he must interrupt his study for as many days). (25)

And (he must avoid to study) the hymns of the Rig-veda, or those of the Yagur-veda, while the Saman melodies are being chanted. (26)

Let him not lie down to sleep again when he has begun to study in the second half of the night. (27)

Let him avoid studying at times when there ought to be an intermission of study, even though a question has been put to him (by his teacher); (28)

Since to study on forbidden days neither benefits him in this nor in the other world. (29)

To study on such days destroys the life of both teacher and pupil. (30)

Therefore should a teacher, who wishes to obtain the world of Brahman, avoid improper days, and sow (on proper days) the seed of sacred knowledge on soil consisting of virtuous pupils. (31)

At the beginning and at the end of the lecture let the pupil embrace his teacher's feet; (32)

And let him pronounce the sacred syllable Om. (33)

Now he who studies the hymns of the Rig-veda (regularly), feeds the manes with clarified butter. (34)

He who studies the Yagus texts, (feeds them) with honey. (35)

He who studies the Saman melodies, (feeds them) with milk. (36)

He who studies the Atharva-veda, (feeds them) with meat. (37)

He who studies the Puranas, Itihasas, Vedangas, and the Institutes of Sacred Law, feeds them with rice. (38)

He who having collected sacred knowledge, gains his substance by it in this world, will derive no benefit from it in the world to come. (39)

Neither will he (derive such benefit from it), who uses his knowledge in order to destroy the reputation of others (by defeating them in argument). (40)

  Let no one acquire sacred knowledge, without his teacher's permission, from another who is studying divine science. (41)

Acquiring it in that way constitutes theft of the Veda, and will bring him into hell. (42)

Let (a student) never grieve that man from whom he has obtained worldly knowledge (relating to poetry, rhetoric, and the like subjects), sacred knowledge (relating to the Vedas and Vedangas), or knowledge of the Supreme Spirit. (43)

Of the natural progenitor and the teacher who imparts the Veda to him, the giver of the Veda is the more venerable father; for it is the new existence acquired by his initiation in the Veda, which will last him both in this life and the next. (44)

  Let him consider as a merely human existence that which he owes to his father and mother uniting from carnal desire and to his being born from his mother's womb. (45)

That existence which his teacher, who knows all the Vedas, effects for him through the prescribed rites of initiation with (his divine mother) the Gayatri, is a true existence; that existence is exempt from age and death. (46)

He who fills his ears with holy truths, who frees him from all pain (in this world and the next). and confers immortality (or final liberation) on him, that man let the student consider as his (true) father and mother: gratefully acknowledging the debt he owes him, he must never grieve him. (47)


A man has three Atigurus (or specially venerable superiors): (1)

  His father, his mother, and his spiritual teacher. (2)

To them he must always pay obedience. (3)

What they say, that he must do. (4)

And he must do what is agreeable and serviceable to them. (5)

Let him never do anything without their leave. (6)

Those three are equal to the three Vedas (Rig-veda, Sama-veda, and Yagur-veda), they are equal to the three gods (Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva), they are equal to the three worlds (of men, of gods, and of Brahman), they are equal to the three fires. (7)

The father is the Garhapatya (or household) fire, the mother is the Dakshina (or ceremonial) fire, and the spiritual teacher is the Ahavaniya (or sacrificial) fire. (8)

He pays regard to all his duties, who pays regard to those three; he who shows no regard to them, derives no benefit from any religious observance. (9)

  By honouring his mother, he gains the present world; by honouring his father, the world of gods; and by paying strict obedience to his spiritual teacher, the world of Brahman. (10)


A king, a priest, a learned Brahmana, one who stops wicked proceedings, an Upadhyaya, a paternal uncle, a maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a father-in-law, an eldest brother, and the parents-in-law of a son or a daughter are equal to a teacher; (1)

And so are their wives, who are equal in caste to them. (2)

And their mother's sister, their father's sister, and I their eldest sister. (3)

A father-in-law, a paternal uncle, a maternal uncle, and a priest he must honour by rising to meet and saluting them, even though they be younger than himself. (4)

The wives of Gurus (superiors), who are of a lower class than their husbands (such as Kshatriya or Vaisya or Murdhavasikta wives), shall be honoured by (rising to meet and) saluting them from far; but he must not embrace their feet. (5)

He should avoid to rub and anoint the limbs of Guru's wives, or to anoint their eyes, or to arrange their hair, or to wash their feet, or to do other such services for them. (6)

To the wife of another, even though he does not know her, he must either say 'sister' (if she is of equal age with himself), or 'daughter' (if she is younger than himself), or 'mother' (if she is older than himself). (7)

Let him not say 'you' to his Gurus (superiors). (8)

If he has offended one of them (by saying 'you' to him, or in some other manner), he must keep a fast and not eat again till the end of the day, after having obtained his forgiveness. (9)

He must avoid to quarrel with his spiritual teacher and to argue with him (from emulation). (10)

And he must not censure him; (11)

Nor act so as to displease him. (12)

(A pupil) must not embrace the feet of a Guru's young wife, if he has completed his twentieth year, or can distinguish virtue from vice. (13)

But a young student may at pleasure prostrate himself before a young wife of his Guru, (stretching out both hands) as ordained (see 28,15), 'I, N. N. (ho! salute you).' (14)

On returning from a journey he shall (once) embrace the feet of the wives of his Gurus (superiors), and daily, salute them, remembering the practice of the virtuous. (15)

Wealth, kindred, age, the performance of religious observances, and, fifthly, sacred knowledge are titles to respect; each subsequent one is superior to the one preceding in order. (16)

A Brahmana, though only ten years old, and a member of the kingly caste, though a hundred years old, must be considered as father and son; and of these two, the Brahmana is the father. (17)

The seniority of Brahmanas is founded on sacred knowledge; of Kshatriyas, on valour in arms; of Vaisyas, on grain and (other) wealth; of Sudras, on (priority of) birth. (18)


Now man has three most dangerous enemies, called carnal desire, wrath, and greed. (1)

They are specially dangerous to the order of householders, because they have (houses, wives, and other) property. (2)

Man, being overcome by those (three enemies), commits crimes in the highest degree, high crimes, minor crimes, and crimes in the fourth degree; (3)

Also crimes effecting loss of caste, crimes degrading to a mixed caste, and crimes rendering the perpetrator unworthy (to receive alms and the like); (4)

  And crimes causing defilement, and miscellaneous offences. (5)

This is the threefold path to hell, destructive of self: carnal desire, wrath, and greed: therefore must a man shun those three vices. (6)


Sexual connection with one's mother, or daughter, or daughter-in-law are crimes in the highest degree. (1)

Such criminals in the highest degree should proceed into the flames; for there is not any other way to atone for their crime. (2)


Killing a Brahmana, drinking spirituous liquor, stealing the gold of a Brahmana, and sexual connection with a Guru's wife are high crimes. (1)

And social intercourse with such (criminals is also a high crime). (2)

  He who associates with an outcast is outcasted himself after a year; (3)

And so is he who rides in the same carriage with him, or who eats in his company, or who sits on the same bench, or who lies on the same couch with him. (4)

  Sexual intercourse, intercourse in sacrificing, and intercourse by the mouth (with an outcast) entails immediate loss of caste. (5)

Such mortal sinners are purified by a horse sacrifice and by visiting all Tirthas (places of pilgrimage) on earth. (6)


Killing a Kshatriya or Vaisya engaged in a sacrifice, or a woman in her courses, or a pregnant woman, or a woman (of the Brahmana caste) who has bathed after temporary uncleanness, or an embryo of unknown sex, or one come for protection, are crimes equal to the crime of killing a Brahmana. (1)

Giving false evidence and killing a friend: these two crimes are equal to the drinking of spirituous liquor. (2)

Appropriating to one's self land belonging to a Brahmana or a deposit (belonging to a Brahmana and not consisting of gold) are crimes equal to a theft of gold (belonging to a Brahmana). (3)

Sexual connection with the wife of a paternal uncle, of a maternal grandfather, of a maternal uncle, of a father-in-law, or of the king, are crimes equal to sexual connection with a Guru's wife; (4)

And so is sexual intercourse with the father's or mother's sister and with one's own sister; (5)

And sexual connection with the wife of a learned Brahmana, or a priest, or an Upadhyaya, or a friend; (6)

And with a sister's female friend (or with one's own female friend), with a woman of one's own race, with a woman belonging to the Brahmana caste, with a (Brahmana) maiden (who is not yet betrothed to a man), with a low-caste woman, with a woman in her courses, with a woman come for protection, with a female ascetic, and with a woman entrusted to one's own care. (7)

Such minor offenders become pure, like mortal sinners, by a horse-sacrifice and by visiting Tirthas. (8)


Setting one's self up by false statements (as by saying, 'I have done this,' or the like). (1)

Making statements, which will reach the ears of the king, regarding a (minor) offence committed by some one; (2)

Unjustly upbraiding a Guru (as by saying 'You have neglected such a household duty'); (3)

Reviling the Veda; (4)

Forgetting the Veda texts, which one has studied; (5)

(Abandoning) one's holy fire, or one's father, mother, son, or wife; (6)

Eating the food of those whose food may not be eaten, or forbidden food; (7)

Appropriating to one's self (grain, copper, or other) goods of another man (but not his gold); (8)

Sexual intercourse with another man's wife; (9)

Sacrificing for persons for whom it is forbidden to sacrifice (such as Sudras, persons for whom the initiation has not been performed, and the like); (10)

  To live by a forbidden occupation (as, if a Brahmana lives by the occupation of a Kshatriya, or of a Vaisya). (11)

Receiving unlawful presents; (12)

Killing a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya, or a Sudra, or a cow; (13)

Selling articles that ought not to be sold (such as salt, lac, or others); (14)

For an elder brother to suffer his younger brother to marry before him; (15)

For a younger brother to marry, though his elder brother is not yet married; (16)

To give a girl in marriage to either of those two (categories of offenders); (17)

Or to perform the nuptial ceremony for them; (18)

To allow the proper time for the ceremony of initiation to pass without being initiated; (20

To teach the Veda for a reward (unless it be in an emergency); (20)

  To be taught by one who teaches the Veda for a reward (unless it be in an emergency); (21)

To be employed (by the king's order) in the working of mines of any sort (whether gold mines, or silver mines, or others, or manufactories); (22)

To make large (sharp) instruments (such as instruments for piercing an elephant's car); (23)

Cutting trees, shrubs, creepers, long climbing plants (such as vines), or herbs; (24)

Living by (prostituting) one's own wife; (25)

Trying to overcome another by incantations (tending to kill him), or by forcible means; (26)

Performing the act (of cooking) for one's own sole benefit; (27)

  Not to have kindled one's own sacred fire; (28)

Omitting to pay one's debts to the gods, Rishis, and manes (or sacrificing, study of the Veda, and propagation of one's race); (29)

Studying irreligious books; (30)

Atheism; (31)

Subsisting by a reprehensible art (such as dancing); (32)

Intercourse with women who drink spirits; (33)

Thus have the crimes in the fourth degree been enumerated. (34)

Such criminals in the fourth degree shall perform the Kandrayana or Paraka penances, or shall sacrifice a cow (as the case may require). (35)


Causing (bodily) pain to a Brahmana; (1)

Smelling at things which ought not to be smelt (such as excrements), or at spirituous liquor; (2)

Dishonest dealing; (3)

Sexual connection with cattle; (4)

And (sexual connection) with a man (or unnatural intercourse with a woman): (5)

Such are the crimes effecting loss of caste. (6)

He who has knowingly committed one of the acts effecting loss of caste shall perform the Santapana penance; he who has done so unawares shall perform the Pragapatya penance. (7)


Killing domestic or wild animals are crimes degrading to a mixed caste. (1)

He who has committed a crime degrading to a mixed caste shall eat barley-gruel for a month (if he has committed it knowingly), or perform the penance Krikkhratikrikkhra (if he has committed it unawares). (2)


Receiving anything from a (Mlekkha or other) despicable person (even though not as a present, but in the form of interest, and so on), traffic (even with articles that are not forbidden to sell), subsisting by money-lending (even without exceeding the legitimate rate of interest), telling lies (even though not in giving evidence), and serving a Sudra (even though without doing servile acts for him) are crimes rendering unworthy to receive alms. (1)

He who has committed a crime rendering unworthy to receive alms, is purified by the penance Taptakrikkhra (in case he committed it knowingly), or by the penance Sitakrikkhra (in case he did it unawares), or by the penance Mahasantapana (in case it was committed) repeatedly. (2)


Killing birds, amphibious animals, and aquatic animals (such as fish); (1)

And worms or insects; (2)

Eating (nutmegs or other) plants similar to intoxicating drinks (in their effect on the system): (3)

Such are the crimes causing defilement. (4)

The penance ordained for crimes causing defilement is the Taptakrikkhra penance (if they were committed unintentionally), or they shall be atoned for by the Krikkhratikrikkhra penance (if they were committed intentionally). (5)


Miscellaneous crimes are those which have not been mentioned before. (1)

Having committed one out of the number of miscellaneous crimes, a prudent man should always perform a penance, by the advice of a Brahmana, after the higher or less degree of his guilt has been ascertained. (2)


Now follow the hells. (They are called:) (1)

Tamisra (darkness); (2)

Andhatamisra (complete darkness); (3)

Raurava (place of howling); (4)

Maharaurava (place of much howling); (5)

Kalasutra (thread of time or death); (6)

Mahanaraka (great hell); (7)

Sa�givana (restoring to life); (8)

Aviki (waveless); (9)

Tapana (burning); (10)

Sampratapana (parching); (11)

Samghataka, (pressing together) (12)

Kakola (ravens); (14

Kudmala (bud); (14)

Putimrittika (stinking clay); (15)

Lohasankti (iron-spiked); (16)

Rikisha (frying-pan); (17)

Vishamapanthana (rough or uneven roads); (18)

Kantakasalmali (thorny Salmali trees); (19)

Dipanadi (flame river); (20)

Asipattravana (sword-leaved forest); (21)

Lohakaraka (iron fetters); (22)

In each of those (hells) successively criminals in the highest degree, who have not performed the penance (prescribed for their crime), are tormented for the time of a Kalpa. (23)

Mortal sinners (who have not done penance) for a Manvantara; (24)

  Minor offenders, for the same period; (25)

Criminals in the fourth degree, for the period of a Katuryuga; (26)

  Those who have committed a crime effecting loss of caste, for a thousand years; (27)

Those who have committed a crime degrading to a mixed caste, for the same period; (28)

Those likewise who have committed a crime rendering unworthy to receive alms and the like. (29)

And those who have committed a crime causing defilement; (30)

Those who have committed one of the miscellaneous crimes, for a great number of years; (31)

All sinners who have committed (one of those nine kinds of) crimes have to suffer terrible pangs, when they have departed life and entered on the path of Yama. (32)

Being dragged hither and thither (on even and uneven roads), by the dire ministers of Yama, they are conducted (to hell by them), with menacing (33)

(There) they are devoured by dogs and jackals, by hawks, crows, herons, cranes, and other (carnivorous animals), by (bears and other) animals having fire in their mouth, and by serpents and scorpions. (34)

They are scorched by blazing fire, pierced by thorns, divided into parts by saws, and tormented by thirst. (35)

They are agitated by hunger and by fearful troops of tigers, and faint away. at every step on account of the foul stenches proceeding from pus and from blood. (36)

Casting wistful glances on the food and drink of others, they receive blows from ministers (of Yama), whose faces are similar to those of crows, herons, cranes, and other horrid animals. (37)

Here they are boiled in oil, and there pounded with pestles, or ground in iron or stone vessels. (38)

In one place they (are made to) eat what has been vomited, or pus, or blood, or excrements, and in another place, meat of a hideous kind, smelling like pus. (39)

Here, enveloped in terrible darkness, they are devoured by worms and (jackals and other) horrible animals having flames in their mouth. (40)

There again they are tormented by frost, or have to step through unclean things (such as excrements), or the departed spirits eat one another, driven to distraction (by hunger). (41)

In one place they are beaten with their deeds in a former existence, in another they are suspended (by trees and the like, with a rope), or shot with heaps of arrows, or cut in pieces. (42)

In another place again, walking on thorns, and their bodies being encircled by snakes, they are tormented with (grinding) machines, and dragged on by their knees. (43)

Their backs, heads, and shoulders are fractured, the necks of these poor beings are not stouter than a needle, and their bodies, of a size fit for a hut only, are unable to bear torments. (44)

Having thus been tormented (in the hells) and suffered most acute pain, the sinners have to endure further pangs in their migration through animal bodies. (45)


Now after having suffered the torments inflicted in the hells, the evil-doers pass into animal bodies. (1)

Criminals in the highest degree enter the bodies of all plants successively. (2)

Mortal sinners enter the bodies of worms or insects. (3)

Minor offenders enter the bodies of birds. (4)

Criminals in the fourth degree enter the bodies of aquatic animals. (5)

Those who have committed a crime effecting loss of caste, enter the bodies of amphibious animals. (6)

Those who have committed a crime degrading to a mixed caste, enter the bodies of deer. (7)

Those who have committed a crime rendering them unworthy to receive alms, enter the bodies of cattle. (8)

Those who have committed a crime causing defilement, enter the bodies of (low-caste) men (such as Kandalas), who may not be touched. (9)

Those who have committed one of the miscellaneous crimes, enter the bodies of miscellaneous wild carnivorous animals (such as tigers). (10)

One who has eaten the food of one whose food may not be eaten, or forbidden food, becomes a worm or insect. (11)

A thief (of other property than gold), becomes a falcon. (12)

One who has appropriated a broad passage, becomes a (serpent or other) animal living in holes. (13)

One who has stolen grain, becomes a rat. (14)

One who has stolen white copper, becomes a Hamsa. (15)

One who has stolen water, becomes a waterfowl. (16)

One who has stolen honey, becomes a gad-fly. (17)

One who has stolen milk, becomes a crow. (18)

One who has stolen juice (of the sugar-cane or other plants), becomes a dog. (19)

One who has stolen clarified butter, becomes an ichneumon. (20)

One who has stolen meat, becomes a vulture. (21)

One who has stolen fat, becomes a cormorant. (22)

One who has stolen oil, becomes a cockroach. (23)

One who has stolen salt, becomes a cricket. (24)

One who has stolen sour milk, becomes a crane. (25)

One who has stolen silk, becomes a partridge. (26)

One who has stolen linen, becomes a frog. (27)

One who has stolen cotton cloth, becomes a curlew. (28)

One who has stolen a cow, becomes an iguana. (29)

One who has stolen sugar, becomes a Salguda (a kind of bat, the "flying fox") (30)

One who has stolen perfumes, becomes a musk-rat. (31)

One who has stolen vegetables, consisting of leaves, becomes a peacock. (32)

One who has stolen prepared grain, becomes a (boar called) Svavidh (or Sedha). (33)

One who has stolen undressed grain, becomes a porcupine. (34)

One who has stolen fire, becomes a crane. (35)

One who has stolen household utensils, becomes a wasp (usually called Karata). (36)

One who has stolen dyed cloth, becomes a Kakor partridge. (37)

One who has stolen an elephant, becomes a tortoise. (38)

One who has stolen a horse, becomes a tiger (39)

One who has stolen fruits or blossoms, becomes an ape. (40)

One who has stolen a woman, becomes a bear. (41)

One who has stolen a vehicle, becomes a camel. (42)

One who has stolen cattle, becomes a vulture. (43)

He who has taken by force any property belonging to another, or eaten food not first presented to the gods (at the Vaisvadeva offering), inevitably enters the body of some beast (44)

Women, who have committed similar thefts, receive the same ignominious punishment: they become females to those male animals. (45)


Now after having undergone the torments inflicted in the hells, and having passed through the animal bodies, the sinners are born as human beings with (the following) marks (indicating their crime): (1)

A criminal in the highest degree shall have leprosy; (2)

A killer of a Brahmana, pulmonary consumption; (3)

A drinker of spirits, black teeth; (4)

A stealer of gold (belonging to a Brahmana), deformed nails; (5)

  A violator of his spiritual teacher's bed, a disease of the skin; (6)

  A calumniator, a stinking nose; (7)

A malignant informer, stinking breath; (8)

A stealer of grain, a limb too little; (9)

One who steals by mixing (i. e. by taking good grain and replacing the same amount of bad grain in its stead), a limb too much; (10)

A stealer of food, dyspepsia; (11)

A stealer of words, dumbness; (12)

A stealer of clothes, white leprosy; (13)

A stealer of horses, lameness; (14)

One who pronounces an execration against a god or a Brahmana, dumbness; (15)

A poisoner, a stammering tongue; (16)

An incendiary, madness; (17)

One disobedient to a Guru (father), the falling sickness; (18)

The killer of a cow, blindness; (19)

The stealer of a lamp, the same; (20)

One who has extinguished a lamp, blindness with one eye; (21)

A seller of tin, chowries, or lead, is born a dyer of cloth; (22)

  A seller of (horses or other) animals whose foot is not cloven, is born a hunter; (23)

One who eats the food of a person born from adulterous intercourse, is born as a man who suffers his mouth to be abused; (24)

A thief (of other property than gold), is born a bard; (25)

A usurer becomes epileptic; (26)

One who eats dainties alone, shall have rheumatics; (27)

The breaker of a convention, a bald head; (28)

The breaker of a vow of chastity, swelled legs; (29)

One who deprives another of his subsistence, shall be poor; (30)

  One who injures another (without provocation), shall have an incurable illness. (31)

Thus, according to their particular acts, are men born, marked by evil signs, sick, blind, humpbacked, halting, one-eyed; (32)

Others as dwarfs, or deaf, or dumb, feeble-bodied (eunuchs, whitlows, and others). Therefore must penances be performed by all means. (33)


Now follow the penances. (1)

Let a man fast for three days; (2)

And let him perform each day the three ablutions (at dawn, noon, and sunset); (3)

And let him, at every ablution, plunge into the water three times; (4)

  And let him mutter the Aghamarshana three times, after having plunged into the water; (5)

During day-time let him be standing; (6)

At night let him continue in a sitting position; (7)

At the close of the ceremony let him give a milch cow (to a Brahmana). (8)

Thus has the penance Aghamarshana been described. (9)

Let a man for three days eat in the evening only; for other three days, in the morning only; for further three days, food (given to him) unsolicited; (and let him fast entirely for three days): that is the Pragapatya (the penance invented by Pragapati). (10)

Let him drink for three days hot water; for other three days, hot clarified butter; and for further three days, hot milk; and let him fast for three days: that is the Taptakrikkhra (hot penance). (11)

Taking the same (liquids) cold is called the Sitakrikkhra (cold penance). (12)

The Krikkhratikrikkhra (the most difficult penance) consists in subsisting on milk only for twenty-one days. (13)

Eating (nothing but) ground barley mixed with water for a whole month is called the Udakakrikkhra (water penance). (14)

Eating nothing but lotus-fibres (for a whole month) is called the Mulakrikkhra (root penance). (15)

Eating nothing but B�l fruit (for a whole month) is called the Sriphalakrikkhra (B�l fruit penance). (16)

Or (this penance is performed) by (eating) lotus-seeds. (17)

A total fast for twelve days is called Paraka. (18)

Subsisting for one day on the urine and f�ces of a cow, milk, sour milk, butter, and water in which Kusa grass has been boiled, and fasting the next day, is called Santapana (the tormenting penance). (19)

Swallowing (the same six things, viz.) cow-urine and the rest, each for one day, is called Mahasantapana (the particularly tormenting penance). (20)

Swallowing each for three days is called Atisantapana (the extremely tormenting penance). (21)

Swallowing oil-cakes, foam of boiled rice, buttermilk, water, and ground barley (each for one day), with a fasting day between (every, two days), is called Tulapurusha (a man's weight). (22)

Drinking water boiled with Kusa grass, leaves of the Palasa and Udumbara trees, of lotuses, of the Sankhapushpi plant, of the banyan tree, and of the Brahmasuvarkala plant, each (for one day), is called Parnakrikkhra (leaves penance). (23)

Let a man perform all those penances after having shorn his hair and his beard, and let him bathe at morning, noon, and evening every day, lying on a low couch, and restraining his passions, (24)

And let him (while engaged in performing them) avoid to converse with women, Sudras, or outcasts, and let him constantly, to the best of his ability, mutter purifying Mantras and make oblations in the fire. (25)


Now follows the Kandrayana (lunar penance). (1)

Let a man eat single mouthfuls (of food) unchanged in size; (2)

'Unchanged in size' means of that size precisely which the law prescribes (etc.) (Nand.))

