Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Imam vivaswate yogam proktavaan aham avyayam;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. I taught this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvan; he told it to Manu; Manu proclaimed it to Ikshvaku.
Evam paramparaa praaptam imam raajarshayo viduh;
2. This, handed down thus in regular succession, the royal sages knew. This Yoga, by a long lapse of time, has been lost here, Parantapa (burner of foes)!
Sa evaayam mayaa te'dya yogah proktah puraatanah;
3. That same ancient Yoga has been today taught to you by me, for you are my devotee and friend; it is the supreme secret.
Aparam bhavato janma param janma vivaswatah;
4. Later on was your birth, and prior to it was the birth of Vivasvan (the Sun); how am I to understand that you taught this Yoga in the beginning?
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Bahooni me vyateetaani janmaani tava chaarjuna;
The Blessed Lord said:
5. Many births of Mine have passed, as well as of youirs, Arjuna! I know them all but you do not, Parantapa!
Ajo'pi sannavyayaatmaa bhootaanaam eeshwaro'pi san;
6. Though I am unborn and of imperishable nature, and though I am the Lord of all beings, yet, ruling over my own Nature, I am born by my own Maya.
Yadaa yadaa hi dharmasya glaanir bhavati bhaarata;
7. Whenever there is a decline of righteousness, Arjuna, and rise of unrighteousness, then I manifest myself!
Paritraanaaya saadhoonaam vinaashaaya cha dushkritaam;
8. For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked, and for the establishment of righteousness, I am born in every age.
Janma karma cha me divyam evam yo vetti tattwatah;
9. He who thus knows in true light my divine birth and action, after having abandoned the body is not born again; he comes to me, Arjuna!
Veetaraagabhayakrodhaa manmayaa maam upaashritaah;
10. Freed from attachment, fear and anger, absorbed in me, taking refuge in me, purified by the fire of knowledge, many have attained to my Being.
ye yathaa maam prapadyante taamstathaiva bhajaamyaham;
11. In whatever way men approach me, even so do I reward them; my path do men tread in all ways, Arjuna!
Kaangkshantah karmanaam siddhim yajanta iha devataah;
12. Those who long for success in action in this world sacrifice to the gods, because success is quickly attained by men through action.
Chaaturvarnyam mayaa srishtam gunakarma vibhaagashah;
13. The fourfold caste has been created by me according to the differentiation of Guna and Karma; Though I am the author thereof, know me as the non-doer and immutable.
In a Brahmana, Sattwa predominates. He possesses serenity, purity, self-restraint, straightforwardness and devotion.
In a Kshatriya, Rajas predominates. He possesses prowess, splendour, firmness, dexterity, generosity and rulership.
In a Vaisya, Rajas predominates and Tamas is subordinate to Rajas. He does the duty of ploughing, protection of cattle and trade.
In a Sudra, Tamas predominates and Rajas is subordinate to the quality of Tamas. He renders service to the other three castes. Human temperaments and tendencies vary according to the Gunas.
Na maam karmaani limpanti na me karmaphale sprihaa;
14. Actions do not taint me, nor have I a desire for the fruits of actions. He who knows me thus is not bound by actions.
Evam jnaatwaa kritam karma poorvair api mumukshubhih;
15. Having known this, the ancient seekers after freedom also performed actions; therefore perform actions as did the ancients in days of yore.
Kim karma kim akarmeti kavayo'pyatra mohitaah;
16. What is action? What is inaction? As to this even the wise are confused. Therefore, I shall teach you such action (the nature of action and inaction), by knowing which you shall be liberated from the evil (of Samsara, the world of birth and death).
Karmano hyapi boddhavyam boddhavyam cha vikarmanah;
17. For, verily the true nature of action (enjoined by the scriptures) should be known, also (that) of forbidden (or unlawful) action, and of inaction; hard to understand is the nature (path) of action.
Karmanyakarma yah pashyed akarmani cha karma yah;
18. He who seeth inaction in action and action in inaction, he is wise among men; he is a yogi and performer of all actions.
Yasya sarve samaarambhaah kaamasankalpa varjitaah;
19. He whose undertakings are all devoid of desires and (selfish) purposes, and whose actions have been burnt by the fire of knowledge, – him the wise call a sage.
Tyaktwaa karmaphalaasangam nityatripto niraashrayah;
20. Having abandoned attachment to the fruit of the action, ever content, depending on nothing, he does not do anything Though engaged in activity.
Niraasheer yatachittaatmaa tyaktasarvaparigrahah;
21. Without hope and with the mind and the self controlled, having abandoned all greed, doing mere bodily action, he incurs no sin.
Yadricchaalaabhasantushto dwandwaateeto vimatsarah;
22. Content with what comes to him without effort, free from the pairs of opposites and envy, even-minded in success and failure, Though acting, he is not bound.
Gatasangasya muktasya jnaanaavasthitachetasah;
23. To one who is devoid of attachment, who is liberated, whose mind is established in knowledge, who works for the sake of sacrifice (for the sake of God), the whole action is dissolved.
Brahmaarpanam brahmahavirbrahmaagnau brahmanaa hutam;
24. Brahman is the oblation; Brahman is the melted butter (ghee); by Brahman is the oblation poured into the fire of Brahman; Brahman verily shall be reached by him who always sees Brahman in action.
Daivam evaapare yajnam yoginah paryupaasate;
25. Some yogis perform sacrifice to the gods alone, while others (who have realised the Self) offer the Self as