And let him during the moon's increase add (successively) one mouthful (every day, so as to eat one mouthful on the first day of the moon's increase, two mouthfuls on the second day, and so on; fifteen mouthfuls on the day of full moon), and during the wane of the moon let him take off one mouthful (every day, so as to eat fourteen mouthfuls on the first day of the moon's wane, thirteen mouthfuls on the second, and one mouthful on the fourteenth day of the moon's wane), and on the day of new moon let him fast entirely: thus has the barley-shaped Kandrayana been described. (3)

Or the ant-shaped Kandrayana (may be performed). (4)

That Kandrayana is called 'ant-shaped' in which the day of new moon is placed in the middle. (5)

That one is, called 'barley-shaped' in which the day of full moon is placed in the middle. (6)

If a man eats for a month eight mouthfuls a day, it is (the penance called) Yatikandrayana (an hermit's Kandrayana). (7)

Eating (for a month) four mouthfuls each morning and evening is (the penance called) Sisukandrayana (a child's Kandrayana). (8)

Eating anyhow three hundred minus sixty mouthfuls a month is the penance called Samanyakandrayana (general Kandrayana). (9)

After having performed this penance, in a former age, the seven holy Rishis, Brahman, and Rudra acquired a splendid abode, O Earth. (10)


Now if a man feels his conscience charged with some guilty act (such as performing a sacrifice for, or accepting a gift from, unworthy persons, or eating excrements) committed by himself (or if his conscience tells him that he has done more evil than good, or if he thinks himself less pure than others), let him boil a handful of barley-gruel for the sake of his own spiritual welfare. (1)

Let him not make the (customary) Vaisvadeva offering after that. (2)

  Neither must he make the Bali offerings. (3)

Let him consecrate with Mantras the barley, before it has been put to the fire, while it is being boiled, and after it has been boiled. (4)

Let him watch the barley, while it is being boiled (muttering at the same time the following Mantra): (5)

'Soma, who is the highest priest among priests (gods), leader among the wise, Rishi among bards, the falcon among rapacious birds, the Svadhiti tree among trees, trickles murmuring through the filter.' With these words he must fasten blades of Kusa grass (round the neck of the kettle). (6)

The pulse having been boiled, he must pour it into another vessel and eat it. (7)

Let him help himself to it, while muttering the mantra, 'The gods, who have sprung up in the mind and satisfy the mind, who are gifted with great energy, and whose father is Daksha, shall protect and help us. To them be Namah (adoration), to them be Svaha (hail).' (8)

Then, after having sipped water, let him seize the centre (of the vessel) and mutter the mantra: (9)

'Be satisfied in our stomach, waters, and ye barley-corns, after having been bathed; they shall be salubrious to us, conferring bliss, causing health, divine, causing immortality, and increasers of Rita (truth and justice).' (10)

One desirous of wisdom (must perform this rite) for three days; (11)

  A sinner, for six days. (12)

Any of the mortal sinners (killers of a Brahmana, stealers of gold, and the rest) becomes purified by swallowing it for seven days. (13)

Swallowing it for twelve nights effaces even sins committed by an ancestor; (14)

Swallowing it for a month, every sin (whether light or heavy, and whether committed by himself or by an ancestor). (15)

And so does swallowing barley-corns dissolved in the excrements of a cow for twenty-one days (efface every sin). (16)

'You are barley, you the king of grains, you water mixed with honey; the Rishis have proclaimed you an expeller of every kind of guilt and an instrument of purification. (17)

'You are clarified butter and honey, barley-corns; you are water and ambrosia, barley-corns. May you efface whatever sinful acts I have committed: (18)

  'Sins committed by words, by acts, and by evil thoughts. Avert distress and ill-fortune from me, barley-corns. (19)

'Purify food licked at by dogs or pigs, or defiled by leavings (of food), and (purify me from the stain) of disobedience towards mother and father, barley-corns. (20)

'Purify for me food given by a multitude of persons, the food of a harlot, or of a Sudra, food offered at a Sraddha, food rendered impure by the birth of a child in the house, the food of a thief, and food offered at a Navasraddha (or new Sraddha, which takes place on the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh day after a person's demise). (21)

'Purify me, barley-corns, from the sin of injuring a child or of causing (a punishment) to be inflicted on some one by the king, from theft of gold (or other high crimes), from the violation of a religious duty, from performing a sacrifice for an unworthy person, and from abusing a Brahmana.' (22)


After having fasted during the eleventh day of the bright half of the month Margasirsha, let a man worship, on the twelfth day, the venerable Vasudeva (Vishnu). (1)

(He shall worship him) with flowers, incense, unguents, lamps, eatables (such as milk), and repasts given to Brahmanas. (2)

By performing this rite (on the twelfth day of the bright half of every month, from the month Margasirsha to the month Karttika) for one year, he is purified from every sin. (3)

By performing it till he dies, he attains Svetadvipa ('the white island,' the abode of Bhagavat). (4)

By performing it for a year on each twelfth day of both halves of a month, he attains heaven. (5)

By performing it (within the same intervals), till he dies, (he attains) the world of Vishnu. (6)

The same (heavenly rewards are gained by him who performs this rite) on each fifteenth day (after having fasted during the fourteenth). (7)

If he worships (according to the latter rite) Kesava (Vishnu) who has become one with Brahman, on the day of full moon, and Kesava absorbed in meditation, on the day of new moon, he will obtain a great reward. (8)

If in a year on a day of full moon the moon and the planet Jupiter are seen together in the sky, it is called a great full moon. (9)

Gifts, fasts, and the like are declared to be imperishable on that day. The same is the case if a conjunction with the asterism. Sravana falls on the twelfth day of the bright half (of any month). (10}


Let a man make a hut of leaves in a forest and dwell in it; (1)

And let him bathe (and perform his prayers) three times a day; (2)

  And let him collect alms, going from one village to another, and proclaiming his own deed; (3)

And let him sleep on grass: (4)

This is called a Mahavrata (great observance). (5)

He who has killed a Brahmana (unintentionally) must perform it for twelve years. (6)

(He who has unintentionally killed) a Kshatriya or a Vaisya engaged in a sacrifice, for the same period. (7)

Likewise, he who has killed (unintentionally) a pregnant woman, or a woman in her courses. (8)

Or a woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness; (9)

Or a friend. (10)

He who has (unintentionally) killed a king, must perform the Mahavrata for twice the same number of years (or twenty-four years); (11)

He who has (unintentionally) killed. a Kshatriya (not engaged in a sacrifice, nor a king), for one quarter of that time less (or for nine years); (12)

He who has (unintentionally) killed a Vaisya (not engaged in a sacrifice), for half of that time (or for six years). (13)

He who has (unintentionally) killed a (virtuous) Sudra, for half of that time again (or for three years). (14)

He who is performing any of those penances, must carry (on his stick) the skull of the person slain, like a flag. (15)

Let a man serve cows for a month, his hair and beard having been shorn. (16)

And let him sit down to rest when they rest; (17)

And let him stand still when they stand still; (18)

And let him give assistance to a cow that has met with an accident (such as getting into a slough, or falling into a pit). (19)

And let him preserve them from (the attacks of lions and tigers and other) dangers. (20)

Let him not seek shelter himself against cold (and hot winds) and similar dangers, without having previously protected the cows against them. (21)

Let him wash himself with cow-urine (three times a day); (22)

And let him subsist on the (five) productions of a cow: (23)

This is the Govrata (cow rite), which must be performed by him who has (unintentionally) killed a cow (belonging to a Kshatriya). (24)

If a man has killed an elephant (intentionally), he must give five black (nila) bulls. (25)

If he has killed (unintentionally) a horse, he must give a garment. (26)

If he has (intentionally) killed an ass, he must give a bull one year old. (27)

The same if he has (intentionally) killed a ram or a goat. (28)

If he has (intentionally) killed a camel, he must give one Krishnala of gold. (29)

If he has (intentionally) killed a dog, he must fast for three days. (30)

If he has (unintentionally) killed a mouse, or a cat, or an ichneumon, or a frog, or a Dundubha snake, or a large serpent (a boa constrictor), he must fast one day, and on the next day he must give a dish of milk, sesamum, and rice mixed together to a Brahmana, and give him an iron hoe as his 'fee.' (31)

If he has killed (unintentionally) an iguana, or an owl, or a crow, or a fish, he must fast for three days. (32)

If he has killed (intentionally) a Hamsa, or a crane, or a heron, or a cormorant, or an ape, or a falcon, or the vulture called Bhasa, or a Brahmani duck, he must give a cow to a Brahmana. (33)

If he has killed a snake, (he must give) an iron spade. (34)

If he has killed emasculated (cattle or birds), (he must give) a load of straw(2). (35)

If he has killed (intentionally) a boar, (he must give) a Kumbha of clarified butter. (36)

If he has (intentionally) killed a partridge, (he must give) a Drona of sesamum. (37)

If he has (intentionally) killed a parrot, (he must give) a calf two years old. (38)

If he has (intentionally) killed a curlew, (he must give) a calf three years old. (39)

If he has (unintentionally) killed a wild carnivorous animal, he must give a milch cow. (40)

If he has (unintentionally) killed a wild animal not carnivorous, (he must give) a heifer. (41)

If he has (intentionally) killed an animal not mentioned before, he must subsist on milk for three days. (42)

If he has (unintentionally) killed a bird (not mentioned before), he must eat at night only; (43)

Or (if unable to do so), he must give a silver Masha. (44)

If he has (unintentionally) killed an aquatic animal, he must fast (for a day and a night). (45)

If he has killed a thousand (small) animals having bones, or an ox-load of animals that have no bones, he must perform the same penance as for killing a Sudra. (46)

But, if he has killed animals having bones, he must (moreover) give some trifle to a Brahmana (for each animal which he has killed); if he has killed boneless animals, he becomes purified by one stopping of the breath. (47)

For cutting (unawares?) trees yielding fruit (such as the bread-fruit or mango trees), shrubs, creeping or climbing plants, or plants yielding blossoms (such as the jasmine tree), he must mutter a Vedic text (the Gayatri) a hundred times. (48)

  For killing (unintentionally) insects bred in rice or other food, or in (sweets and) the like, or in liquids (such as molasses), or elsewhere (in water and so on), or in flowers or fruits, the penance consists in eating clarified butter. (49)

  If a man has wantonly cut such plants as grow by cultivation. (such as rice and barley), or such as rise spontaneously in the wood (such as wild rice), he must wait on a cow and subsist on milk for one day. (50)


A drinker of spirituous liquor must abstain from all religious rites and subsist on grains separated from the husk for a year. (1)

If a man has (knowingly) tasted any of the (twelve) unclean excretions of the body, or of the (twelve) intoxicating drinks, he must perform the Kandrayana penance. (2)

Likewise, if he has (knowingly) eaten garlic, or onions, or red garlic, or any plant which has a similar flavour (to that of garlic or onions), or the meat of village pigs, of tame cocks (and other tame birds), of apes, and of cows. (3)

In all those cases men belonging to a twice-born caste have to be initiated a second time, after the penance is over. (4)

On their second initiation, the tonsure, the girding with the sacred string, the wearing of the staff, and the begging of alms shall be omitted. (5)

  If a man has (unawares) eaten meat of a fivetoed animal, with the exception of the hare, the porcupine, the iguana, the rhinoceros, and the tortoise, he must fast for seven days. (6)

If he has eaten the food of a multitude of persons, of a harlot, of a thief, or of a singer, he must subsist on milk for seven days. (7)

And (if he has eaten) the food of a carpenter or of a leather manufacturer; (8)

Or of a usurer, of a miser, of one who has performed the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice, of a jailer, of an Abhisasta, or of a eunuch; (9)

Or of a dissolute woman, of a hypocrite, of a physician, of a hunter, of a hard-hearted or cruel person, and of one who eats the leavings of food; (10)

Or of a woman who has neither husband nor son, of a goldsmith, of an enemy, or of an outcast: (11)

Or of a malignant informer, of a liar, of one who has transgressed the law, and of one who sells himself, or who sells (molasses or other) liquids and condiments; (12)

Or of a public dancer, of a weaver, of an ungrateful man, or of a dyer of clothes; (13)

Or (the food) of a blacksmith, of a man of the Nishada tribe (who subsist by fishing), of a stage-player, of a worker in cane, or of a seller of weapons; (14)

  Or of a trainer of dogs, of a distiller of spirituous liquor, of an oil manufacturer, or of a washerman; (15)

Or (the food) of a woman in her courses (whether belonging to her, or dressed for her), or of one who lives under one roof with the paramour of his wife; (16)

  Or (food) which has been looked at by the killer of an embryo (of a Brahmana), or which has been touched by a woman in her courses, or nibbled by a bird, or touched by a dog, or smelt at by a cow; (17)

Or that which has been designedly touched with the foot, or that which has been sneezed at; (18)

Or the food of insane, or wrathful, or sick persons; (19)

Or (food that is given) in a disrespectful manner, or the meat (of animals killed) for no sacred purpose. (20)

After having (unawares) eaten the flesh of any sort of fish, excepting the Pathina, Rohita, Ragiva, Simhatunda, and Sakula fishes, he must fast for three days. (21)

Likewise, after having (unawares) eaten the flesh of (any other) aquatic animal (such as the alligator, or the Gangetic porpoise). (22)

After having (knowingly) drunk water from a vessel in which spirituous liquor had been kept, he must drink for seven days milk boiled together with the Sankhapushpi plant. (23)

After having (knowingly drunk water) from a vessel in which an intoxicating beverage had been kept, (he must drink the same) for five days. (24)

A Soma-sacrificer, who has (unawares) smelt the breath of a man who had been drinking spirituous liquor, must plunge into water, (suppress his breath) and mutter the Aghamarshana three times. and eat clarified butter afterwards. (25)

  For eating (designedly) the flesh of an ass, of a camel, or of a crow, he must perform the Kandrayana penance. (26)

Likewise, for eating (knowingly) the flesh of an unknown (beast or bird), meat kept in a slaughterhouse, and dried meat. (27)

For eating (unawares) the flesh of carnivorous beasts; (tigers- and others), or birds (hawks and others), he must perform the Taptakrikkhra. (28)

For (knowingly) eating a sparrow, or (the heron called) Plava, or a Brahmani duck, or a Hamsa, or the (wild cock called) Raggudala, or a Sarasa crane, or a Datyuha, or a male or female parrot, or a crane, or a heron, or a cuckoo, or a wagtail, he must fast for three days. (29)

Likewise, for eating (unawares the flesh of) animals whose hoof is not cloven (such as horses), or of animals having a double row of teeth (such as the Rohita deer). (30)

For eating (unawares) the flesh of any bird, excepting the francoline partridge, the Kapi�gala, the (quail called) Lavaka, the peahen, and the peacock, (he must fast) for a day and a night. (31)

For eating (knowingly) insects (ants and others), he must drink for one day (water in which the plant) Brahmasuvarkala (has been boiled). (32)

For eating (unawares) the flesh of dogs, he must perform the same penance. (33)

For eating (unawares the mushroom called) Khattraka, or (the mushroom called) Kavaka, he must perform the Santapana penance. (34)

For eating (unawares) stale food, other than a mess prepared with barley (such as cakes), or with wheat (such as, gruel), or with milk (boiled with rice, or mixed with coagulated milk, or otherwise dressed), and dishes sprinkled with fat (such as clarified butter), sour gruel, and sweetmeats, he must fast (for one day). (35)

  Likewise, (for eating unawares) the juice flowing from an incision in a tree, (plants raised in) unclean substances (such as excrements and the like), and the red exudation of trees. (36)

Also, (for eating unawares) the root of the water-lily; (and for eating) rice boiled with sesamum. or with beans, Samyava, rice boiled in milk with sugar, pastry, Sashkuli (cakes), or food destined for the gods, if those dishes have not been announced to the gods first; and (for eating) food destined for burnt-oblations. (37)

  Also, for tasting the milk of any animal, save the milk of cows, goats, and buffalos (and for tasting any eatables made of such milk). (38)

Also, (for tasting the milk) of those animals (cows and the rest) within ten days after their giving birth to a young one. (39)

And (for tasting) the milk of a cow whose milk flows of itself, of one that has just taken the bull, or of one whose calf is dead. (40)

And (for tasting the milk of a cow) that has been feeding on ordures. (41)

And (for tasting) any such food as has turned sour (but not that which is sour by nature, like sorrel), except sour milk (and what is made with it). (42)

  A student, who partakes (unawares) of a Sraddha repast, must fast for three days. (43)

And he must remain in water for a whole day (afterwards). (44)

If he eats honey or meat (at any time), he must perform the Pragapatya penance. (45)

If any one eats (unawares) the leavings of the food of a cat, of a crow, of an ichneumon, or of a rat, he must drink water in which the Brahmasuvarkala plant has been boiled. (46)

For eating (unawares) what has been left by a dog, he must fast for one day, and drink Pa�kagavya (afterwards). (47)

For tasting (knowingly) the excrements of five-toed animals (excepting human excrements), he must (fast) for seven days (and drink Pa�kagavya on the eighth). (48)

If one (not a student) eats (unawares) of a Sraddha repast consisting of raw food, he must subsist on milk for seven days. (49)

If a Brahmana eats what has been left by a Sudra, (he must also subsist on milk) for seven days. (50)

If he eats what has been left by a Vaisya, (he must subsist on milk) for five days. (51)

If he eats what has been left by a Kshatriya, (he must subsist on milk) for three days. (52)

If he eats what has been left by another Brahmana, (he must subsist on milk) for one day. (53)

If a Kshatriya eats what has been left by a Sudra, (he must undergo the same penance) for five days. (54)

If he eats what has been left by a Vaisya, (he must undergo it) for three days; (55)

And so must a Vaisya, if he eats what has been left by a Sudra. (56)

  For (knowingly) eating (undressed) food, which has been left by a Kandala (or Svapaka or other member of the seven lowest castes), he must fast for three days. (57)

For (unawares) eating dressed food (left by such), the Paraka penance is ordained. (58)

Let no Brahmana ever eat (the flesh of) beasts which has not been consecrated with Mantras; but if it has been consecrated with Mantras, he may eat it, following the eternal rule (laid down in the Veda). (59)

As many hairs as the beast has, which he has slain in this world, for so many days will the killer of a beast for other purposes than a (Srauta or Smarta) sacrifice, suffer terrible pangs in this world and in the next. (60)

It is for sacrifices that beasts have been created by the Self-existent (Brahman) himself. Sacrificing causes the whole universe to prosper; therefore is the slaughter (of beasts) for a sacrifice no slaughter. (61)

The sin of him who kills deer for the sake of gain, is not so great (and visited less heavily) in the world to come, than the sin of him who eats meat which has not been offered to the gods. (62)

Plants, cattle, trees, amphibious animals, and birds, which have been destroyed for the purposes of sacrifice, obtain exaltation in another existence (in which they are born as Gandharvas, or other beings of a high rank). (63)

When honouring a guest, at a sacrifice, or when worshipping the manes, or the gods, a man may slay cattle, but not otherwise on any account. (64)

That twice-born man who, knowing the exact truth (promulgated) in the Veda, slays cattle for the sacrifices (ordained in the Veda), will convey himself and the cattle (slain by him) to a blissful abode. (65)

A self-controlled man of a twice-born caste, whether he be a householder, or be dwelling with his spiritual teacher, or in the forest, must never slay an animal in opposition to the precepts of the Veda, even in cases of distress. (66)

  That slaughter which is in accordance with the precepts of the Veda, and has been fixed for this world of movable and immovable creatures, should be considered as no slaughter at all; because it is from the Veda that law shines forth. (67)

He who hurts animals that do not hurt any one, merely in order to afford pleasure to himself, will never obtain happiness, whether living or dead. (68)

He who gives no living creature intentionally the pain of confining or killing (or hurting) it, from benevolence towards all (creatures), will enjoy everlasting happiness. (69)

Whatever he thinks of, whatever he strives for, and whatever he desires in his heart, all that is easily obtained by him who does not injure any created being. (70)

Meat cannot be obtained without injuring an animal, and the murder of animals excludes the murderer from heaven, therefore must meat be avoided. (71)

Reflecting on the origin of flesh and on the (sin of) hurting or confining animated creatures, he must abstain from animal food of any kind. (72)

He who transgresses not the law and eats not flesh like a Pisaka, is beloved by men and remains free from disease. (73)

He who gives his consent to the killing of an animal, he who cuts it up, he who kills it, the purchaser and the seller, he who prepares it, he who serves it up, and he who eats it, all these are denominated slaughterers of an animal. (74)

There is no greater sinner than he who, without giving their share to the manes and to the gods, wants to increase his own flesh with the flesh of another creature. (75)

Those two, he who performs a horse-sacrifice annually for a hundred years and he who does not eat meat, shall both obtain the same recompense for their virtue. (76)

By eating (wild rice or other) sacred fruits or roots, and by living on such grains as are the food of hermits, a man does not reap so high a reward as by avoiding meat (77)

(An eater of flesh must say within himself), Me he (mam sa) will eat in the next world, whose flesh I am tasting here. This, say the learned, is the derivation of the word flesh (mamsa). (78)


He who has stolen the gold (of a Brahmana), must bring a club to the king, proclaiming his deed. (1)

Whether the king kills him with it, or dismisses him unhurt, he is purified. (2)

Or (in case he committed the theft unawares), he must perform the Mahavrata for twelve years. (3)

He who appropriates (knowingly) a deposit, (must perform the same penance.) (4)

He who steals (knowingly) grain or valuable objects, (or prepared food belonging to a Brahmana,) (must perform) the Krikkhra(2) for a year. (5)

For stealing male or female slaves (not belonging to a Brahmana, and for seizing) a well or pool (actually containing water), or a field, the Kandrayana (penance must be performed). (6)

(For stealing) articles of small value (such as tin or lead, not exceeding twenty-five Panas in value), the Santapana (penance must be performed). (7)

(For stealing) sweetmeats, (rice or other) food, (milk or other) drinks, a bed, a seat, flowers, roots, or fruit, drinking Pa�kagavya (is ordained as penance). (8)

(For stealing) grass, firewood, trees, rice in the husk, sugar, clothes, skins, or flesh, the thief must fast for three days. (9)

(For stealing knowingly) precious stones, pearls or coral, copper, silver, iron, or white copper. he must eat grain separated from the husk for twelve days. (10)

For stealing (unawares) cotton, silk, wool or other (stuffs), he must subsist for three days on milk. (11)

For stealing two-hoofed or one-hoofed animals, he must fast for three days. (12)

For stealing birds, or perfumes, or medicinal herbs, or cords, or basket-work, he must fast for one day. (13)

Though a thief may have restored to the owner the stolen property (either openly or) in some indirect manner, he must still perform a penance, in order to purify himself from guilt. (14)

Whatever a man takes from others, unchecked (by the dictates of religion), of that will he be bereft in every future birth. (15)

Because life, religious merit, and pleasure depend on wealth, therefore let a man take care not to injure the wealth (of others by robbing them) by any means. (16)

Among those two, he who injures animal life, and be who injures wealth, the one who injures wealth shall incur the heavier penalty. (17)


One who has (unawares) had illicit sexual intercourse, must perform the Pragapatya penance for a year, according to the rule of the Mahavrata, clad in a garment of bark, and living in a forest. (1)

The same (penance is ordained) for sexual intercourse with the wife of another man (who belongs to his own caste, but is no Guru of his). (2)

For intercourse with a cow, the Govrata (must be performed). (3)

  For intercourse with a man, for unnatural crimes with a woman, (for wasting his manhood) in the air, (for intercourse with a woman) in water, by day, or in a go-cart, he must bathe dressed in his clothes. (4)

By intercourse (knowingly) with a Kandala woman(1), he becomes her equal in caste. (5)

For intercourse unawares with such, he must perform the Kandrayana twice. (6)

For intercourse (knowingly) with cattle (other) than cows) or with a public prostitute, (he must perform) the Pragapatya penance. (7)

A woman who has committed adultery once, must perform that penance which has been prescribed for an adulterer. (8)

That guilt which a Brahmana incurs by intercourse with a Kandala woman one night, he can only remove by subsisting on alms, and constantly repeating (the Gayatri) for three years. (9)


If a man associates with one guilty of a crime, he must perform the same penance as he. (1)

A Brahmana who has drunk water from a well in which a five-toed animal has perished, or which has been defiled in the highest degree, must fast for three days. (2)

A Kshatriya (must fast) for two days (in the same case). (3)

A Vaisya (must fast) for one day (and one night). (4)

A Sudra (must fast) for a night only. (5)

And all (the former, but not a Sudra) must drink Pa�kagavya, when their penance has been completed. (6)

If a Sudra drinks Pa�kagavya, or if a Brahmana drinks spirituous liquor, they both go to the hell called Maharaurava. (7)

If a man has not connection with his wife in the natural season, unless it be on the days of the full and new moon, or because she is ill, he must fast for three days. (8)

A false witness must perform the penance ordained for killing a Brahmana. (9)

He who has (unawares) voided excrements without water (being near), must bathe in his clothes, pronounce the 'great words,' and offer a burnt-oblation. (10)

  One who has been surprised asleep by the sun rising or setting, must bathe in his clothes and mutter the Gayatri one hundred -and eight times. (11)

He who has been bitten by a dog, a jackal, a tame pig, an ass, an ape, a crow, or a public prostitute, shall approach a river and (standing in it, shall) stop his breath sixteen times. (12)

One who forgets the Vedic texts which he has studied, or who forsakes the sacred fires, must subsist on alms for a year, bathing at the tree Savanas (morning, noon, and evening, sleeping on the ground, and eating one meal a day. (13)

For setting one's self up by false statements, and for falsely accusing or abusing a Guru, he must subsist on milk for a month. (14)

An atheist, one who leads the life of a member of the Kandala or of other low castes that dwell outside the village (Bahyas) an ungrateful man, one who buys or sells with false weights, and one who deprives Brahmanas of their livelihood (by robbing them of a grant made to them by the king or private persons, or by other bad practices), all those persons(2) must subsist on alms for a year. (15)

An unmarried elder brother whose younger brother is married, a younger brother married before the elder, an unmarried elder sister whose younger sister is married, the relative who gives such a damsel in marriage, and the priest who officiates at such a marriage, must perform the Kandrayana. (16)

He who sells living beings, land, religious merit (obtained by a sacrifice or otherwise), or Soma, must perform the Taptakrikkhra. (17)

He who sells fresh ginger, (edible) plants (such as rice or barley), perfumes, flowers, fruits, roots, skins, canes, (winnowing baskets or fans and the like) made of split bamboo, chaff, potsherds, hair, ashes, bone, cow-milk or curds, oil-cakes, sesamum, or oil, must perform the Pragapatya. (18)

He who sells the fruit of the Sleshmataka tree, lac, bees-wax, shells, mother-of-pearl, tin, lead, iron, copper, or, (sacrificial) vessels made of the horn of the rhinoceros, must perform the Kandrayana. (19)

He who sells dyed cloth, tin, precious stones, perfumes, sugar, honey, liquids or condiments (other than sugar, salt, and the like), or wool, must fast for three days. (20)

He who sells meat, salt, lac, or milk, must perform the Kandrayana. (21)

And all those persons (mentioned in Sutras 17-21) must be initiated a second time. (22)

He who has been riding (voluntarily) on a camel, or on an ass, and he who has (purposely) bathed, or slept, or eaten, quite naked, must stop his breath three times. (23)

By muttering attentively the Gayatri three thousand times, (by dwelling) on the pasture of cows, (and) by subsisting on milk for a month, he becomes free from the sin of accepting unlawful presents. (24)

He who has (knowingly) offered a sacrifice for an unworthy person (such as a low-caste person, or an outcast), he who has performed the funeral rites for a stranger, he who has practised magic rites (in order to destroy an enemy), and he who has performed a sacrifice of the kind called Ahina, (all those persons) may rid themselves of their sins by performing three Krikkhra (Pragapatya) penances. (25)

Those twice-born men, by whom the Gayatri has not been repeated (and the other initiatory ceremonies performed), as the law directs, must be made to perform three (Pragapatya) penances and must be initiated according to custom. (26)

  Those twice-born men who are anxious to make an atonement for having committed an illegal act, or for having neglected the study of the Veda, must be made to perform the same penance. (27)

Those Brahmanas who have acquired property by base acts (such as living by the occupations of a lower caste, or accepting unlawful presents) become free from sin by relinquishing it, and by muttering (Veda texts) and practising austerities. (28)

For omitting one of the regular acts enjoined in the revealed (and traditional) law, and for a breach of the rules laid down for a Snataka, a fast is ordained as atonement. (29)

For attacking a Brahmana (by raising a stick or a weapon against him), the Krikkhra (Pragapatya) penance must be performed; for striking him, the Atikrikkhra; and for fetching blood from him, the Krikkhratikrikkhra. (30)

With sinners, who have not expiated their crime, let a man not transact business of any kind. But a man who knows the law must not blame (or shun) those who have expiated it. (31)

Let him not, however, live (or have any intercourse) with those who have killed children, or with ungrateful persons, or with those who have slain one come for protection, or a woman, even though such sinners may have obtained their absolution, as directed by the law. (32)

(An old man) who has passed his eightieth year, a youth under the age of sixteen, women, and sick persons have only to perform half of every penance. (33)

  In order to remove those sins for which no particular mode of expiation has been mentioned, penances must be prescribed, which shall be in accordance with the ability of the offender, and with the heaviness of his offence. (34)


Now follow the penances for secret sins. (1)

The killer of a Brahmana is purified, if, having approached a river (and bathed in it), he restrains his breath sixteen times, and takes only one meal, consisting of food fit for offerings, each day, for a month. (2)

At the end of this rite he must give a milch cow. (3)

By performing the same rite and by muttering (while standing in the water) the Aghamarshana (instead of stopping his breath), a drinker of spirituous liquor becomes free from sin. (4)

(By performing the same rite and) muttering the Gayatri one thousand and ten times (each day), a stealer of gold becomes free from guilt. (5)

One who has connection with a Guru's wife (becomes free from sin) by fasting for three days and muttering the Purushasukta and (at the same time) offering a burnt-oblation. (6)

Even as the horse-sacrifice, the king of sacrifices, removes all sin, the hymn of Aghamarshana likewise removes all sin. (7)

Let a twice-born man stop his breath, in order to rid himself of all sin; all sins committed by a twice-born man may be removed by repeated Pranayamas. (8)

  It is called a Pranayama, if a man, stopping the breath (which comes from the mouth and from the nostrils), recites the Gayatri three times, together with the Vyahritis ('words'), with the sacred syllable Om, and with the (text called) Siras. (9)

The lord of creatures (Brahman) has milked out from the three Vedas the letter A, the letter U, and the letter M (of which the sacred syllable Om is composed), and (the three sacred words) Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah (earth, the atmosphere, and heaven). (10)

The lord of creatures, the supreme deity, has also milked out from the three Vedas successively the three verses of the sacred stanza which begins with the word 'tad,' and is called Savitri (or Gayatri). (11)

By muttering, every morning and evening, that syllable and that stanza, preceded by the three 'words,' a Brahmana will obtain that religious merit which the (study of the) Veda confers, just as if he had actually studied the Veda. (12)

By repeating those three (Om, the 'words,' and the Gayatri every day) for a month out of the village, a thousand times, a twice-born man is purified even from a mortal sin, as a snake (is freed) from its withered skin. (13)

Any member of the Brahmana, Kshatriya, or Vaisya castes, who does not know those three texts, or fails to recite them in the proper season, meets with reproach among the virtuous. (14)

The three imperishable 'great words,' preceded by the syllable Om, and the Gayatri consisting of three divisions, have to be recognised as the mouth (or beginning) of the Veda. (15)

He who repeats that stanza (preceded by the syllable Om and the three 'words') carefully every day for three years, will be absorbed in the highest Brahman after death, move as freely as air, and become as pure as air. (16)

The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brahman, the stoppings of the breath are the best of austerities, but nothing is more exalted than the Gayatri; (declaring the) truth is better than silence. (17)

All religious acts ordained in the Veda, (whether) consisting in burnt-oblations or sacrifices (or alms-giving or other pious observances), perish (after the merit obtained by them has been exhausted); but the syllable Om (akshara) must be known to be imperishable (akshara), as it is identical with Brahman, the lord of creatures. (18)

The act of reciting (the syllable Om, the 'words,' and the Gayatri) is ten times better than the (Gyotishtoma or other) sacrifices prescribed (by the Veda); it is a hundred times better when muttered in a low voice; it is a thousand times better when repeated mentally only. (19)

The four Pakayag�as (small or domestic offerings), together with the sacrifices prescribed (in the Veda), though all united, are not equal to a sixteenth part of the sacrifice performed by reciting (those sacred prayers). (20)

A Brahmana may beyond doubt obtain final emancipation by solely repeating (those prayers), whether he perform any other religious observance or no; one who is benevolent towards all creatures (and does not slay them for sacrifices) is justly, called a Brahmana (or one united to Brahman). (21)


Now then follow the purifying Mantras from all the Vedas. (1)

By muttering them, or reciting them at a burnt-oblation, the twice-born are purified from their sins. (They are as follows:) (2)

The Aghamarshana (3). The Devakrita (4). The Suddhavatis (5). The Taratsamandiya (6). The Kushmandis (7). The Pavamanis (8). The Durgasavitri (9). The Atishangas (10). The Padastobhas (11). The Vyahriti Samans (12). The Bharundas (13). The Kandrasaman (14). The two Samans called Purushavrata (15). The Ablinga (16). The Barhaspatya (17). The Gosukta (18). The Asvasukta (19). The two Samans called Kandrasukta (20). The Satarudriya (21). The Atharvasiras (22). The Trisuparna (23). The Mahavrata (24). The Narayaniya (25). And the Purushasukta ((26)

Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah, Satyam, Purushah are among the old mantras along with many others.

The three Agyadohas, the Rathantara, the Agnivrata, the Samadevya, and the Brihatsaman, properly chanted, purify man from sin; and if he wishes he may obtain through them recollection of his existence in a former life. (27)


Now (the following persons) must be avoided: (1)

Vratyas (i. e. those for whom the ceremony of initiation has not been performed) (2)

Outcasts; (3)

Descendants within the third degree' of an outcast mother or father, if they (or their outcast ancestors) have not been purified (by a penance). (4)

(As a rule) the food of all such persons must not be eaten, nor gifts be accepted from them,. (5)

He must avoid accepting repeated gifts from those whose presents must not be accepted. (6)

By accepting such gifts, Brahmanas lose their divine lustre. (7)

  And he who, not knowing the law regarding acceptance of gifts, accepts (illicit) gifts, sinks, to hell together with the giver. (8)

He who, being worthy to receive gifts, does not accept them, obtains that world which is destined for the liberal-minded (after death). (9)

Firewood, water, roots, fruits, protection, meat, honey, a bed, a seat, a house, flowers, sour milk, and vegetables he must not disdain to accept when they are offered to him. (10)

Even if an offender (but not a mortal sinner) has beckoned and offered alms to him, which had been brought previously for the purpose, the lord of creatures has declared that they may be accepted from him. (11)

Neither will the manes eat (his funeral oblations offered to them) for fifteen years, nor will the fire convey his burnt-offerings (to the gods) if he rejects such alms. (12)

If he wishes to provide for his (parents or other) Gurus or for (his wife or other) such persons as he is bound to maintain, or if he wants to worship the manes or the gods, he may accept gifts from any one; but he must not satisfy himself with them. (13)

But even in those cases, and though he be worthy to receive presents, let him not accept them from a dissolute woman, from a eunuch, from an outcast, or from an enemy. (14)

And if his parents are dead, or if he is living apart from them in a house of his own, he must never, while seeking to obtain food for himself, accept alms from any other persons but those who are of respectable descent (and belong to a twice-born caste). (15)

One who ploughs the ground for half the crop (and gives the other half to the king or a private person, who is the owner), a friend of the family, a (house-)slave, a herdsman, a barber, and one who announces himself (with the words 'I am your slave'): the food of all such may be eaten, although they are Sudras. (16)


The property of householders is of three kinds: (1)

White, mottled, and black. (2)

By those obsequies which a man performs with white property, he causes (his departed ancestor) to be born again as a god. (3)

By performing them with mottled property, he causes him to be born as a man. (4)

By performing them with black property, he causes him to be born as an animal. (5)

What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of their own caste, by members of any caste, is called 'white.' (6)

What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of the caste next below in order to their own, is called 'mottled.' (7)

What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of a caste by two or more degrees lower than their own, is called 'black.' (8)

What has been inherited, friendly gifts, and the dowry of a wife, that is called white property, for members of any caste indiscriminately. (9)

What has been acquired as a bribe, as a fee (for crossing a river and the like, or for a bride, and so on), or by the sale of forbidden articles (such as lac, or salt), or as a return for a benefit conferred, is denoted 'mottled wealth.' (10)

What has been acquired by servile attendance, by gambling, by thieving, by begging, by deceit (as if a man says that he wants a present for another and takes it himself, or by forging gold or other metals), by robbery, or by fraud (as if a man shows one thing to a purchaser and delivers another to him instead), is called 'black property.' (11)

Whatever a man may do (in this world) with anything (he has, whether white, mottled, or black property) he will get his reward accordingly; both in the next world and in this. (12)


A householder must perform the Pakayag�as (small or domestic offerings) in the fire kindled at the time of marriage. (1)

He must offer the Agnihotra (or daily oblations of clarified butter) every morning and evening (in the Treta fires). (2)

He must offer burnt-oblations to the gods (in case the Agnihotra cannot be performed). (3)

Let him offer the two Darsapurnamasas on the days of conjunction and opposition of the sun

and moon. (4)

Once in each half of the year, (at the two solstices, let him offer) the Pasubandha (animal sacrifice). (5)

In autumn and summer let him offer the Agrayana (oblation of first-fruits); (6)

Or when rice and barley are ripening (in winter and spring). (7)

  He who has a sufficient supply of food for more than three years (shall perform the Soma-sacrifice). (8)

(He shall perform) the Soma-sacrifice once a year (in spring). (9)

  If he has not wealth (sufficient to defray the expenses of the Pasubandha, Soma, Katurmasya, and other Srauta sacrifices), he shall perform the Ishti Vaisvanari. (10)

Let him not make an offering of food obtained as alms from a Sudra. (11)

If he has begged articles for a sacrifice (and obtained them), let him employ them all for that purpose (and never for himself). (12)

Every evening and morning let him offer up the Vaisvadeva; (13)

And let him give alms to an Ascetic (afterwards). (14)

For giving alms and showing due honour to the recipient (by pouring water on his hands both before and afterwards) he obtains the same reward as for giving a cow. (15)

If there is no ascetic (or other person worthy to receive alms), he must give a mouthful to cows; (16)

Or he must cast it into fire. (17)

If there is food in the house, he must not reject a mendicant, (who arrives) after he has taken his meal himself. (18)

A householder has five places where animals are liable to be destroyed: his wooden mortar, his slab to grind wheat or condiments on, his fireplace, his water-pot, and his broom. (19)

For the sake of expiating offences committed (by ignorantly destroying life) in those places, he must perform the (five) sacrifices addressed to the Veda, to the gods, to all created beings (or 'to the goblins'), to the manes, and to men. (20)

  Privately reciting (and teaching) the Veda is the sacrifice addressed to the Veda. (21)

The regular burnt-oblation (Vaisvadeva) is the sacrifice addressed to the gods. (22)

The Pitritarpana (refreshing the manes with food and water) is the sacrifice addressed to the manes. (23)

The Bali-offering is the sacrifice addressed to all creatures (or 'to the goblins'). (24)

The sacrifice addressed to men consists in honouring a guest. (25)

  He who does not give their share to these five, the gods, his guests, (his wife and children and others,) whom he is bound to maintain, his manes, and himself, is not alive, though he breathes.

(18. 'The expression, "if there is food in the house," indicates that he is not bound to cook a fresh meal for his guest.' (Nand.))##�� (26)

These (three), the student, the hermit, and the ascetic, derive their existence from the order of householders; therefore must a householder not treat them with disdain, when they have arrived (at his house at the proper time for begging alms). (27)

The householder offers sacrifices, the householder practises austerities, the householder distributes gifts; therefore is the order of householders, the first of all. (28)

The Rishis, the manes, the gods, all creatures (dogs, and so on), and guests beg householders for support; therefore is the order of householders the best of all. (29)

If a householder is intent on pursuing the three objects of life (virtue, love, and wealth), on constantly distributing presents of food, on worshipping the gods, on honouring the Brahmanas, on discharging his duty of privately reciting (and teaching) the Veda, and on refreshing the manes (with oblations of balls of rice, water, and the like), he will attain the world of Indra. (30)


In (the last watch of the night, which is called) the hour sacred to Brahman, let him rise and void his excrements. (1)

By night (let him void them) facing the south, by day and during either twilight (let him void them) facing the north. (2)

(He must) not (void them) on earth which has not been previously covered (with grass and the like); (3)

Nor on a ploughed field; (4)

Nor in the shade of a tree (fit to be used for sacrifices); (5)

Nor on barren soil (6). Nor on a spot abounding in fresh grass (7). Nor where there are worms or insects (8). Nor in a ditch (or hole, or on the roots of a tree) (9). Nor on an ant-hill (10). Nor on a path (11). Nor on a public road (12). Nor in a place previously defiled by another person (13). Nor in a garden (14). Nor in the vicinity of a garden or of (a reservoir of) water (15). Nor on ashes (16). Nor on coal (17). Nor on cow-dung (18). Nor in a fold for cattle (19). Nor in the air (20). Nor in water; (21)

  Nor facing the wind, or fire, or the moon, or the sun, or a woman, or a (father or other) Guru, or a Brahmana; (22)

Nor without having enveloped his head; (23)

Having cleaned his hindparts with a clod of earth, or with a brick, (or with wood or grass,) and seizing his organ (with his left, after having removed his garment), he must rise and clean himself with water and earth (previously) fetched for the purpose, so as to remove the smell and the filth. (24)

The organ must once be cleaned with earth, the hindparts three times, the one hand (the left) ten times, both hands together seven times, and both feet together three times. (25)

Such is the purification ordained for householders; it is double for students treble for hermits; and quadruple for ascetics. (26)


A householder must not use Palasa-wood for cleaning his teeth. (1)

  Nor (must he use the twigs of) the Sleshmantaka (or Selu) plant, nor of the soap plant, nor of the Vibhitaka (or Kalidruma) tree, nor of the Dhava plant, nor of the Dhamani tree (for that purpose). (2)

Two modes of cleaning the teeth were: (1) brushing them with little sticks or twigs provided with a brush (see 16), (2) chewing twigs.

Nor (the twigs of) the Bandhuka (or Bandhugivaka) plant, nor of the Nirgundi shrub, nor of the Sigru, Tilva, and Tinduka trees. (3)

Nor (the twigs of) the Kovidara (Yugapattraka) Sami, Pilu (Gudaphala), Pippala (holy fig-tree), Inguda, or Guggula trees; (4)

Nor (the twigs of) the Paribhadraka (Sakrapadapa), or tamarind, or Mokaka, or Semul trees, nor those of the hemp plant; (5)

Nor sweet plants (such as liquorice sticks): (6)

Nor sour plants (such as Amlikas); (7)

Nor twigs that have withered on the stem; (8)

Nor perforated (or otherwise faulty) wood; (9)

Nor stinking wood; (10)

Nor smooth wood; (11)

He must not (use the sticks) facing the south or west. (12)

He must use them facing the north or east; (13)

He may use (the twigs of) the banyan or Asana trees, or of the Arka plant, or of the Khadira, or Kara�ga, or Badara (jujube), or Sal, or Nimb trees, or of the Arimeda, shrub, or of the Apamarga or Malati plants, or of the Kakubha or B�l trees; (14)

  Or of the Kashaya tree, or of the Tikta or Katuka plants. (15)

Before sunrise let him silently clean his teeth with a stick, which must be as thick as the top of the little finger, provided with one end that may be chewed (or 'with a brush'), and twelve Angulas long. (16)

Having washed and used the stick for cleaning the teeth, he must take care to leave it in a clean place; he must never make use of it on the day of new moon (or on the day of full moon). (17)


The part at the root of the little finger of a twice-born man is called the Tirtha sacred to Prajapati. (1)

The part at the root of the thumb is called the Tirtha sacred to Brahman. (2)

The part at the tops of the fingers is called the Tirtha sacred to the gods. (3)

The part at the root of the forefinger is called the Tirtha sacred to the manes. (4)

Let him sip water, which has not been put to the fire and is free from foam (and bubbles), which has not been poured out by a Sudra (or other uninitiated person), or by a man who has one hand only, and which has no saline flavour; and (let him sip it) in a clean place, duly seated, placing (his right hand) between his knees, facing the east or the north (or, the north-east), attentively regarding the water, and in a cheerful mood. (5)

Let him sip water thrice with the Tirtha sacred to Brahman (or with the Tirthas sacred to the gods and to Pragipati respectively). (6)

Let him wipe his lips twice (with the root of his thumb). (7)

Let him touch the cavities (above his navel), his head, and his breast with water. (8)

By water which reaches either their heart, or their throat, or their palate respectively, members of the three twice-born castes are purified each in his turn; a woman and a Sudra are purified by water which has once touched their palate. (9)


In order to get wealth and for the sake of security he shall apply to a lord. (1)

He must not travel alone (2). Nor with wicked companions (3). Nor with Sudras (4). Nor with enemies (5). Nor too early in the morning (6). Nor too late in the evening (7). Nor in the twilight (8). Nor at noon (9). Nor near water (10). Nor in too great a hurry (11). Nor at night (12)

Nor (let him travel) without cessation with (horses or other) beasts of draught that are quite young, diseased, or (otherwise) afflicted; (13)

Nor with such as are deficient in limb (14). Nor with weak ones (15). Nor with young bulls (16). Nor with untrained animals. (17)

He must not appease his hunger and allay his thirst without having first given grass and water to the animals. (18)

He must not stop at a place where four ways meet (19). Nor at night at the root of a tree. (20). Nor in an empty house (21). Nor on a meadow (22). Nor in a stable; (23)

Nor (must he stand) on hair, on the husks of grain, on potsherds, on bones, on ashes, or coal; (24)

Nor on seeds of the cotton plant. (25)

When he passes by a place where four ways meet, let him turn his right side towards it. (26)

And let him do the same in passing by the image of a deity; (27)

  And in passing by well-known large trees. (28)

After having seen a fire, or a Brahmana (with his turban on), or a public prostitute, or a jar filled (with water), or a looking-glass, or an umbrella, or a flag, or a banner, or a B�l tree, or a lid (or platter), or a palace built in the shape of a certain diagram (or in the form of a quadrangle without a western gate); (29)

Or a fan, or a chowrie, or a horse, or an elephant, or a goat, or a cow (having a calf), or sour milk, or milk, or honey, or white mustard; (30)

Or a lute, or sandal-wood, or a weapon, or fresh cow-dung, or fruit, or a flower, or a fresh pot-herb, or Gorokana, or blades of Durva grass; (31)

Or a turban, or ornaments, or jewels, or gold, or silver, or clothes, or a seat, or a vehicle, or (raw) meat; (32)

Or a golden vase, or cultivated land which is being carried away (by a stream), or a single (bull or other) piece of cattle tied with a rope, or an unmarried damsel (clad in white), or a (boiled) fish, (let him turn his right side towards them and) go on. (33)

Having seen one intoxicated, or insane, deformed, he must or turn back; (34)

(Also, if he has seen) one who has vomited, or one who has been purged, or one who has had his head shorn, or one who wears all his hair tied in one knot, or a dwarf; (35)

Or (if he has seen) one wearing a dress (of a reddish-yellow colour) dyed with Kashaya, or an ascetic, or one smeared (with ashes); (36)

Or (if he has seen) oil, or sugar, or dry cow-dung, or fire-wood, or grass (other than Kusa or Durva grass), or Palasa (and other leaves, other than betel leaves), ashes, or coal; (37)

Or (if he has seen) salt, or a eunuch, or (the spirituous liquor called) Asava, or an impotent man, or cotton cloth, or a rope, or an iron chain for the feet, or a person with dishevelled hair. (38)

(If he sees), while about to begin a journey, a lute, or sandal-wood, or fresh pot-herbs, or a turban, or an Ornament, or an unmarried damsel, he must praise them. (39)

He must not (knowingly) step on (or step over, or stand on) the shade of the image of a deity, of a (learned) Brahmana, of a spiritual teacher, of a brown (bull or other animal), or of one by whom the initiatory ceremony at a Soma-sacrifice has been performed. (40)

Nor (must he step) on anything spat out or vomited, nor on blood, nor on f�ces or urine, nor on water used for ablutions. (41)

He must not step over a rope to which a calf (or a cow) is tied. (42)

  He must not walk quickly in the rain. (43)

He must not cross a river without need; (44)

Nor without having previously offered an oblation of water to the gods and to the manes; (45)

Nor (swimming) with his arms; (46)

Nor in a leaky vessel. (47)

He must not stand on the bank (of a river). (48)

He must not gaze into a pool. (49)

He must not cross it (by swimming through it, or in any other way). (50)

Way must be made for an aged man, for one carrying a burden, for a king, for a Snataka (of any of the three kinds), for a woman, for a sick person, for a bridegroom, and for one riding in a carriage. Among those, should they all meet, a king must be honoured by the rest (excepting the Snataka); but the king himself must show honour to a Snataka. (51)

The Snataka (see 28,42) is of three kinds: (1) the Vidyasnataka, who has studied the Vedas; (2) the Vratasnataka, who has performed the Vratas or vowed observances of a student; (3) the Ubhayasnataka, who has completed both the Vedas and the Vratas. (Nand.) See the Grihya-sutras.


He must not bathe in another man's pool; (1)

In cases of distress (if there is no other water at hand) he may bathe (in another man's pool), after having offered up five (or seven, or four) lumps of clay and (three jars with) water. (2)

(He must not bathe) during an indigestion; (3)

Nor while he is afflicted (with a fever or other illness); (4)

Nor without his clothes * (5). Nor at night (6). Unless it be during an eclipse (7). Nor in the twilight. (8)

size=2"> * The term nagna, literally 'naked,' has to be taken in its widest sense here. According to Bhrigu and Gobhila it includes, besides one wholly undressed, 'one without his upper garment, one who has dirty clothes on, one clad in lower garments of silk only, one who wears double clothing or even a greater number of clothes, one who wears a small piece of cloth over the pudenda only,' and so on (Nand.)

He must bathe early in the morning, when he beholds the east reddening with the rays of the (rising) sun. (9)

After having bathed, he must not shake his head (in order to remove the water from his hair); (10)

And he must not dry his limbs (with his hand or with a cloth); (11)

  Nor must he touch any oily substance. (12)

He must not put on again the garment which he wore before, without its having been washed. (13)

After having bathed, he must cover with his head a turban and put on two garments washed (by himself). (14)

He must not converse, (after having bathed,) with barbarians, low-caste persons, or outcasts. (15)

He must bathe in cascades, ponds dug by the gods, and lakes. (16)

  Stagnant water is more pure (and purifies more effectually) than water taken out (of a well or the like); the water of a spring is more pure than that of a tank; the water of a river is more pure than the former; water collected by (Vasishtha or some other) devout sage is even more pure; but the water of the Ganges is the purest of all. (17)

After having removed the dirt by means of earth and water, and after having dived under water and returned (to the bank of the river), he must address the bathing-place with the three Mantras (beginning with the words), 'You waters are,'with the four Mantras (beginning with the words), 'The golden-coloured (waters),' and with (the one Mantra beginning with the words), 'Carry away (all), that, waters ' (18)

Then he must dive underwater and mutter the Aghamarshana three times; (19)

Or (he must mutter three times the mantra which begins with the words), 'That most exalted step of Vishnu;' (20)

Or the Drupada Savitri (which begins with the words, 'Like one released from a post); (21)

Or the Anuvaka (which begins with the words), 'They get their minds ready;' (22)

Or the Purushasukta. (23)

After having bathed, he must feed the gods and the manes, while standing in the water with his wet clothes on. (24)

If (being unable to remain in water after having bathed) he has changed his dress, (he must feed the gods and the manes,) after having crossed the bathing-place (and reached the bank). (25)

(But) he must not wring his bathing-dress till he has satisfied the gods and the manes. (26)

After having bathed and sipped water, he must sip water (once more) according to the rule. (27)

He must offer (sixteen) flowers to Purusha, while muttering the Purushasukta, one with each verse. (28)

Afterwards (he must offer) a libation of water. (29)

He must first offer one to the gods with the Tirtha sacred to the gods. (30)

Then he must offer an other to the manes with the Tirtha sacred to the manes. (31)

In offering the latter he must first of all feed (the manes of) his next of kin (such as his father, mother, maternal grandfather, uncles, brothers, and so on) (32)

After that (he must feed) his relatives (such as a sister's son, a father-in-law, a brother-in-law, and so on) and distant kinsmen (such as the sons of his father's sisters and of his mother's sisters). (33)

Then (he must feed) his (deceased) friends. (34)

According, to the above rule he must bathe every day. (35)

After having bathed, he must mutter as many purifying Mantras as possible. (36)

And he must mutter the Gayatri even more often (than other Mantras); (37)

And the Purushasukta. (38)

There is nothing more sublime than those two (prayers). (39)

One who has bathed is thereby entitled to perform the offerings to the Visvedevas and to the manes, to mutter sacred texts, and to exercise the duty of hospitality, as prescribed by law. (40)

Distress and misfortune, bad dreams and evil thoughts are taken from him even who only sprinkles himself with water (no matter from where it comes): that is the law. (41)

He who regularly takes the prescribed bath (every morning), does not experience the tortures of Yama's hell. By the regular bath criminals even obtain their absolution. (42)


Now then, after having duly bathed, and duly washed his hands and feet, and duly sipped water, he must worship Bhagavat Vasudeva (Vishnu), who is without beginning and end, before an idol or on the sacrificial ground. (1)

Having called up in his mind (Vishnu to life, with the mantra), 'The two Asvins possess life, may they (give you life),'and having invited (Vishnu) with the Anuvaka (beginning with the words), 'They get their minds ready,' he must worship him with his knees, his hands, and his head. (2)

With the three Mantras (beginning with the words), 'You waters are,' he must (fetch and) announce the Arghya (or water for washing the hands). (3)

With the four Mantras (beginning with the words), 'The golden-coloured,' (he must fetch and announce) the water for washing the feet; (4)

With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'May the waters of the plain propitiate us,' the water which is to be sipped; (5)

With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'Carry away (all) that, waters,' the water destined for the bath; (6)

With (the four Mantras, beginning with the words, 'Proud) of the chariot, of the poles, the hero,' unguents and ornaments; (7)

With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'A youth, splendidly arrayed,' a garment; (8)

With (the one Mantra, beginning with the word), 'Blooming,' a flower; (9)

With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'You are murderous (dhur), slay (dhurva) (the slayer),' incense (dhupa); (10)

With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'You are splendour and light,' a lamp; (11)

With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words, 'I have praised) Dadhikravan,' a Madhuparka (honey-mixture); (12)

With the eight Mantras (beginning with the word), 'Hiranyagarbha,' an offering of (other) eatables. (13)

A chowrie, a fan, a looking-glass, an umbrella, a (palanquin or other) vehicle, and a (throne or other) seat, all these objects he must announce (and place before) the god (Vishnu), muttering the Gayatri (at the same time). (14)

After having thus worshipped him, he must mutter the Purushasukta. After that, he who wishes to obtain eternal bliss must make oblations of clarified butter, while reciting the same hymn. (15)


He must not make an oblation to the gods or to the manes with water collected at night. (1)

He must not give any other fragrant substance than sandal, or musk, or (fragrant) wood (of the odoriferous Devadaru tree), or camphor, or saffron, or the wood of the Gatiphala tree; (2)

Nor a garment dyed with indigo; (3)

Nor an ornament made of factitious jewels or gold; (4)

Nor (a flower) having a nasty odour; (5)

Nor one that has no odour at all; (6)

Nor one grown on a thorny plant. (7)

But he may give even a flower grown on a thorny plant, if it is white and sweet-smelling. (8)

He may give even a red flower, if it is saffron, or a water-flower (such as the red lotus). (9)

(He must) not (give) any animal substance (such as claws or horns) for the incense. (10)

(He must) not (give) anything but clarified butter or oil for the lamp. (11)

(He must) not (give) forbidden food at the offering of eatables; (12)

  Nor the milk of goats or female buffalos, though it is lawful food (otherwise); (13)

Nor the flesh of five-toed animals, of fishes, and of boars. (14)

  Fully prepared for the sacrifice and pure, he must announce (and offer up to Vishnu) all the oblations, with his mind fixed on the deity, with a cheerful heart, and free from precipitation or anger. (15)


After having swept the place around the (kitchen) fire, sprinkled it with water all around, strewed (Kusa grass) all around, and sprinkled (the latter) with water all around, he must take out of all dishes the uppermost part and offer it: (1)

  To Vasudeva, to Sankarshana, to Pradyumna, to Aniruddha, to Purusha, to Satya, to Akyuta, to Vasudeva. (2)

Afterwards (he must offer twelve burnt-oblations) to Agni, to Soma, to Mitra, to Varuna, to Indra, to Indra and Agni united, to the Visvedevas, to Pragapati, to Anumati, to Dhanvantari, to Vastoshpati, and to Agni Svishtakrit (the god of the fire who causes the proper performance of the sacrifice). (3)

Then let him make a Bali-offering with that which has been left of the dishes. (4)

To (the serpent demons) Taksha and Upataksha, (5)

(Strewing the two Balis) on both sides of the fire, to the east of it (on the north-eastern side first, and on the south-eastern side afterwards). (6)

  (Then let him offer other seven Balis) to all (the seven Ishtakas or goddesses of the bricks of the altar, also to the east of the fire, while pronouncing the mantras), 'Your name is Amba; your name is Dula; your name is Nitatni (Nitatnir); your name is Kupunika (and so on).' (7)

(He must offer four Balis with the mantras), 'O Nandini; O Subhaga; O Sumangali; O Bhadrankari,' (placing the Balis) in the corners (beginning with the south-eastern corner and proceeding) towards the south. (8)

(He must place two Balis), addressed to Sri Hiranyakesi and to the trees, near the firm pillar. (9)

'I. e. the pillar which supports the house.' (Nand.) It appears from an analogous passage of the Manava Grihya-sutra, that a pillar in the middle of the house is meant.

(He must place two Balis), addressed to Dharma and Adharma and to Mrityu, near the door. (10)

(He must place one Bali), addressed to Varuna, in the water-jar. (11)

  (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Vishnu,' (he must place one Bali) in the mortar. (12)

(With the words, 'Adoration be) to the Maruts,' (he must place one Bali) on the mill-stone. (13)

(In the apartment) on the roof (let him place two Balis) addressed to Vaisravana (Kubera) the king, and to all created beings. (14)

(With the words, 'Adoration be) to Indra and to Indra's ministers,' (he must place two Balis). in the eastern part (of the house). (15)

(With the words, 'Adoration be) to Yama and to Yama's ministers,' (he must place two Balis) in the southern part.. (16)

(With the words, 'Adoration be) to Varuna and to Varuna's ministers,' (he must place two Balis) in the western part. (17)

(With the words, 'Adoration be) to Soma and to Soma's ministers,' (let him place two Balis) in the northern part. (18)

(With the words, 'Adoration be) to Brahman and to Brahman's ministers,' (let him place two Balis) in the centre (of the house). (19)

(Let him throw) in the air (a Bali) addressed to Akasa (the air). (20)

  (With the words, 'Adoration be) to the goblins roaming by day,' (let him place a Bali) on the sacrificial ground. (21)

(With the words, 'Adoration be to the goblins) roaming by night,' (let him offer a Bali in the same place at the Vaisvadeva which takes place) at night. (22)

  Afterwards he must offer on blades of Kusa grass, having the points turned towards the south, balls of rice to his father, to his grandfather, and to his great-grandfather, to his mother, to his grandmother, and to his great-grandmother, proclaiming at the same time their name and race (and adding the word Svadha, 'reverence'). (23)

  Along with the balls of rice let him give ointments, flowers, incense, eatables, and the like. (24)

After having fetched a jar with water, let him cause a Brahmana to say the benediction (svastitvam bruhi) (and give him the jar). (25)

(The share) of dogs, crows, and Svapakas let him strew on the earth. (26)

And let him give (a mouthful of food as) alms. (27)

By honouring guests he obtains the highest reward. (28)

Let him assiduously honour a guest who arrives in the evening (after the Vaisvadeva is over). (29)

Let him not suffer a guest to stay at his house unfed. (30)

As the Brahmanas are lords over all other castes, and as a husband is lord over his wives, a guest is the lord of a householder. (31)

By honouring a guest he obtains heaven. (32)

(One who has arrived as) a guest and is obliged to turn home disappointed in his expectations, takes away from the man, to whose house he has come, his religious merit, and throws his own guilt on him. (33)

This proverb is also found in the Mahabharata and in the Markandeya-purana (29,31).

A Brahmana who stays for one night only as a guest, is called atithi (a guest); because he does not stay for a long time, therefore is he termed atithi.(34)

  Let him not consider a Brahmana fellow-villager or an acquaintance as his guest, though he has come to the house where his wife and his fires are. (35)

But if a Kshatriya has come to his house in the way of a guest, let him hospitably entertain him also, to his heart's desire, after the Brahmana guests have eaten. (36)

Should a Vaisya or a Sudra come to his house as guests, he must even give food to them (at the same time and) with his servants, and treat them with kindness (but not like guests in the proper sense of the term). (37)

To (members of) other castes (such as Murdhavasiktas) and to friends (or relatives or) other such persons, who have come to his house out of attachment, let him offer such food as happens to be there, to the best of his power, at the time when his wife takes her meal. (38)

The wife takes her meal when the husband has eaten. (Nand.)

One recently married (but not yet delivered to her husband), an unmarried damsel, a sick woman, and a pregnant woman: to these let him give food unhesitatingly, even before his guests. (39)

The foolish man who eats first himself, without having offered food to those (persons that have been mentioned), is not aware that he will himself be food (after death) for dogs and vultures. (40)

After the Brahmanas, (the Kshatriyas who have come as guests), the friends and relatives, (the parents and others) whom he is bound to maintain, (and the servants) have made their repast, let man and wife eat the leavings themselves. (41)

  Having shown honour to the gods, to the manes, to men, to those whom he is bound to maintain, and to the household deities (as well as to dogs, crows, and the rest), let a householder enjoy that which has been left. (42)

He who cooks food for himself only, cats nothing but sin: for that alone is considered as fit food for the virtuous, which is left, after the (customary) oblations have been offered. (43)

By the daily recitation of the Veda, by the Agnihotra, by sacrificing, and by austerity, a householder does not obtain such excellent places of abode (after death) as by honouring a guest. (44)

Whether he arrives in the evening or in the morning, he must offer a seat and water to his guest, and food, to the best of his ability, after having shown him marks of honour as the law directs. (45)

By giving (to a guest) shelter, a bed, ointments for his feet, and a lamp: for each of these gifts singly he reaps the same reward as for the gift of a cow. (46)


He must not eat during an eclipse of the moon or of the sun. (1)

  He shall eat, after having previously bathed, when the eclipse is over. (2)

If (the sun or moon) have set before the eclipse was over, he must bathe, and on the next day he may eat again, after having seen (the sun or moon rise), (3)

  A cow or a Brahmana having met with a calamity, he must not eat on that day. (4)

If the king has met with an accident, (he must not eat on that day). (5)

An Agnihotrin, who is absent on a journey, must eat at that time of the day when the Agnihotra is supposed to be over. (6)

He may also eat at that time of the day when the Vaisvadeva is supposed to be over. (7)

On the days of new and full moon (he may eat at that time) when he supposes the sacrifice customary on those days to have been performed. (8)

He must not eat during an indigestion; (9)

Nor at midnight; 11. Nor at noon; (11)

Nor in the twilight; (12)

Nor dressed in wet clothes; (13)

Nor without his upper garment; (14)

Nor naked; (15)

Nor in water (nor in a boat) (16)

Nor lying stretched out on the back; (17)

Nor sitting on a broken stool; (18)

Nor reclining on a couch; (19)

Nor from a broken dish; (20)

Nor having placed the food on his lap; (21)

Nor (having placed the food) on the ground; (22)

Nor from the palm of his hand. (23)

That food which has been seasoned with salt (after having been cooked) he must not eat. (24)

The commentator says food twice cooked and food cooked in a frying-pan should also be avoided.

He must not abuse children (eating in the same row with him). (25)

  (He must) not (eat) dainties alone. (26)

(He must) not (eat) substances from which the fat has been extracted. (27)

This rule refers to skimmed milk and to a dough made of ground sesamum, from which the oil has been extracted. (Nand.)

Nor (must he eat) roasted grain in the daytime. (28)

At night (he must not eat) anything mixed with sesamum-seeds. (29)

  Nor (must he eat at night) sour milk or ground barley. (30)

Nor (must he eat) the leaves of the mountain ebony, or of the banyan, or of the holy fig-tree, or of the hemp plant. (31)

(He must) not (eat) without having first given to eat (to the gods and to the Brahmanas); Nor without having made a burnt-offering first (33)

Nor without having sprinkled his feet; (34)

Nor without having sprinkled his hands and his face; (35)

While having the remains of food en his mouth or hands, he must not take clarified butter. (36)

Nor must he look at the moon, or at the sun, or at the stars (while unclean). (37)

Nor must he touch his head (while unclean). (38)

Nor must he recite the Veda (while unclean). (39)

He must eat facing the east; (40)

Or facing the south; (41)

And after having honoured his food; (42)

And cheerfully, adorned with a garland of flowers, and anointed with unguents. (43)

He must not eat up his food completely; (44)

Unless it consist of sour milk, or honey, or (clarified) butter, or milk, or ground barley, or meat, or sweetmeats. (45)

He must not eat together with his wife, nor in the open air, nor standing, nor in the presence of many (hungry spectators), nor must many eat in the presence of one (hungry spectator). (46)

Let him never eat in an empty house, in a house where the sacred fires are preserved, or in a temple dedicated to the gods. Neither must he drink water out of his joined hands, or satiate himself to repletion. (47)

Let him not take a third meal (over and above the two regular meals in the mornings and evenings), nor let him ever take unwholesome food. He must eat neither too early, nor too late, and he must take no food in the evening, after having fully satiated himself in the morning. (48)

'Too early' means before sunrise; 'too late' means immediately before sunset. (Nand.)

He must not eat bad food (whether injurious to health or otherwise reprehensible), nor from a bad dish (which is similar to the dishes used by barbarians, or which has been defiled by a wicked man eating from it), nor lying on the ground, nor with his feet raised on a bench, nor sitting on his hams with a cloth tied round his legs and knees. (49)


He must not have connection with his wife on the eighth, or fourteenth, or fifteenth day of the half-month. (1)

And (he must avoid connubial intercourse) after having partaken of a Sraddha; (2)

And after having given (a Sraddha); (3)

And after having been invited to a Sraddha; (4)

The invitations to a Sraddha are issued on the day before it is to take place. (Nand)

And while performing a vow of abstinence (such as that to be kept on the day before a Sraddha, or the fast to be observed on the eleventh day of the half-month); (5)

And one who has performed the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice; (6)

And in a temple, in a burial-ground, and in an empty house; (7)

And at the root of a tree (or shrub); (8)

And in the day-time (9);. And in the twilight; (10)

And with one unclean (or in her courses); (11)

And while he is unclean himself (12); And with one anointed with unguents (13); And being anointed himself (14); And with one sick (15); And while he is sick himself, (16)

He must not have connection, if he wishes to enjoy a long life, with a woman who has a limb too little, nor with one who has a limb too much, nor with one older than himself, nor with a pregnant woman. (17)


He must not sleep with his feet wet; (1)

Nor facing the north or the west; (2)

Nor naked (3);. Nor on wet (fresh) bamboo; (4)

Nor in the open air; (5)

Nor on a bedstead made of Palasa-wood; (6)

Nor on one made of the wood of five trees; (7)

Nor on one made of the wood of a tree which has been split by an elephant; (8)

Nor on a bedstead made of the wood of a tree that has been kindled by lightning; (9)

Nor on a broken bedstead; (10)

Nor on one made of scorched wood; (11)

Nor on one made of the wood of a tree that used to be watered with a jar; (12)

Nor in a burial-ground, nor in an empty house, nor in a temple; (13)

  Nor with people who are restless of limb; (14)

Nor with women; (15)

Nor on grain, nor (in a stable of) cows, nor (on the couch of any of his) Gurus, nor on the fireplace, nor (in a building dedicated to the) gods. (16)

He must not sleep while the remnants of food are on his hands or face, nor in the day-time, nor in the twilight, nor on ashes, nor in a place soiled (by excrements and the like), nor in a wet place, nor on the top of a mountain. (17)


Now he must not contemn any one (whether of equal rank, or of higher or lower rank than himself).

'This chapter treats of the duties of a Snataka . . Some of these duties are common to the Snataka and to the householder (Nand.)

He must not mock those who have a limb too little or a limb too much, who are ignorant, or who are poor. (2)

He must not serve low people. (3)

Let him not engage in work that may keep him from repeating (or teaching) the Veda. (4)

Let him wear such a dress as becomes his age, (5)

And his sacred knowledge, his descent, his means, and his country. (6)

  He must not be overbearing. (7)

He must constantly consult the holy laws and other (salutary, precepts relating to the acquisition of wealth, wisdom, and freedom from disease). (8)

He must not wear a worn-out or filthy dress, if he has means (enough to procure a new one). (9)

(Even though he lacks firewood or the like necessaries) he must not say to another man,

have got none.' (10)

He must not wear a garland of flowers which has no smell at all, or an offensive smell, or which is red. (11)

Let him wear a garland of water-flowers even though they be red. (12)

  And (he must wear) a staff made of bamboo; (13)

And a jar with water; (14)

And a sacrificial string made of cotton thread; (15)

And two golden ear-rings. (17)

He must not look at the rising sun; (17)

Nor at the setting (sun); (18)

Nor (must he look at the sun) shining through an awning of cloth (under which he is lying). (19)

Nor at the sun reflected in a looking-glass or in water; (20)

Nor at the midday sun; (21)

Nor at the face of any of his gurus while hie is angry; (22)

Nor at his own image reflected in oil or in water; (23)

Nor reflected in a dirty looking-glass; (24)

Nor at his wife eating; (25)

Nor at a naked woman; (26)

Nor at a man in the act of discharging urine (or voiding excrements); (27)

Nor at an elephant (or other dangerous animal) broken loose from the rope that ties him; (28)

Nor at a fight between bulls (or elephants or buffalos) or the like animals, while he is him self standing in a (crowd or any other) place, from which it would be difficult for him to effect his escape; (29)

Nor at one insane; (30)

Nor at one intoxicated; (31)

He must not throw any impure substances into the fire; (32)

Nor blood; 34. Nor poison; (34)

Neither (must he throw any of those substances) into water. (35)

  He must not step over a fire. (36)

He must not warm his feet (by the fire). (37)

He must not wipe (the dirt from his feet) with blades of Kusa grass. (38)

He must not wash (his feet) in a vessel of white copper. (39)

He must not (wash) one foot with the other, (40)

He must not scratch the ground (with a piece of wood or the like). (41)

He must not crush clods of earth. (42)

He must not cut grass. (43)

He must not tear his nails or the hairs (of his beard or others) with his teeth. (44)

He must avoid gambling; (45)

And the heat of the sun just risen. (46)

He must not wear a garment, or shoes, or a garland, or a sacrificial string which had before been worn by another. (47)

He must not give advice to a Sudra; (48)

Nor (must he give him) the leavings of his food, nor the residue of an oblation (unless he is his own servant); (49)

Nor (must he give him) sesamum; (50)

Nor (must he point out) the sacred law to him; (51)

Nor (must he prescribe) a penance (for him for atonement of a sin). (52)

He must not scratch his head or his belly, with both hands joined. (53)

He must not reject sour milk or the Sumanas flower (when offered to him). (54)

He must not take off his garland (from his head) himself (but he may cause another to do so). (55)

Let him not rouse (a superior) from sleep. (56)

He must not (by harsh speeches and the like) render disaffected one who is well affected towards him. (57)

He must not speak to a woman in her courses; (58)

Nor to barbarians or low-caste persons. (59)

When a sacred fire, or an idol, or a Brahmana is near, he must stretch forth his right hand (from his upper garment). (60)

If he sees a cow trespassing on another man's field, he must not announce it (to the owner of that field). (61)

And if he sees a calf sucking (at the udder of a cow, he must not announce it to the owner of the latter). (62)

He must not endeavour to please overbearing men (by flattering their pretensions). (63)

He must not dwell in a kingdom governed by a Sudra king; (64)

Nor in one abounding with wicked people; (65)

And he must not live (in a kingdom) in which there are no physicians; (66)

Nor in one afflicted (with a disease or other calamity). (67)

And (he must not stay) long on a mountain. (68)

He must not (walk or otherwise) exert himself without a purpose. (69)

  He must not dance or sing. (70)

He must not make a noise by slapping (his left arm, after having placed it on his right shoulder, with his right hand). (71)

He must not make vulgar speeches. (72)

He must not tell an untruth. (73)

He must not say disagreeable things. (74)

He must not strike any one on a vital part. (75)

He must not despise himself if he wishes to enjoy long life. (76)

  He must often repeat his prayers at each twilight (if he wishes to live long). (77)

He must not play with (venomous) serpents or with weapons. (78)

He must not touch the cavities of his body without a cause. (79)

  He must not raise a stick against another man. (80)

One who deserves punishment he must strike in order to punish him. (81)

(He must strike) him on his back with a shoot of bamboo or with a rope. (82)

He must take care not to revile a god, a Brahmana, the Sastras, or the high-minded (Rishis). (83)

And (he must avoid) gain and pleasure repugnant to duty. (84)

(He must avoid) even lawful acts which may give offence to mankind. (85)

On the days of new and full moon let him make a propitiatory offering. (86)

He must not cut even grass (on those two days). (87)

He must adorn himself (with garlands, sandal, and the like). (88)

  Thus he must observe established customs. (89)

Those customs, which have been explicitly ordained in revealed and in traditional texts, and which are practised by the virtuous, must always be observed by a righteous man with subdued passions. (90)

By adhering to established usage he attains to old age; this is the way to obtain that state in the next life which he desires, and imperishable riches, this is the way to destroy the effect of (bodily) marks foreboding future misfortunes. (91)

  He who observes the usages established among the virtuous, who is a believer in revelation, and free from ill-will, lives a hundred years, even though he does not possess any external marks of prosperity. (92)


He must persist in keeping his mind and his organs of sense under restraint. (1)

Restraint of the mind implies restraint of the senses. (2)

One who has acquired complete command over himself, gains this world and the next. (3)

One who has no command over himself, reaps no fruit from any of his acts (whether worldly or tending to the acquisition of spiritual merit). (4)

Self-restraint is the best instrument of purification; self-restraint is the best of auspicious objects; by self-restraint he obtains anything he may desire in his heart. (5)

The man who rides (as it were) in a chariot drawn by his five senses and directed by his mind (as the charioteer), who keeps it on the path of the virtuous, can never be overcome by his enemies (lust, wrath, and greed), unless the horses (unrestrained by the charioteer) run away with the chariot. (6)

As the waters (of all streams) are stored up (and reabsorbed) in the ocean, which, though being filled with them, remains unmoved and tranquil, even so that man, in whose mind the passions are stored up (and dissolved), obtains perfect calmness but not he who strives after the gratification of his desires. (7)

This chapter treats of duties which are common to all the four orders. (Nand.)


One desirous of celebrating a Sraddha must invite the Brahmanas on the day before (it is to take place). (1)

On the next day, in the forenoon, if it falls in the bright half of the month, and in the afternoon, if it falls in the dark half of the month, the Brahmanas, who must have duly bathed and duly sipped water, must be placed by him, in the order of their seniority' (or) of their sacred knowledge, on seats covered with Kusa grass. (2)

  (He must entertain) two (Brahmanas) facing the east at the Sraddha of the gods (Visvedevas), and three facing the north at the Sraddha of the manes; (3)

  Or one only at each Sraddha. (4)

After having (worshipped the Visvedevas and) offered a burnt-oblation: during the recitation of the first Pa�kaka (pentad) at a Sraddha repast consisting of undressed grain or performed for the gratification of a special desire; (5)

At a Sraddha repast consisting of meat, during the recitation of the second Pa�kaka; (6)

At a new moon (Sraddha), during the recitation of the last Pa�kaka; (7)

On the Ashtakas (or eighth days) of the (three) dark halves subsequent to the full moon day of the month Agrahayana (or Margasirsha), during the recitation of the first, second, and last Pa�kakas respectively; (8)

Likewise on the Anvashtakas (or ninth days of the dark halves of those months); (9)

'And on the Sraddhas taking place on the seventh day of the dark half, as ka indicates.' (Nand.) This statement does not, however, deserve much credit, as such Sraddhas are neither mentioned in our work nor in the Kathaka Grihya-sutra, writes Jolly.

He must invite the manes, after having received permission to do so from the Brahmanas. (10)

Having driven away the Yatudhanas by strewing grains of sesamum and by reciting the two mantras (the first of which begins with the words), 'May the Asuras go away;' (11)

He must invite the manes (with the four Mantras), 'Come near, manes,' '(Conduct) them all (here), Agni,' 'May my (ancestors) come near,' 'This is your (share), manes.' Then let him prepare the water for washing the feet with scented water, which has been mixed up with Kusa grass and sesamum, while reciting (the three Mantras), 'Those standing,' 'Speech is imperishable,' and 'What my mother (has sinned),' and offer it (to the Brahmanas); let him prepare the Arghya (or water mixed with Durva grass, flowers, and so on) and offer it to them; let him offer to the Brahmanas, to the best of his power, Kusa grass, sesamum, clothes, flowers, ornaments, incense, and lamps; let him take food sprinkled with clarified butter; let him look them in the face with the mantra, 'O you Adityas, Rudras, and Vasus;' let him say, 'I will offer an oblation in the fire,' and if the Brahmanas say, 'Offer an oblation,' let him offer three burnt-oblations.' (12)

After having consecrated the offerings with the mantras, 'They, who are my ancestors,' 'This is your (share), manes,' and 'This offering,' he must pour (what is left of) the food into such vessels as happen to be there, or (into golden ones at the offering addressed to the Visvedevas and) into silver ones (at the offering addressed to the manes), and offer it first to the two Brahmanas facing the east (who have been invited to the Sraddha of the gods). (13)

Afterwards he must offer it to the (three) Brahmanas facing north (who represent his three ancestors, addressing himself) to his father, grandfather and great-grandfather, (and calling out) their name and race. (14)

While the Brahmanas are eating the food, let him mutter (the three Mantras), 'Whatever (trickles down) through my fault,' 'With days and nights,' and 'Whatever (limb) of yours, Agni.' (15)

And (let him mutter) the Itihasa (Epics), Purana (Legends), and the Dharmasastra (Institutes of the Sacred Law). (16)

Near the leavings let him deposit on blades of Kusa grass with the ends turned towards the south one ball of rice for his father, while saying, 'Earth is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction).' (17)

With the mantra, 'Air is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction,' let him deposit) a second ball for his grandfather. (18)

With the mantra, 'Heaven is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction,' let him deposit) a third ball for his great-grandfather. (19)

With the mantra, 'Those ancestors who have died,' let him place a garment (on the balls). (20)

With the mantra, 'Give us sons, manes,' (let him place) food on them. (21)

With the mantra, 'Enjoy it, manes, partake of it, (each according to his share,' let him wipe off the grease from his hands with the ends of the blades. (22)

  With the mantra, '(You waters) imparting vigour,' let him sprinkle the balls to the right with the wet (remainder of the food), and offer the Argha, flowers, incense, unguents, and rice, and other victuals and dainties to the Brahmanas. (23)

And (he must offer them, ) a jar with water, which has been mixed up with honey, clarified butter, sesamum, and (ointments, oil, and the like). (24)

  The Brahmanas having eaten and being satisfied, let him sprinkle the food (as much as has been left by them) and the grass with the mantra, 'May you not fail me,' and strew the food near the leavings; and having asked them, 'Are you satisfied? Is (the Sraddha) finished,' he must first give water for sipping to the Brahmanas facing the north, and then to those facing the east; and he must sprinkle the place where the Sraddha has been offered (with water, with the mantra), 'Well sprinkled.' All these rites he must perform while holding blades of sacred grass in his hand. (25)

Afterwards he must, while turning his face towards the Brahmanas facing the east, circumambulate them from left to right, with the mantra, 'What a crow (may have eaten of my offering),' and turn back again; he must honour them with sacrificial fees, to the best of his power, saying, 'May you be satisfied,' and on their answering, 'We are satisfied,' he must address them with the mantra, 'The gods and the manes.' (26)

  After having given (to all) water (with the mantra, 'May the food and water and whatever else I gave you be) imperishable,' (and calling out their name and race, and having added the mantra, 'May the Visvedevas be satisfied,' he must ask, with folded hands, and with an attentive and cheerful mind, the following (benediction) from the Brahmanas facing the east: (27)

'May the liberal-minded in our race increase in number, and may the (study of the) Vedas and our progeny (also increase). May faith not depart from us, and may we have plenty to bestow on the poor. (28)

They shall answer, 'Thus let it be.' (29)

(The second half of the benediction shall be, as follows), "May we have plenty of food, and may we receive guests. May others come to beg of us, and may not we be obliged to beg of any one.' (30)

After having received this double benediction (through the Brahmanas saying, 'Thus let it be'), (31)

He must dismiss the Brahmanas, with the mantra, 'With all food,' after having honoured them according to custom, accompanied them (as far as the limits of his estate), and taken his leave of them. (32)


After having worshipped, on each Ashtaka, the gods and performed, with vegetables, meat, and cakes respectively, a Sraddha (according to the rules given in the last chapter), he must, on each Anvashtaka, worship the gods and offer a burnt-oblation in the same way as on the Ashtaka (i.e. reciting the same three Pa�kakas successively), and entertain Brahmanas in the same way as (directed) before (in the preceding chapter), in honour of his mother, his paternal grandmother, and his paternal great-grandmother, honour them with presents, accompany them (as far as the limits of his estate), and dismiss them (1)

Then he must dig (six) trenches. (2)

On the border of these trenches, to the northeast of them, he must light fires and place balls of rice. (3)

On the border of three of the trenches (he must place balls) for the men, and on the border of the other three (he must place balls) for the women. (4)

He must fill the three trenches for the men with water mixed with food. (5)

(He must fill) the three trenches for the women with milk mixed with food. (6)

(And he must fill up) each triad of trenches singly with sour milk, meat, and milk. (7)

After having filled (the trenches), he must mutter the mantra, 'May this (food) be imperishable for you men and for you women.' (8)


He who makes a Sraddha-offering while his father is alive, must offer it to those persons to whom his father offers (his Sraddhas). (1)

Nand. infers from a passage of Asvalayana (Grihya-sutra 2,4,3) that Sraddhas to be offered on the day before each Ashtaka are also intended here. See, however, note on 73,9. The same proposes two explanations of the term Maghi: (1) It has to be separated from the following words, and refers directly to the day of full moon in the month Magha, and indirectly to the days of full moon in Ashadha, Karttika, and Vaisakha as well, as indicated in a passage of the Brahma-purana. (2) It has to be connected with the clause following it. This latter interpretation, on which the rendering given above is based, is supported by Mann (3, 273,274), {footnote p. 241} Yag�avalkya, (1, 260), according to the interpretations of Kulluka and Vig�anesvara, and by the Vishnu-sutra itself (78,52)

(If he offers a Sraddha) while both his father and grandfather are alive, (he must offer it to those persons) to whom his grandfather (offers his Sraddhas). (2)

While his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather are alive, he must offer no Sraddha at all. (3)

He whose father is dead (but whose grandfather is alive), must first of all offer a ball of rice to his father, after that, two balls to the two ancestors coming before his grandfather (or to his great-grandfather and to his fourth ascendant). (4)

He whose father and grandfather are dead (but whose great-grandfather is alive), must first offer two balls to those two, and then offer one ball to the grandfather of his grandfather. (5)

He whose grandfather is dead (but whose father and great-grandfather are alive), must give one ball to his grandfather and two balls to the father and grandfather of his great-grandfather. (6)

An intelligent man must offer Sraddhas to his maternal grandfather, and to the father and grandfather of him, in the same way (as to his paternal ancestors), duly modifying the mantras. But the Sraddhas addressed to other relatives, (uncles, brothers, and the like, must be performed) without Mantras. (7)


The (twelve) days of new moon, the three Ashtakas, the three Anvashtakas, a Magha day (i.e. 'day on which the moon enters the lunar asterism Magha'), which falls on the thirteenth of the dark half of the month Praushthapada, and the two seasons when rice and barley grow ripe (or autumn and spring): (1)

Thus have the regular times for a Sraddha been declared by the lord of creatures. He who fails to perform a Sraddha on those days, goes to hell. (2)


The sun's passage from one sign of the zodiac, to another; (1)

The two equinoctial points; (2)

The two solstitial points particularly; (3)

The (Yoga) Vyatipata; (4)

The constellation under which (the sacrificer himself, or his wife, or his son) is born; (5)

A time of rejoicing (as, when a son has been born, or another happy event happened): (6)

These occasions for a Sraddha the lord of creatures has pronounced optional; a Sraddha which is performed on these occasions gives infinite satisfaction (to the manes). (7)

No Sraddha must be performed in the twilight or at night by an intelligent man. A Sraddha may be performed at those times also when an eclipse (of the sun or of the moon) takes place. (8)

For a Sraddha which is offered them at the time of an eclipse satisfies the manes, as long as the moon and the stars exist, and procures immense advantages and the satisfaction of all his desires to the sacrificer. (9)


By performing a Sraddha on Sunday he procures everlasting freedom from disease. (1)

(By performing a Sraddha) on Monday he becomes beloved. (2)

(By performing it) on Tuesday (he procures) success in battle. (3)

  (By performing it) on Wednesday (he enjoys) all his desires. (4)

  (By performing it) on Thursday (he acquires) such religious knowledge as he desires. (5)

(By performing it) on Friday (he acquires) wealth. (6)

(By performing it) on Saturday (he procures) longevity. (7)

(By performing it under the Nakshatra or constellation) Krittikas (he gains) heaven. (8)

(By performing it under the constellation) Rohini (he obtains) progeny. (9)

(By performing it under the constellation) Saumya (or Mrigasiras he procures) the superhuman power of a pious Brahmana. (10)

(By performing it under the constellation) Raudra (or Ardra he reaps) the fruit of his labours. (11)

(By performing it under the constellation) Punarvasu (he procures) land. (12)

(By performing it under the constellation) Pushya (or Tishya he procures) prosperity. (13)

(By performing it under the constellation) Sarpa (or Asleshas he obtains) beauty. (14)

(By performing it under the constellation) Paitrya (or Magha he enjoys) all his desires. (15)

(By performing it under the constellation) Bhagya (or Purvaphalguni) he becomes beloved. (16)

(By performing it under the constellation) Aryamana (or Uttaraphalguni he procures) wealth. (17)

(By performing it under the constellation) Hasta (he acquires) superiority among his kindred. (18)

(By performing it under the constellation) Tvashtra (or Kitra he procures) handsome sons. (19)

(By performing it under the constellation) Svati (he procures) success in trade. (20)

(By performing it under the constellation) Visakhas (he acquires) gold. (21)

(By performing it under the constellation) Maitra (or Anuradha he procures) friends. (22)

(By performing it under the constellation) Sakra (or Gyeshtha he procures) royalty. (23)

(By performing it' under the constellation) Mula (he procures good results in) agriculture. (24)

(By performing it under the constellation) Apya (or Purvashadhas he procures) success in sea-voyages. (25)

(By performing it under the constellation) Vaisvadeva (or Uttarashadhas he enjoys) all his desires. (26)

(By performing it under the constellation) Abhigit (he procures) superiority. (27)

(By performing it under the constellation) Sravana (he enjoys) all his desires. (28)

(By performing it under the constellation) Vasava (or Dhanishthas he procures success in preparing) salt. (29)

(By performing it under the constellation) Varuna (or Satabhisha he obtains) freedom from disease. (30)

(By performing it under the constellation) Aga ( or Purvabhadrapada he obtains) copper vessels. (31)

(By performing it under the constellation) Ahirbudhnya (or Uttarabhadrapada he obtains) a house. (32)

(By performing it under the constellation) Paushna (or Revati he acquires) cows. (33)

(By performing it under the constellation) Asvina (or Asvini he obtains) a horse. (34)

(By performing it under the constellation) Yamya (or Bharani he procures) longevity, (35)

(By offering it) on the first day of a lunar fortnight (he procures) a house and handsome wives.

(29. 1 Lavanam means either 'salt' or beauty' or 'medicinal herbs and fruits.' (Nand.))##�� (36)

(By offering it) on the second day (he procures) a beautiful daughter (and sons-in-law). (37)

(By offering it) on the third day (he enjoys) all his desires. (38)

  (By offering it) on the fourth day (he procures) cattle. (39)

(By offering it) on the fifth day (he procures) handsome sons. (40)

  (By offering it) on the sixth day (he obtains) success in gaming. (41)

  (By offering it) on the seventh day (he procures good results in) agriculture. (42)

(By offering it) on. the eighth day (he procures success in) trade. (43)

(By offering it) on the ninth day (he procures) cattle. (44)

Nand. infers from a passage of Yag�avalkya (1, 266) that the term 'cattle' here refers to horses and other one-hoofed animals. See, however, the next Sutra. (Jolly)

(By offering it) on the tenth day (he procures) horses. (45)

(By offering it) on the eleventh day (he procures) sons endowed with the superhuman power of a pious Brahmana. (46)

(By offering it) on the twelfth day (he procures) gold and silver. (47)

(By offering it) on the thirteenth day he becomes beloved. (48)

(By offering it) on the fifteenth day (he enjoys) all his desires. (49)

For Sraddhas for those who have been killed in battle the fourteenth day is ordained. (50)

There are two stanzas on this subject recited by the manes. (51)

  'May that excellent man be born to our race, whoever he may be, who attentively offers a Sraddha in the rainy season on the thirteenth of the dark half, (52)

  'With milk profusely mixed with honey; and (he who offers such Sraddhas) during the whole month Karttika and (in the afternoon) when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.' (53)


He must not perform a Sraddha with water collected at night. (1)

  On failure of Kusa grass he must employ Kasa or Durva grass instead. (2)

Instead of a garment (he may give) cotton thread. (3)

He must avoid (giving) the fringe of cloth, though it be of cloth not yet used. (4)

And (he must not give) flowers having a nasty odour, or no odour at all, the blossoms of thorny plants, and red flowers. (5)

The use of the particle ka implies, according to Nand., who quotes a text in support of his assertion, that the leaves of the Kadamba, B�l, Ketaka, and Bakula trees, as well as those of the Barbara plant and of the thorn-apple tree, are also included in this prohibition (Jolly)

He may give white and sweet-smelling flowers, even though grown on thorny plants, and aquatic flowers, even though they be red. (6)

He must not give marrow or fat instead of a lamp. (7)

He may give clarified butter or sesamum-oil. (8)

He must not give (the nails or horns) of animals instead of the incense of all kinds (prescribed for a Sraddha). (9)

He may give bdellium mixed up with honey and clarified butter. (10)

  He may give sandal, saffron, camphor, aloe wood, or Padmaka wood instead of an ointment. (11)

He must not salt (the dishes) publicly (after they have been cooked). (12)

He must not give clarified butter, condiments, or the like (i. e. sour milk, milk, and so on) with his hands. (13)

He must use metallic vessels; (14)

Especially vessels made of silver. (15)

He must place (on the sacrificial ground) vessels made of the horn of the rhinoceros, blankets made of the hair of the mountain-goat, the skin of a black antelope, sesamum, white mustard, unbroken grains, (silver and copper vessels and other) purificatory objects, and (a goat and other animals or objects), by which the demons are kept aloof. (16)

He must avoid to use pepper, (the onion called) Mukundaka, (the pot-herb called) Bhustrina, (the leaves, blossoms, or roots of) the Sigru tree, mustard-seeds, (the plant) Nirgundi, (the fruit or leaves of) the Sal tree, the plant Suvarkala, the (pumpkin-gourd called) Kushmanda, the bottle-gourd, the egg-plant, (the plants or pot-herbs called) Palakya, Upotaki, and Tanduliyaka, the herbs of the safflower, the Pindaluka (root), and the milk of female buffalos. (17)

The term buffalo's milk' includes here, according to a text quoted by Nand., the milk of sheep, of antelopes, of camels, and of all one-hoofed animals. (Jolly)

And (he must not use the bean called) Ragamasha, (the lentil called) Masura, stale food, and factitious salt. (18)

Let him avoid wrath. (19)

He must not shed a tear. (20)

He must not be in a hurry. (21)

In offering the clarified butter and other (liquids, such as condiments, sour milk, milk, and the like) he must use metallic vessels, vessels made of the horn of the rhinoceros, and vessels made of the wood of the Phalgu tree. (22)

There is a sloka on this subject: (23)

'That which has been offered in vessels made of gold, or of silver, or of the horn of the rhinoceros, or of copper, or of Phalgu wood, becomes imperishable (and brings infinite reward to the sacrificer).' (24)


Sesamum, rice, barley, beans, water, roots, fruits, vegetables, Syamaka grain, millet, wild rice, kidney-beans, and wheat satisfy (the manes) for a month; (1)

  The flesh of fishes (excepting those species that are forbidden), for two months; (2)

The flesh of the common deer, for three months; (3)

The flesh of sheep, for four months; (4)

The flesh of birds (of those kinds that may be eaten), for five months; (5)

The flesh of goats, for six months; (6)

The flesh of the spotted deer, for seven months; (7)

The flesh of the spotted antelope, for eight months; (8)

Beef, for nine months; (9)

Buffalo's meat, for ten months; (10)

The meat of a hornless goat, for eleven months; (11)

The milk of a cow, or preparations from it, for a year. (12)

On this subject there exists a stanza, which the manes utter: (13)

  '(The pot-herb) Kalasaka (sacred basil), (the prawn) Mahasalka, and the flesh of the (crane called) Vardhrinasa, (and of) a rhinoceros having no horn, is food which we always accept.' (14)


He must not place the food on a chair. (1)

He must not touch it with his foot. (2)

He must not sneeze on it. (3)

He must drive the Yatudhanas away by means of sesamum or mustard-seeds. (4)

Let him perform the Sraddha in an enclosed place. (5)

He must not look at a woman in her courses; (6)

Nor at a dog (7); Nor at a tame pig; (8)

Nor at a tame cock. (9)

Let him strive to perform the Sraddha in sight of a goat. (10)

The Brahmanas must eat in silence. (11)

They must not eat with their heads covered (12)

Nor with shoes on their feet; (13)

Nor with their feet placed on a stool. (14)

Let not men with a limb too little, or with a limb too much, look at a Sraddha; (15)

Nor Sudras (16); Nor outcasts. (17)

If at the time of a Sraddha a Brahmana or an ascetic (has come to his house), he must feed him, if (the invited) Brahmanas permit it. (18)

The Brahmanas must not declare the qualities of the sacrificial dishes, even though asked to do so by their host. (19)

As long as the dishes remain warm, as long as (the Brahmanas) eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the sacrificial food are not declared by them, so long the manes enjoy it. (20)

Having brought together (the remainder of) all the sorts of substantial food and (of the vegetables and) the like, he must sprinkle it with water, and place it before the Brahmanas, who have taken their meal, strewing it on the ground. (21)

  The leavings (that have remained in the dishes) and what has been strewn (in the manner just mentioned) on the blades of Kusa grass (spread on the ground) is the share of such (Brahmanas) as have died before they were initiated, and of husbands who have deserted wives descended from good families. (22)

What has dropped on the ground from the dishes, at a sacrifice addressed to the manes, they declare to be the share of servants, provided they be not dishonest or depraved. (23)


At a (Sraddha) offering to the Visvedevas let him not enquire (into the qualities or descent of) a Brahmana (whom he means to invite). (1)

But at a (Sraddha offering) to the manes he must enquire as closely as possible (into the qualities and descent of a Brahmana, whom he means to invite). (2)

  He must not invite (to a Sraddha) such as have a limb too little, or a limb too much; (3)

Nor such as follow an occupation forbidden (by the Veda or by the traditional law). (4)

Nor those who act (deceitfully) like cats; (5)

Nor those wearing the insignia of some particular order, without having a claim to them; (6)

Nor astrologers; (7)

Nor Brahmanas who subsist on the offerings made to an idol which they attend; (8)

Nor physicians; (9)

Nor sons of an unmarried woman; (10)

Nor sons of the son of an unmarried woman; (11)

Nor those who sacrifice for a multitude of persons; (12)

Nor those who offer sacrifices for a whole village; (13)

Nor those who offer sacrifices for Sudras; (14)

Nor those who offer sacrifices for those for whom it is forbidden to sacrifice (such as outcasts and others); (15)

Nor those for whom the ceremony of initiation has not been performed; (16)

Nor those who sacrifice for such; (17)

Nor those who do work on holidays; (18)

Nor malignant informers; (19)

Nor those who teach (the Veda) for a fee; (20)

Nor those who have been taught (the Veda) for a fee; (21)

Nor those who subsist on food given to them by a Sudra; (22)

Nor those who have intercourse with an outcast; (23)

Nor those who neglect their daily study of the Veda; (24)

Nor those who neglect their morning and evening prayers; (25)

Nor those who are in the king's service; (26)

Nor 'naked' persons; (28)

Nor those who quarrel with their father; (28)

Nor those who have forsaken their father, mother, Guru, holy fire, or sacred study. (29)

All those persons are said to defile a company, because they have been expelled from the community of Brahmanas. Let a wise man avoid carefully, therefore, to entertain them at a Sraddha. (30)


The following persons sanctify a company: (1)

A Trinakiketa; (2)

One who keeps five fires; (3)

One who can sing the Samans called Gyeshtha; (4)

One who has studied the whole Veda; (5)

One who has studied one Vedanga; (6)

One who has studied either the Puranas (Legends), or the Itihasas (Epics), or grammar; (7)

One who has studied one of the Dharmasastras (Institutes of the Sacred Law); (8)

One purified by visiting sacred places of pilgrimage; (9)

One purified by offering sacrifices; (10)

One purified by austere devotion; (11)

One purified by veracity; (12)

One purified by (constantly muttering) Mantras; (13)

One intent on muttering the Gayatri; (14)

One in whose family the study and teaching of the Veda are hereditary. (15)

One who knows the Trisuparna (the text which thrice contains the word Suparna). (16)

A son-in-law; (17)

And a grandson. All these persons are worthy (to be fed at a Sraddha); (18)

And, particularly, devotees. (19)

, There is a stanza recited by the manes, which refers to this subject: (20)

'May that man be born to our race, who feeds a Brahmana devotee assiduously at a Sraddha, by which repast we are satisfied ourselves.' (21)


He must not offer a Sraddha in a country inhabited by barbarians. (1)

  He must not visit a country, inhabited by barbarians (excepting on a pilgrimage). (2)

Nand. quotes a stanza of Devala to the effect that one who has visited the countries of Sindh, of the Sauviras, Surat, and the adjacent parts, Bengal proper, Kalinga, South Bihar, and Malwa requires to be initiated a second time. (Jolly)

By (constantly) drinking water from (or bathing in) a pool situated in a foreign (barbarous) country, he becomes equal to its inhabitants. (3)

Those countries are called barbarous (mlekkha) where the system of the four castes does not exist; the others are denoted Aryavarta, (the abode of the Aryans). (4)

Aryavarta is the name of the whole tract of land which extends from the eastern to the western ocean, and is bounded by the Himalayas and by the Vindhya mountains in the north and south. See Manu 2, 21, 22.


A Sraddha offered at the (Tirtha or place of pilgrimage called) Pushkaras confers eternal bliss on the giver; (1)

And so does the muttering of prayers, the offering of burnt-oblations, and the practice of austerities in that place. (2)

Even by merely bathing at Pushkara he is purified from all his sins. (3)

The same effect may be produced at Gayasirsha; (4)

Gayasirsha is the name of a mountain near Gaya in Bihar, a celebrated place of pilgrimage. Compare Yag�avalkya I, 260. (Jolly)

And near Vata (Akshayavata); (5)

And on the Amarakantaka mountain; (6)

Nand. states that both the Tirtha called Amarakantaka on the Mekala mountain in the Vindhya range and the whole mountain of that name are meant. (Jolly)

And on the Varaha mountain; (7)

'This is a certain boar shaped mountain.' (Nand.) It seems very probable that the Tirtha of Baramula, the ancient Varahamula {footnote p. 257} in Kashmir, is meant. See B�hler, Kashmir Report, p. 12, where a 'Varaha hill' is mentioned as adjacent to that town. (Jolly)

And anywhere on the bank of the Narmada (Nerbudda) river; (8)

And on the bank of the Yamuna (Jumna); (9)

And, particularly, on the Ganga; (10)

And at Kusavarta; (11)

And at Binduka (12); And on the Nilgiri hills (13); And at Kanakhala (14); And at Kubgamra (15); And on the Bhrigutunga (mountain) (16); And at Kedara (17); And on the Mahalaya (mountain) (18); And on the Nadantika (river) (19); And on the Sugandha (river) (20); And at Sakambhari (21); And at Phalgutirtha (22);

'Phalgutirtha is a Tirtha in Gaya.' (Nand.)

And on the Mahaganga (23);

Mahaganga, 'the great Ganga,' is the Alakananda river {footnote p); 258} (Nand.), which takes its rise in the Himalayas and falls into the Ganges.

And at Trihalikagrama (24); And at Kumaradhara (25); And at Prabhasa (26); And particularly anywhere on (the bank of) the Sarasvati; (27)

At Gangadvara (Haridvar), at Prayaga (Allahabad), where the Ganga falls into the ocean, constantly in the Naimisha forest, and especially at Benares; (28)

And at Agastyasrama; (29)

And at Kanvasrama (on the Malini river); (30)

And on the Kausiki (Kosi river); (31)

And on the bank of the Sarayu (Surju river in Oudh); (32)

And on the confluence of the Sona (Sone) and Gyotisha rivers; (33)

  And on the Sriparvata (mountain); (34)

And at (the Tirtha situated on the Yamuna, which is called) Kalodaka. (35)

And at Uttaramanasa (in the Kedar mountains, in the Himalayas). (36)

  And at Vadava (in the Dekhan). (37)

And at Matangavapi (in the southern part of Gaya); (38)

And at Saptarsha (39); And at Vishnupada; (40)

And at Svargamargapada (or Rathamarga); (41)

And on the Godavari river (in the Dekhan); (42)

And on the Gomati (river); (43)

And on the Vetravati (river); (44)

And on the Vipasa (river); (45)

And on the Vitasta (river); (46)

And on the banks of the Satadru (river); (47)

And on the Kandrabhaga (river); (48)

And on the Iravati (river); (49)

And on the banks of the Indus; (50)

And on the southern Pa�kanada; (51)

And at Ausaga (?); (52)

And at other such Tirthas; (53)

And on the banks of (other) holy rivers; (54)

And anywhere at the birth-place of a deity, (such as Rama, Krishna, and others); (55)

And on sand-banks (56); And near waterfalls (57); And on mountains (58); And in arbours (the sporting-places of Krishna) (59); And in woods (60); And in groves (61); And in houses smeared with cow-dung, 62); And in 'pleasant spots.' (63)

There are some stanzas recited by the manes, which refer to this subject: (64)

'May that person be born to our race, who will give us libations of water, taken from streams abounding with water, especially if their floods (coming from the Himalayas) are cool. (65)

'May that excellent man be born to our race, who offers us a Sraddha attentively at Gayasirsha or at Vata.' (66)

A man must wish to have many sons, because if only one of them goes to Gaya (and offers a Sraddha to him after his death), or if he performs a horse-sacrifice, or if he sets a dark-coloured bull at liberty, (he will acquire final emancipation through him.) (67)


Now follows the ceremony of setting a bull at liberty, (which should take place) (1)

On the days of full moon in Karttika or Asvina.

When performing this rite, he must first examine the bull. (3)

(The bull must be) the offspring of a milch cow having young ones living. (4)

He must have all marks. (5)

He must be dark-coloured; (6)

Or red, but having a white mouth, a white tail.. and white feet and horns. (7)

He must be one who protects the herd. (8)

Then, after having (kindled) a blazing fire among the cows (in the cow-pen) and strewed Kusa grass around it, let him boil with milk a dish sacred to Pushan, and offer (two oblations) in the fire with the mantras, 'May Pushan follow our cows,' and 'Here is pleasure.' And let a blacksmith mark the bull. (9)

On the one flank (the right), with a discus; on the other flank (the left), with a trident. (10)

After he has been marked, let him wash the bull with the four Mantras, (beginning with the words), 'The golden-coloured,' and with (the five Mantras, beginning with the words), 'May the divine (waters help and propitiate us'). (11)

Having washed and adorned the bull, he must bring him near, together with four young cows, which must also have been washed and decorated, and he must mutter the Rudras, the Purushasukta, and the Kushmandis. (12)

Then let him pronounce in the bull's right ear the mantra, 'The father of calves;' (13)

And the following (Mantras): (14)

'Holy law is a bull and is declared to have four feet: him I choose for the object of my worship; may he protect me wholly. (15)

'This young (bull) I give you as husband (O you calves), roam about sportingly with him for your lover. May we not be deficient in progeny, O king Soma, and may we live long, and may we not be oppressed by our enemies.' (16)

He must drive away the bull together with the calves in a north-eastern direction and give a pair of garments, gold, and a vessel made of white copper to the officiating priest. (17)

The blacksmith shall receive as wages as much as he claims, and food prepared with a great deal of butter, and (three) Brahmanas shall be fed. (18)

Any pool from which the bull drinks after having been set at liberty) that entire pool will refresh the manes of him who has set the bull at liberty. (19)

  The earth which is anywhere dug up by the bull exulting in his strength, is converted into delicious food and drink to satisfy the manes. (20)


Now on the day of full moon in the month Vaisakha he must spread out on a woollen blanket the skin of a black antelope (together with the horns and hoofs), after having adorned the former with gold and the latter with silver, and after having ornamented the tail with a string of pearls. (1)

The particle atha, 'now,' indicates the beginning of a new section, treating of gifts. It comprises chapters 87-93 (Nand.) The commentator infers from a corresponding passage of the Matsya-purana, that the following further rules are implied in this sutra. The ceremony may also take place on the full moon days in the months Magha, Karttika, and Ashadha, on the twelfth day after the summer solstice, and during an eclipse of the sun or moon. The silver on the hoofs must weigh five Palas, And the gold on the horns ten Suvarnas (or two Palas and a half). The place must be pure, smeared with cow-dung, and covered with Kusa grass. (Jolly)

After that, he must cover (that part of the blanket which is not covered by the skin) with sesamum. (2)

And he must adorn the navel with gold. (3)

He must cover (the skin) with a couple of new garments. (4)

He must place all sorts of perfumes and jewels on it. (5)

After having placed on its four sides (beginning with the eastern side) four metallic dishes (of copper, silver, white copper, and gold respectively) filled with milk, sour milk, honey, and clarified butter respectively, (and having poured out water) he must give (the skin, seizing it by the tail), to a Brahmana, who is an Agnihotrin, decked with ornaments, and clad in two garments. (6)

There are (the following) stanzas in regard to this subject: (7)

  'He who bestows (on a pious Brahmana) the skin of a black antelope, together with the hoofs and horns, after having covered it with seeds of sesamum and garments, and adorned it with all sorts of jewels: (8)

'That man doubtless obtains the same reward as if he were to bestow the whole earth on him, bordered as it is on every side (by the oceans), together with the oceans and caverns, and with rocks, groves, and forests. (9)

'He who places sesamum, gold, honey, and butter on the skin of a black antelope and gives the whole to a Brahmana, annihilates the consequences of all his own evil actions.' (10)


A cow in the act of bringing forth a young one is (comparable to) the earth. (1)

By bestowing such a cow on a Brahmana, after having decked her with ornaments, he obtains the same reward as if he were to bestow the earth (on him), (2)

  There is a stanza in regard to this subject: (3)

'One who full of faith and with intense application of mind gives away a pregnant cow, enters heaven for as many Yugas (or ages of the world) as that cow and her calf together have hairs on their bodies.' (4)


The month Karttika is sacred to the god Agni. (1)

Agni is the first of all gods. (2)

Therefore is that man purified from every sin committed during the past year, who persists during the month Karttika in bathing (daily) out of the village, in muttering the Gayatri, and in taking a single meal each day, consisting of food fit for oblations. (3)

He who bathes (at the prescribed time, early in the morning) constantly, during the whole month Karttika, who keeps his organs of sense under control, who mutters (the Gayatri), who eats food fit for oblations only, and who governs his passions, is purified from every sin. (4)


If on the fifteenth of the bright half of the month Margasirsha the moon enters the lunar asterism. Mrigasiras, he must give at the time when the moon rises (a vessel with) a golden centre, containing a Prastha of ground salt, to a Brahmana. (1)

  By (performing) this rite he obtains beauty and good fortune in a future birth. (2)

If on the full moon day of the month Pausha the moon enters the lunar asterism Pushya, he must rub over his body with a dough prepared with white mustard-seeds, anoint himself with a kumbha of clarified butter made of cow-milk, wash himself with (water and with) all sorts of medicinal herbs, all sorts of perfumes, and all sorts of seeds, wash (an image of) Bhagavat Vasudeva (Vishnu) with clarified butter, and worship him with perfumes, flowers, incense, with a lamp, with eatables, and the like, offer an oblation in the fire with Mantras tending to the praise of Vishnu (such as Rig-veda I, 22, 17, and others), Mantras tending to the praise of Indra (such as Rig-veda VI, 47, 11, and others), Mantras tending to the praise of Brihaspati (such as Rig-veda II, 23, 15, and others, and with one Mantra tending to the praise of Agni Svishtakrit), and cause three Brahmanas to pronounce the benediction, after having bestowed clarified butter and gold on them. (3)

To the priest (who has performed the burnt-oblation for him) he must give a pair of garments. (4)

By (performing) this rite he obtains prosperity (pushyate). (5)

If on the full moon day in the month Magha the moon enters the lunar asterism Magha and he performs a Sraddha with sesamum on that day, he is purified. (6)

  If on the full moon day in the month Phalguna the moon enters the lunar asterism Uttaraphalguni, and he gives on that day a bedstead, quite complete and covered with good rugs, to a Brahmana, he obtains an amiable, handsome, and wealthy wife. (7)

A woman who does the same, (obtains) a husband (possessing those qualities). (8)

If on the full moon day of the month Kaitra the moon enters the lunar asterism Kitra, and he gives a variegated (kitra) garment (to a Brahmana) on that day, he obtains good fortune. (9)

If on the full moon day of the month Vaisakha the moon enters the lunar asterism Visakha, and he feeds on that day seven Brahmanas with sesamum. mixed with honey, in order to please king Dharma, he is purified from his sins. (10)

If on the full moon day of the month Gyaishtha the moon enters the lunar asterism Gyeshtha and he gives on that day an umbrella and a pair of shoes (to a Brahmana), he becomes possessed of many cows. (11)

If on the full moon day of the month Ashadha the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Uttarashadha and he gives food and drink (to a Brahmana) on that day, he renders (the satisfaction effected by) them imperishable. (12)

If on the full moon day of the month Sravana the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Sravana and he gives a milch cow covered with two garments, together with food (to a Brahmana), he attains heaven. (13)

If on the full moon day of the month Praushthapada (or Bhadrapada) the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Uttaraproshthapada (or Uttarabhadrapada), and he gives a cow (to a Brahmana) on that day, he is cleansed from every sin. (14)

  If on the full moon day of the month Asvayuga (or Asvina) the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Asvini, and he gives a vessel filled with clarified butter, and gold (to a Brahmana) on that day, he obtains an excellent digestive faculty. (15)

If on the full moon day of the month Karttika the moon enters the lunar asterism. Krittika, and he bestows on that day, at the time of moonrise, on a Brahmana, a white bull, or one of a different colour, together with all sorts of grains, all sorts of jewels, and all sorts of perfumes, after having lighted lamps on both sides (of the bull), he will meet with no danger on perilous roads. (16)

- If on the third day of the bright half of the month Vaisakha he worships, after having fasted, Vasudeva (Vishnu) with (one thousand and eight, or one hundred) unbroken grains (of barley, while muttering the mantra, Om namo bhagavate, vasudevaya), and offers up the same in fire, and gives them (to a Brahmana), he is purified from every sin. (17)

And whatever he gives on that day becomes imperishable. (18)

If on the twelfth day of the dark half following on the full moon day of the month Pausha, he washes himself, after having kept a fast, with sesamum-seeds, gives water mixed with sesamum (to the manes), worships Vasudeva with sesamum, offers up (part of) the same in fire, gives to Brahmanas of it, and eats (the remainder himself) he is purified from his sins. (19)

(If) on the twelfth day of the (the dark half following on the full moon day of the month Magha, moon enters Sravana), he must keep a fast till the moon has entered that asterism, and place two lamps with two large wicks near (an image of) Vasudeva; (20)

Placing on the right hand (of the. image of Vasudeva, and kindling, a lamp) containing one hundred and eight Palas of clarified butter, with an entire piece of cloth (together with the fringes) dyed with saffron (as wick) in it; (21)

(And placing) on its left, (and kindling, a lamp) containing one hundred and eight Palas of sesamum oil, with an entire piece of white cloth (as wick) in it. (22)

He who has performed this rite obtains exquisite happiness, in whatever kingdom, in whatever province, and in whatever race he may be born again. (23)

He who gives daily during the whole month Asvina clarified butter to Brahmanas, in order to please the two Asvins, obtains beauty. (24)

He who feeds daily during; that mouth (three) Brahmanas with (milk and other) bovine productions, obtains a kingdom. (25)

He who feeds on the Revata day of every month (three) Brahmanas with rice boiled in milk with sugar and mixed with honey and clarified butter, in order to please (the goddess) Revati, obtains beauty. (26)

He who daily throughout the month Magha offers sesamum-seeds in fire and feeds (three) Brahmanas with sour rice-gruel mixed with clarified butter, obtains an excellent digestive power. (27)

He who bathes in a river and worships king Dharma on the fourteenth of both halves of every month, is purified from every sin. (28)

One desirous of obtaining the manifold advantages attending an eclipse of the sun or moon must constantly bathe in the mornings during the two months Magha and Phalguna. (29)


The digger of a well has (the consequences of) the half of his evil acts taken from him as soon as the water comes forth from it. (1)

A digger of pools is for ever freed from thirst, and attains the world of Varuna. (2)

A giver of water shall never stiffer from thirst (in heaven, for a hundred Yugas or ages of the world). (3)

He who plants trees will have those trees for his sons in a future existence. (4)

A giver of trees gladdens the gods by (offering up) their blossoms to them. (5)

(He gladdens) his guests by (giving) their fruits to them; (6)

(He gladdens) travellers with their shade; (He gladdens) the manes with the water (trickling down from their leaves) when it rains. (8)

A maker of dikes attains heaven. (9)

A builder of temples enters the dwelling-place of that deity to whom he has erected a temple. (10)

He who causes (a temple erected by another) to be whitewashed acquires brilliant fame. (11)

He who causes (such a temple) to be painted with (a different) colour (such as blue, yellow, and others) attains the world of the Gandharvas. (12)

By giving flowers he becomes fortunate. (13)

By giving ointments he acquires renown. (14)

By giving a lamp he obtains an excellent eyesight and exquisite happiness. (15)

By giving food he obtains strength. (16)

By removing the remains of an offering to a deity he obtains the same reward as for giving a cow. (17)

The same reward is also obtained by scouring a temple, by smearing it (with cow-dung and the like), by removing the leavings of the food of a Brahmana, by washing his feet, and by nursing him when sick. (18)

He who consecrates anew a well, or a park, or a pool, or a temple (when they have been soiled) obtains the same reward as he who first made them. (19)


Protecting (one attacked by robbers, or by tigers, or otherwise in danger) is more meritorious than any (other) gift. (1)

By doing so he obtains that place of abode (after death) which he desires himself. (2)

By giving land he obtains the same (heavenly reward). (3)

By giving land to the extent of a bull's hide only he is purified from every sin. (4)

By giving a cow he attains heaven. (5)

A giver of ten milch cows (obtains) the mansion of cows (after death). (6)

A giver of a hundred milch cows enters the mansions of Brahman (after death). (7)

He who gives (a milch cow) with gilt horns, with hoofs covered with silver, with a tail wound with a string of pearls, with a milk-pail of white copper, and with a cover of cloth, shall reside in heaven for as many years as the cow has hairs on her body; (8)

Particularly, if it is a brown cow. (9)

He who has given a tamed bull is (equal in virtue to) a giver of ten milch cows. (10)

The giver of a horse attains the mansion of Surya (the sun-god). (11)

  The giver of a garment (attains) the mansion of Kandra (the god of the moon). (12)

By giving gold (he attains) the mansion of Agni (the god of fire). (13)

By giving silver (rupya, he obtains) beauty (rupa). (14)

By giving dishes (patra) made of (gold or silver or other) metal he renders himself worthy (patra) to obtain everything he may desire. (15)

By giving clarified butter, honey, or oil (he acquires) freedom from disease; (16)

The same by giving (boiled or otherwise dressed) drugs. (17)

By giving salt (lavana, he obtains) personal charms (lavanya). (18)

  By giving grain (produced in the rainy season, such as Syamaka grain, he acquires) satiation; (19)

The same (effect is obtained) by giving grain (produced in winter or spring, such as wild turmeric or wheat). (20)

A giver of food (obtains) all the rewards (enumerated above). (21)

  By giving grain (of any of the kinds not mentioned before, such as Kulattha or Kodrava grain, he obtains) good fortune. (22)

A giver of sesamum (obtains) such offspring as he desires. (23)

A giver of fuel (obtains) an excellent digestive power; (24)

And he obtains victory in every fight. (25)

By giving a seat (he obtains) high rank. (26)

By giving a bed (of the kind declared above (90,7), he procures) a wife (possessed of the qualities mentioned above). (27)

By giving a pair of shoes (he obtains) a carriage yoked with mules. (28)

By giving an umbrella (he attains) heaven. (29)

By giving a fan or a chowrie (he obtains) prosperity in travelling. (30)

By giving a house (he receives) the post of governor of a town. (31)

  Whatever a man is most fond of in this world (himself) and what his family like best, all that he must bestow on a virtuous (Brahmana), if he wishes it to become imperishable. (32)


What is given to another than a Brahmana produces the same fruit in the world to come. (1)

(What is given) to one who calls himself a Brahmana (because he was born and initiated as such, but who does not perform his daily duties) produces twice the same fruit. (2)

(What is given) to one who has studied the main portions of the Veda produces a thousand times the same fruit. (3)

(What is given) to one who has mastered the whole Veda, produces infinite fruit. (4)

A domestic priest may claim gifts from his own employer (but from no one else). (5)

And so may a sister, a daughter and sons-in-law (or other connections claim gifts from their. brother, father, and so on, but not from a stranger). (6)

One who knows his duty must not give even water to a twice-born man who acts like a cat, or to a Brahmana who acts like a crane, or to one who has not studied the Veda. (7)

One who constantly hoists the flag of religion, and who is avaricious, crafty, deceitful, pitiless, and a calumniator of everybody, such a man is said to act like a cat. (8)

One who hangs his head, who is bent on, injuring others and on his own gain, artful, and falsely demure, such a man is said to act like, a crane. (9)

Those who act like cranes in this world, and those who act like cats, fall into (the hell called) Andhatamisra on account . of their wickedness. (10)

If a man has committed an offence and does penance for it, he must not do so under pretext of performing an act of piety, covering his crime under a (fictitious) vow, and imposing on women and Sudras. (11)

A Brahmana who acts thus, is despised in the next life and in this by those who know the Veda, and the penance performed by him under such false pretence goes to the (demons called) Rakshasas. (12)

One who gains his subsistence by wearing (a lock on the crown of the head or other) distinguishing marks of a caste or religious order, to which he does not belong, takes on himself the (consequences of the) sins committed by those who have a right to those marks, and enters in a future birth the womb of an animal. (13)

He must not give (to a panegyrist) from vain-glory, or from fear, or to a friend (from whom he hopes to obtain benefit), nor (must he bestow gifts), with a view to acquire religious merit, on dancers or singers:, that is a fixed rule. (14)


A householder, when he sees his skin has become wrinkled and his hair turned grey, must go to live in a forest. (1)

Or (he must do so) when he sees the son of his son. (2)

Let him (before going into the forest) entrust the care of his wife to his sons, or let her accompany him. (3)

Let him keep the sacred fires in his new abode as before. (4)

He must not omit to perform the five sacrifices, but (he must perform them) with (fruits, herbs, or roots) growing wild. (5)

He must not relinquish the private recitation of the Veda. (6)

He must preserve his chastity. (7)

He must wear a dress made of skins or bark. (8)

He must suffer the hairs of his head, of his beard, and of his body, and his nails to grow. (9)

He must bathe at morning. noon, and evening. (10)

He must either collect provisions, after the manner of the pigeon, for a month, or he must collect them for a year. (11)

He who has collected provisions for a year, must throw away what he has collected on the day of full moon in the month Asvina. (12)

Or an hermit may bring food from a village, placing it in a dish made of leaves, or in a single leaf, or in his hand, or in a potsherd, and eat eight mouthfuls of it. (13)


A hermit must dry up his frame by the practice of austerities. (1)

  In summer he must expose himself to five fires. (2)

During the season of the rains he must sleep in the open air. (3)

  In winter he must wear wet clothes. (4)

He must eat at night. (5)

He may eat after having fasted entirely for one day, or for two days, or for three days. (6)

He may eat flowers (7). He may eat fruits. (8)

He may eat vegetables. (9)

He may eat leaves (10). He may eat roots. (11)

Or he may eat boiled barley once at the close of a half-month. (12)

  Or he may eat according to the rules of the Kandrayana. (13)

He shall break his food with stones. (14)

Or he shall use his teeth as a pestle. (15)

This whole world of deities and of men has devotion for its root, devotion for its middle, devotion for its end, and is supported by devotion. (16)

What is hard to follow, hard to reach, remote, or hard to do, all that may be accomplished by devotion; since there is nothing that may not be effected by devotion. (17)


After having passed through the first three orders and annihilated passion, he must offer an oblation to Pragapati, in which he bestows all his wealth (on priests) as fee for the performance of the sacrifice, and enter the order of ascetics. (1)

  Having reposited the fires in his own mind, he must enter the village, in order to collect alms, (but never for any other purpose). (2)

He must beg food at seven houses. (3)

If he does not get food (at one house), he must not grieve. (4)

He must not beg of another ascetic. (5)

When the servants have had their meal, when the dishes have been removed, let him beg food (consisting of the leavings). (6)

(He must receive the food) in an earthen vessel, or in a wooden bowl, or in a vessel made of the bottle-gourd. (7)

He must cleanse those vessels with water. (8)

He must shun food obtained by humble salutation. (9)

He must live in an empty house. (10)

Or (he must) live at the root of a tree. (11)

'The article va implies that he must live there alone.' (Nand.)

He must not stay for more than one night in one village (except during the rainy season). (12)

His only dress must be a small piece of cloth worn over the privities. (13)

He must set down his feet purified by looking down. (14)

He must drink water purified (by straining it) with a cloth. (15)

  He must utter speeches purified by truth. (16)

He must perform acts purified by his mind. (17)

In doubtful cases he must act as his mind prompts him to do. (Nand.)

He must neither wish for death nor for (a long) life. (18)

He must bear abuse patiently. (19)

He must treat no one with contempt. (20)

He must not pronounce a benediction. (21)

Others explain that he must not utter a benediction in begging food.' (Nand.)

He must not salute any one reverentially. (22)

Should one man chop his one arm with an axe, and another sprinkle his other arm with sandal, he must neither curse the one in his mind, nor bless the other. (23)

He must constantly be intent on stopping his breath, on retention of the image formed in his mind, and on meditation. (24)

He must reflect on the transitoriness of the passage through mundane existence; (25)

And on the impure nature of the body; (26)

And on the destruction of beauty by old age; (27)

And on the pain arising from diseases bodily, mental, or due to an excess (of the bile, and so on) (28)

And on (the pain arising from) the (five) naturally inherent (affections). (29)

On his having to dwell in an embryo, covered with everlasting darkness; (30)

And on (his having to dwell) between urine and f�ces; (31)

On his having to suffer, (as an embryo,) pain from the cold and hot. (food and drink, which his mother happens to have taken); (3

3, On the dreadful pain which he has to suffer, at the time of his birth, while the embryo is coming forth from the narrowness of the womb; (33)

On his ignorance and his dependency on his (parents and other) Gurus in childhood; (34)

On the manifold anxieties arising from the study of the Veda (and from the other obligations of a student); (35)

And (on the anxieties arising) in youth from not obtaining the objects of pleasure, and on the abode in bell (ordained as punishment) for enjoying them, after they have been obtained unlawfully; (36)

On the union with those whom we hate, and the separation from those whom we love; (37)

On the fearful agonies of hell; (38)

And (on the agonies) that have to be suffered in the passage of the soul through the bodies of animals (and of plants). (39)

(And let him reflect thus that) there is no pleasure to be met with in this never-ceasing passage of the soul through mundane existence; (40)

'(And that) even what is called pleasure, on account of the absence of pain, is of a transient nature; (41)

(And that) he who is unable to enjoy such pleasures (from sickness or some such cause), or who is unable to procure them (from poverty), suffers severe pangs. (42)

He must recognise this human frame to consist of seven elements. blood, flesh, (43)

Those elements are, adeps, scrum of flesh, bone, marrow, and semen. (44)

It is covered with skin. (45)

And it has a nasty smell. (46)

It is the receptacle of (the above-named) impure substances (adeps and the rest). (47)

Though surrounded by a hundred pleasures, it is subject to change. (48)

Though carefully supported (by elixirs and the like), it is subject to destruction. (49)

It is the stay of carnal desire, wrath, greed, folly, pride, and selfishness. (50)

It consists of earth, water, fire, air, and ether. (51)

it is provided with bone, tubular vessels (carrying bile and phlegm through the body), tubes (conducting the vital airs), and sinews. (52)

It is endowed with the quality of ragas (passion). (53)

It is covered with six skins. (54)

It is kept together by three hundred and sixty bones. (55)

They are distributed (as follows): (56)

The teeth together with their receptacles are sixty-four in number. (57)

There are twenty nails. (58)

There are as many bones to the hands and feet (one at the root of each finger and toe). (59)

There are sixty joints to the fingers and toes. (60)

There are two (bones) to the two heels. (61)

There are four to the ancles. {sic} (62)

There are four to the elbows. (63)

There are two to the shanks. (64)

There are two to the knees and two to the cheeks. (65)

(There are two) to the thighs and (two) to the shoulders. (66)

(There are two) to the lower part of the temples, (two) to the palate, and (two) to the hips. (67)

There is one bone to the organs of generation. (68)

The backbone consists of forty-five (bones). (69)

The neck consists of fifteen (bones). (70)

The collar-bone consists of one (bone on each side). (71)

The jaw likewise. (72)

There are two (bones) at its root. (73)

There are two (bones) to the forehead, (two) to the eyes, and (two) to the cheeks., (74)

The nose has one bone, the nose-bone. (75)

The ribs together with the joints called 'arbuda,' and with the joints called 'sthanaka,' consist of seventy-two (bones). (76)

'There are thirteen ribs to each flank, which makes in all twenty-six ribs. There are twenty joints to them in the breast, called "arbuda," and twenty-six joints in the back, called "sthanaka." which makes a total of seventy-two bones.' (Nand.)

The breast contains seventeen bones. (77)

There are two temporal bones. (78)

The head has four skull-bones. Thus (the bones have been enumerated). (79)

There are in this human frame seven hundred tubular vessels (carrying bile and phlegm through the body, or arteries). (80)

Of sinews, there are nine hundred. (81)

Of tubes (conducting the vital airs, or nerves), there are two hundred. (82)

Of muscles, there are five hundred. (83)

Of tubular vessels (or arteries), the branches of the smaller tubular vessels, there are twenty-nine Lakshas (two millions nine hundred thousand) and nine hundred and fifty-six. (84)

Of hair-holes, of the hair of the beard and of the head, there are three hundred thousand. (85)

Of sensitive parts of the body, there are one hundred and seven. (86)

  Of joints, there are two hundred. (87)

Of (atoms of) hairs (of the body), there are fifty-four Kotis (or five hundred and forty millions) and sixty-seven Lakshas (making in all five hundred and forty-six millions and seven hundred thousand). (88)

The navel, the principle of vital action (which dwells in the heart), the anus, semen, blood, the temples, the head, the throat, and the heart are the seats of the vital airs. (89)

The two arms, the two legs, the belly, and the bead are the six limbs. (90)

Adeps, marrow, the left lung, the navel, the right lung, the liver, the spleen, the small cavity of the heart, the kidneys, the bladder, the rectum, the stomach, the heart, the large cavity (intestine), the anus, the belly, and the two bowels in it (are the inner parts of the body). (91)

The pupils of the eye, the eyelashes, the outer parts of the cars, the ears themselves, the tragus of each ear, the cheeks, the eyebrows, the temples, the gums, the lips, the cavities of the loins, the two groins, the scrotum, the two kidneys and breasts of females, which are composed of phlegm, the uvula, the hindparts, the arms, the shanks, the thighs, the fleshy parts of the shanks and thighs, the palate, the two bones (or muscles) at the upper end of the bladder, the chin, the soft palate, and the nape of the neck: these are the 'places' (of vital energy) in the body. (92)

Sound, tangibility, form or colour, savour, and odour are the (five) objects of sense. (93)

Nose, eye, skin, tongue, and ear are the (five) organs of perception. (94)

Hands, feet, anus, parts of generation, and tongue are the (five) organs of action. (95)

Mind, intellect, the individual Self, and the indiscrete' are 'that which exceeds the senses.' (96)

This human frame, O Earth, is called 'field.' He who knows (how to enter and how to leave) it is denominated, by those conversant with the subject, 'the knower of the field' (i.e. Self or Soul). (97)

Know me, O illustrious one, to be the Self of all fields (whether born from the womb, or arisen from an egg, or from sweat, or from a germ or shoot). Those striving after final emancipation must constantly seek to understand the 'field' and to obtain a knowledge of the knower of the field. (98)


Sitting with the feet stretched out and crossed so as to touch the thighs, with the right hand (stretched out and) resting on the left, with the tongue fixed in the palate, and without bringing the one row of teeth in contact with the other, with the eyes directed to the tip of the nose, and without glancing at any of the (four) quarters of the sky, free from fear, and with composure, let him meditate on (Purusha), who is separate from the twenty-four entities, (1)

This chapter treats of the means for obtaining that knowledge of the Atman or Self, which has been declared at the end of the last chapter to be the road to final emancipation. (Nand.)

'The twenty-four (it should be twenty-five) entities are stated in the Sankhya to consist of the root-principle (mulaprakriti), the seven productions evolved from it (vikritayah), the sixteen productions evolved from these, and Purusha (the soul), who is neither producer nor produced. (1) The "root-principle" is composed of the three qualities in equipoise: sattva, ragas, and tamas (the most accurate rendering of these terms is perhaps that proposed by Elliot, "pure unimpassioned virtue," "passion," and "depravity inclining to evil." See Fitz-Edward Hall, Preface to Sankhyapravakanabhashya, p. 44 (2) The "great entity" (Mahat) is the cause of apprehension. (3) The "self-consciousness" (ahamkara) is the cause of {p.188} referring all objects to self. (4-2) The "subtile elementary particles" (tanmatras) are identical with sound, tangibility, form, taste, and odour. (9-19) The eleven senses (i. e. the organs of perception and action enumerated in CXVI, 94, 95, and manas, "the mind"), and (20-24) the five "grosser elements" (ether, air, fire, water, and earth) are productions (from the former entities). Purusha, who is neither producer nor produced, is the twenty-fifth entity.' (Nand.)

He who is eternal, beyond the cognisance of the senses, destitute of qualities, not concerned with sound, tangibility, form, savour, or odour, knowing everything, of immense size, (2)

He who pervades everything, and who is devoid of form, (3)

Whose hands and feet are everywhere, whose eyes, head, and face are everywhere, and who is able to apprehend everything with all the senses. (4)

Thus let him meditate. (5)

If he remains absorbed in such meditation for a year, he obtains the accomplishment of Yoga (concentration of the thought and union with the Supreme). (6)

The external signs of the accomplishment of Yoga, as stated by Yag�avalkya (III, 202 seq.), are, the faculty of entering another body and of creating anything at will, and other miraculous powers and qualities. (Nand.)

If he is unable to fix his mind on the being destitute of form, he must meditate successively on earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect, self, the indiscrete, and Purusha: having fully apprehended one, he must dismiss it from his thoughts and fix his mind on the next one in order. (7)

It appears clearly from Sutra 1, as from 16 also, that the Vishnu-sutra, like the Sankhya system, assumes twenty-five entities only, not twenty-six, like Yama, on whose authority Nand.'s statement is based. (Jolly)

In this way let him arrive at meditation on Purusha. (8)

If unable to follow this method also, he must meditate on Purusha shining like a lamp in his heart, as in a lotus turned upside down. (9)

Nand. interprets the term Purusha here by atman. 'self.'

If he cannot do that either, he must meditate on Bhagavat Vasudeva (Vishnu), who is adorned with a diadem, with ear-rings, and with bracelets, who has the (mystic mark) Srivatsa and a garland of wood-flowers on his breast, whose aspect is pleasing, who has four arms, who holds the shell, the discus, the mace, and the lotus-flower, and whose feet are supported (and worshipped) by the earth. (10)

Whatever he meditates on, that is obtained by a man (in a future existence): such is the mysterious power of meditation. (11)

Therefore must he dismiss everything perishable from his thoughts and meditate on what is imperishable only. (12)

There is nothing imperishable except Purusha. (13)

Having become united with him (through constant meditation), he obtains final liberation. (14)

Because the great lord pervades the whole universe (pura), as he is lying there (sete), therefore is he denominated Puru-sha by those who reflect on the real nature (of the Supreme Spirit). (15)

In the first part and the latter part of the night must a man bent on contemplation constantly and with fixed attention meditate on Purusha Vishnu, who is destitute of (the three) qualities (sattva, ragas, and tamas) and the twenty-fifth entity. (16)

Nand. . . . reads asaktam, 'independent of Sakti, power, i. e. the producer, the power of creation (prakriti), or illusion (maya).' Maya and prakriti are occasionally used as synonymous terms in the Sankhya. (Jolly)

He (or it) is composed of the entities, beyond the cognisance of the senses, distinct from all the (other) entities, free from attachment (to the producer, and so on), supporting everything, devoid of qualities and yet enjoying (or witnessing the effect of) qualities. (17)

It exists without and within created beings (as being enjoyed and as enjoyer), and in the shape both of immovable things (such as trees or stones) and of movable things (such as water or fire); it is undistinguishable on account of its subtlety; it is out of reach (imperceptible), and yet is found in the heart. (18)

It is not distinct from creation, and yet distinct from it in outward appearance; it annihilates and produces by turns (the world), which consists of everything that has been, that will be, and that is. (19)

It is termed the light of the sidereal bodies and the enemy of darkness (ignorance), it is knowledge, it should be known, it may be understood (by meditation), it dwells in every man's heart. (20)

Thus the 'field,' knowledge (or meditation), and what should be known have been concisely declared; that faithful adherent of mine who makes himself acquainted therewith, becomes united to me in spirit. (21)


When Vishnu had finished his speech, the goddess of the earth inclined her knees and her head before him and said: (1)

'O Bhagavat! Four (out of the five) grosser elements are receiving their support from you, and are constantly about you: the ether, in the form of the shell; the air, in the form of the discus; the fire, in the form of the mace; and the water, in the form of the lotus. Now I also desire to attend on you, in my own shape, as the ground which Bhagavat's feet tread on.' (2)

Having been addressed thus by the goddess of the earth, Bhagavat answered, 'So be it.' (3)

And the goddess of the earth, her desire having been gratified, did as she had said. (4)

And she praised the god of the gods (as follows): (5)

'Om. Adoration be to you. (6)

'You are the god of the gods. (7)

'You are Vasudeva. (8)

'You are the creator. (9)

'You are the god (who, creates, preserves, and destroys) at will. (10)

The ordinary meaning of Kamadeva is 'the god of love.'

'You are the gratifier of human desires. (11)

'You are the guardian of the earth. (12)

'There is neither beginning, nor middle, nor end in you. (13)

'You are the lord (protector) of creatures. (14)

'You are the strong lord of creatures. (15)

'You are the exalted lord of creatures. (16)

'You are the lord of strength. (17)

'You are the lord of holy speech. (18)

'You are the lord (creator and preserver) of the world. (19)

'You are the lord of heaven. (20)

'You are the lord of woods (who makes the trees grow). (21)

'You are the lord (producer) of (mother's) milk. (22)

'You are the lord of the earth (and causest it to yield its produce) (23)

'You are the lord of the waters. (24)

'You are the lord of the (eight) quarters of the sky. (25)

'You are the lord of (the principle) Mahat. (26)

'You are the lord of the wind. (27)

'You are the lord of happiness. (28)

'You are Brahman personified. (29)

'You are dear to Brahmanas. (30)

'You pervade everything. (31)

'You surpass all conception. (32)

'You are attainable by knowledge (meditation). (33)

'You are invoked at many (offerings). (34)

'You are praised with many (hymns of the Veda). (35)

'You like everything sacred. (36)

'You are fond of Brahman (the Veda). (37)

'You belong to the (gods called) Brahmakayas. (38)

'Your size is immense. (39)

'You belong to the Maharagas. (40)

'You belong to the four Maharagas. (41)

Nand. (also, through this) refers . . . to the four parts, of which Purusha is said to consist. He quotes Rig-veda 10, 90, 4, where it is said that Purusha ascended to the sky with three of his constituent parts, and that the fourth remained in this world.

'You are brilliant. (42)

'You are most brilliant. (43)

'You are the seven (parts of a Saman, or the seven divisions of the universe). (44)

'You are most blessed. (45)

'You are tone. (46)

'You are Tushita (or "satisfied with the honours shown to you by faithful attendants"). (47)

'You are Mahatushita (or "highly satisfied even without being worshipped"). (48)

'You are the tormentor (destroyer of the world). (49)

'You are wholly created. (50)

'You are uncreated. (51)

'You are obsequious (to your followers). (52)

'You are sacrifice. (53)

'You are the (recipient of the) great sacrifice. (54)

'You are connected with sacrifices. (55)

'You are the fit recipient of offerings. (56)

You are the consummation of offerings. (57)

You are invincible. (58)

'You are Vaikuntha. (59)

'You are unbounded (both in time and space). (60)

'You surpass (the organs of sense, mind, and intelligence). (61)

  'You are of old. (62)

'You are friendly to the gods. (63)

'You are the protector of living beings. (64)

'You wear radiant locks of hair. (65)

'You take your share of acts of worship. (66)

'You take your sacrificial cake. (67)

'You are lord over everything. (68)

'You are the support of all. (69)

'Your ears are pure. (70)

'Never ceasing homage is paid to you. (71)

'You are blazing fire (or "You are shining with clarified butter offered up to you"). (72)

'You cut (foes) to pieces with your axe. (73)

'You have a lotus springing from your navel. (74)

'You hold a lotus (in your hand). (75)

'You wear a garland of lotus-flowers. (76)

'You are the lord of the senses. (77)

'You have one horn. (78)

The one horn is meant, by which Vishnu, in his descent as a fish, is said to have dragged the ship of Manu behind him

'You are the great boar. (79)

This epithet refers to Vishnu's boar-incarnation.

'You are the tormentor (of the Asuras, or of the righteous and the unrighteous). (80)

'You are eternal. (81)

'You are infinite (82). You are Purusha (83). You are the great (unbounded) Purusha (84). You are (the sage) Kapila (85). You are the teacher of the Sankhya (86). Your powers are everywhere (87). You are virtue (88). You are the giver of virtue (89). Your body is virtue (law) (90). You are the giver of both virtue and wealth (91). Desires are gratified by you (92). You are Vishnu (93). You are triumphant everywhere (94). You are capable of bearing (the extremities of heat and cold and any others) (95). You are Krishna (96). You are the lotus-eyed god (97). You are Narayana (the son of Nara) (98). You are the final aim (99). You are the resort of all beings (100). Adoration, adoration (be to you)!' (101)

The goddess of the earth, after her desire had been gratified, and after she had thus praised (Vishnu) with a cheerful mind I addressed herself to the goddess (Lakshmi). (102)


After having seen Sri (Lakshmi), the goddess of the earth, highly pleased, questioned (in the following manner) that goddess, who was stroking the feet of Vishnu, the god of the gods, who was shining with the splendour of her austerities, and whose face was radiant like melted gold. (1)

'O charming lady! Your hands are as beautiful as the expanded red lotus. You are holding the feet of him whose navel resembles the expanded red lotus. You are constantly residing in an abode resembling the expanded red lotus. Your waist has the colour of the expanded red lotus. (2)

'Your eyes resemble blue lotus-flowers; your hue is radiant like gold; your robe is white; your body is adorned with gems; your face is radiant like the moon; you are resplendent like the sun; your power is immense; you are the sovereign (or producer) of the world. (3)

'You are repose (final liberation), the highest among the (four) objects of human pursuit; you are Lakshmi; you are a support (in danger); you are Sri; you are indifference (the freedom from all worldly pursuits and appetites, which is the consequence of final emancipation); you are victory; you are beauty; you are the splendour (of the sun and moon personified); you are renown; you are prosperity; you are wisdom; you are the power of expression; you are the Purifier. (4)

The 'four objects of human pursuit' are, kama, 'desire' (and its gratification), artha, 'gain,' dharma, 'religious merit,' and moksha, 'final emancipation.' The goddess is called Lakshmi, because she is the aim (lakshyate) of all beings. She is called Sri, because she serves Purushottama (Vishnu), or because she is the resort of all.

'You are the food of the manes; you are forbearance; you are the earth (or the repository of wealth); you are fixity; you are the basis (or stability); you are the source of the benefit derived from sacrifices; you are highest prudence; you are wide-spread renown; you are freedom from envy; you are the food given to the gods; you are mental power; you are intelligence. (5)

'As the first of the gods (Vishnu) pervades the whole aggregate of the three worlds (sky, atmosphere, and earth), even so doest you, O black-eyed bestower of gifts. Yet I inquire for the dwelling, in which your superhuman power is residing.' (6)

Lakshmi is said to pervade everything, like Vishnu himself, because she is his Sakti, i. e. his energy or active power personified as his wife. (Nand.)

The goddess of the earth having thus spoken to her, Lakshmi, standing by the side of the chief of the gods, enunciated the following answer: 'I am constantly at the side of the brilliant destroyer of Madhu, O goddess, who shinest like gold. (7)

  'But learn from me, where I reside (besides), O support of the world, from the instruction of him, whom I am constantly reflecting on in my mind, and whom the virtuous call the husband of Sri, and from my own recollection. (8)

'I reside in the sun, in the moon, and in the cloudless atmosphere in which the flock of the stars is spread out. (I reside) in that cloud, from which the waters of the rain pour down, in that cloud which is adorned with Indra's bow and in that cloud from which the rays of lightning flash forth. (9)

'(I reside) in bright gold and silver, and in spotless gems and clothes, O goddess of the earth. (I reside) in rows of whitewashed palaces and in temples decorated with the attributes of deities. (10)

'(I reside) in fresh cow-dung, in a noble elephant in rut, in a horse exulting in his vigour, in a proud bull, and in a Brahmana who studies the Veda. (11)

  'I reside in a throne, in an Amalaka (Dhatri) shrub, in a Bel tree, in an umbrella, in a shell (trumpet), in a lotus-flower; in blazing fire, and in a polished sword or mirror. (12)

'I reside in jars filled with water and in painted (halls), in which there are chowries and fans; in splendid golden vessels, and in earth recently thrown up. (13)

'(I reside) in milk, butter, fresh grass, honey, and sour milk; in the body of a married woman, in the frame of an unmarried damsel, and in the frame of (images of) gods, of ascetics, and of officiating priests. (14)

'(I reside) in an arrow, in one who, has returned (victorious) from battle, and in one who has fallen on the field of honour and proceeded to a scat in heaven; in the sound of (repeating) the Veda, in the flourish of the shell (trumpet), in the sacrificial exclamations addressed to the gods and to the manes, and in the sound of musical instruments. (15)

'(I reside) in the consecration of a king, in the marriage ceremony, in a sacrifice, in a bridegroom, in one who has washed his head, in white flowers, in mountains, in fruits, in (islets in the middle of a river and other) pleasant spots, and in large streams. (16)

'(I reside) in lakes filled with water, in (pure) waters, and in ground covered with fresh grass, in a wood abounding in lotuses (and fruits), in a newborn infant, in a suckling, in one exulting in joy, in a virtuous man, and in one wholly bent on practising the law. (17)

'(I reside) in a man who observes approved usages, in one who constantly acts up to the sacred law, in one modestly, and in one splendidly attired, in one who keeps his organs of sense and his mind under control, in one free from sin, in one whose food is pure, and in one who honours his guests. (18)

'(I reside) in one who is satisfied with his own wife (and does not covet other men's wives), in one bent on doing his duty, in one eminently virtuous, in one who refrains from eating too often (i. e. three or four times a day), in one constantly adorned with flowers, in one who associates with such as anoint their limbs with fragrant unguents, in one who is scented with perfumes (himself), and in one adorned (with bracelets and ear-rings). (19)

'(I reside) in one habitually veracious, in one friendly towards all creatures, in a married householder, in one forbearing, in one free from wrath, in one skilled in his own business, and in one skilled in other men's business, in one who never thinks of any but propitious things, and in one constantly humble. (20)

'(I reside) in women who wear proper ornaments always, who are devoted to their husbands, whose speeches are kind, who keep up saving habits, who have sons, who keep their household utensils in good order, and who are fond of offering domestic oblations. (21)

'(I reside) in women who keep the house clean (by scouring it, plastering it with cow-dung, and the like), who keep their organs, of sense under control, who are not quarrelsome, contented, strictly, observing the law, and charitable; and I always reside in the destroyer of Madhu. (22)

'I do not remain separated from Purushottama for a single moment.' (23)


Those among the twice-born who will act according to (the precepts promulgated in) this excellent law-code, which has been proclaimed by the god himself, shall obtain a most excellent abode in heaven. (1)

It purifies from sin, it is auspicious, it leads to heaven, procures long life, knowledge (of the four objects of human pursuit) and renown, and increases wealth and prosperity. (3

It must be studied, it must be borne in mind, it must be recited, it must be listened too, and it must be constantly repeated at Sraddhas by persons desirous of prosperity. (4)

This most sublime, mysterious collection of doctrines has been proclaimed to you, O goddess of the earth. In a kindly spirit and for the best of the world (have I promulgated) this body of eternal laws, which is conducive to happiness, the best means of purification, destructive of bad dreams, productive of a great deal of religious merit, and the source of prosperity.(5)



Afterword in the Form of Kernels from Julius Jolly's Introduction

The paragraphs have been extracted by me, and their order shuffled here and there for the sake of convenience. - T. Kinnes

A COLLECTION OF APHORISMS ETC. - Vishnu-smriti or Vaishnava Dharmasastra or Vishnu-sutra is in the main a collection of ancient aphorisms on the sacred laws of India, and as such it ranks with the other ancient works . . . It may be styled a dharma-sutra . . . (a collection of "aphorisms" or thought-threads dealing with what is right and lawful and just, etc.)

EDITIONS - The subjoined translation is based on the text handed down by Nandapandita nearly everywhere except in some of the mantras, which have been rendered according to the better readings preserved in the Kathaka Grihya-sutra. The two Calcutta editions of the Vishnu-sutra, the second of which is a mere reprint of the first, will be found to agree in the main with the text here translated.

A DHARMA-SUTRA - The author of the Vishnu-sutra cannot have borrowed his rules for the performance of Sraddhas etc. from the Kathaka Grihya-sutra, but . . . both must have drawn from a common source, i. e. no doubt from the traditions current in the Katha school, to which this work is indebted for so many of its Mantras as well.

For these reasons I fully concur in the view advanced by Dr. B�hler, that the bulk of the so-called Vishnu-smriti is really the ancient Dharma-sutra of the Karayaniya-kathaka Sakha of the Black Yayur-veda.

OPPOSITE RULES - Now though the two works have on (many) subjects a number of . . . rules in common as occur in other works also, they disagree for the most part in the choice of expressions, and on a few points lay down exactly opposite rules, such as the Vishnu-sutra (28,28) giving permission to a student to ascend his spiritual teacher's carriage after him, whereas the other work prescribes, that he shall do so on no account . . .

(There vere many branches or schools of learning in those days too.)

ASCERTAINMENT - There is no surer way for ascertaining the particular Vedic school by which an ancient Sanskrit law-book of unknown or uncertain origin was composed, than by examining the quotations from, and analogies with, Vedic works which it contains . . .

DATE - There is no reason for assigning to (this work) a later date than to the Kathaka Srauta and Grihya-sutras, with the latter of which it has so much in common, and it may therefore claim a considerable antiquity, especially if it is assumed, with Dr. B�hler, that the beginning of the sutra period differed for each Veda . . .

PLACES OF FLOURISHING -(It is) very likely . . . that the original home of the Kathas was situated in the north-west, i. e. in those regions where the earliest parts of the Vedas were composed. The Kapishthala Kathas are mentioned by Greek writers as a nation living in the Punjab.

Kashmir is moreover the country where nearly all the yet existing works of the Kathaka school have turned up.

The sutras . . . may be far older than those of mere sutra schools of the Black Yayur-veda, which have sprung up, like the Apastamba school, in South India, i. e. far older than the fourth or fifth century BC . .

VERY OLD LAWS - The antiquity of the great majority of its laws can be proved by independent arguments.

One cannot but suppose that the author of this work has everywhere drawn from the same source as the other Sutrakaras, viz. from ancient traditions that were common to all Vedic schools.

There are, moreover, a number of cases in which this work, instead of having borrowed from other works of the same class, can be shown to have been, directly or indirectly, the source from which they drew, and this fact constitutes a third reason in favour of the high antiquity of its laws.

CLOSENESS - However much the Vishnu-sutra may have in common with the Yag�avalkya-smriti, there is no other law-book with which it agrees so closely as with the code of Manu . . . Of slokas alone Vishnu has upwards of 160 in common with Manu, and in a far greater number of cases still his Sutras agree nearly word for word with the corresponding rules of Manu. The latter also, though he concurs in a very great number of points with the other law authors as well, agrees with none of them so thoroughly as with Vishnu. All the smritis of Apastamba, Baudhayana, Vasishtha, Yaynavalkya, and Narada contain, according to an approximate calculation, no more than about 130 slokas, that are found in the code of Manu as well. The latter author and Vishnu differ of course on a great many minor points . . . In a number of slokas Manu's readings are decidedly older and better than Vishnu's.

As it is, the Vishnu-sutra agrees in style and expressions more closely with the smritis of Manu and Yag�avalkya than with any other work, and it is at least not inferior to the former work in the preservation of archaic forms. . . .

The relative antiquity of Vishnu's prose rules, as compared to the numerous corresponding slokas of Manu, may be proved by arguments . . . The Vishnu-sutra nowhere refers to South Indian nations such as the Dravidas and Andhras, or to the Yavanas; that it shows no distinct traces of an acquaintance with the tenets of any other school of philosophy except the Yoga and Sankhya systems; that it does not mention female ascetics disparagingly, and in particular does not contain Manu's rule (8,363) regarding the comparatively light punishment to be inflicted for violation of (Buddhist and other) female ascetics; and that it does not inveigh (see 15,3), like Manu (9,64-68), against the custom of Niyoga or appointment of a widow to raise offspring to her deceased husband. � In many cases Vishnu's rules have a less archaic character than the corresponding precepts of Manu.

The assumption (is) that the Vishnu-sutra and the Manu-smriti must have been closely connected from the first . . . it may be said without exaggeration.

THE ARRANGEMENT - The arrangement of the Vishnu-sutra in a hundred chapters is no doubt due to the same person.

LOANS WITH LACKS OF GENUINESSESS - Most or all of the slokas added at the end of Chapters 20 (22-53) and 43 (32-45) cannot be genuine; . . . and because they refer to the self-immolation of widows and to Kala, whom the commentator is probably right in identifying with Vishnu; the latter on account of their rather extravagant character and decidedly Puranic style, though the Garuda-purana, in its very long description of the hells, offers no strict parallel to the details given here. The verses in which the Brahmanas and cows are celebrated (19,22, 23; 23,57-61) are also rather extravagant; however, some of them are Trishtubhs, and the verses in 19 are closely connected with the preceding Sutras. The two final slokas in 86 (19, 20) may also be suspected as to their genuineness, because they are wanting in the corresponding chapter of the Kathaka Grihya-sutra; and a number of other verses in divers places, because they have no parallel in the smriti literature, or because they have been traced in comparatively modern works, such as the Bhagavad-gita, the Pa�katantra, and so on. The week of the later Romans and Greeks, and of modern Europe (78,1-7), the self-immolation of widows (25,14; cf. 20,39), and the Buddhists and Pasupatas (63,36) are not mentioned in any ancient Sanskrit work.

PARTICULARS - The whole subject of good and evil omens is not treated in any other ancient smriti.

The Tirthas enumerated in 85, some of which are sacred to Vishnu and Siva, belong to all parts of India, and many of them are situated in the Dekhan, which was certainly not included within the limits of the 'Aryavarta' of the ancient Dharma-sutra (84, 4). As no other smriti contains a list of this kind, the whole chapter may be viewed as a later addition.

The ceremonies described in 90 are not mentioned in other smritis, while some of them are decidedly Vishnuitic, or traceable in modern works.

The repetitions in the list of articles forbidden to sell (54,18-22); the addition of the two categories of atipatakani, 'crimes in the highest degree,' and prakirntakam, 'miscellaneous crimes' (33,3,5; 34; 42), to Manu's list of crimes; the frequent references to the Ganges river; and other such passages, which show a modern character, without being traceable in the smritis of Yag�avalkya and Narada, may have been added by the Vishnuitic editor from modern smritis, either for the sake of completeness, or in order to make up the required number of chapters. . . . All the passages hitherto mentioned are such as have no parallel in other ancient smritis.

ALTERINGS FOUND - That (the Vishnuitic editor) did not refrain, occasionally, from altering the original text, has been conjectured . . .

FORMALISED BETWEEN AD 300 AND 1000 - All the points noticed render it necessary to assign a comparatively recent date to the Vishnuitic editor; and if the introduction of the week of the Greeks into the ancient Dharma-sutra has been justly attributed to him, he cannot be placed earlier than the third or fourth century AD (and not later than) the eleventh century.

Vishnu Smriti, Institutes of Vishnu, Visnu, Literature  

Julius Jolly, tr. The Institutes of Vishnu, The Sacred Books of the East Series, Vol. 7. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1880.

Jolly, Julius tr: The Institutes of Vishnu. Banarsidass. Delhi, 1965.

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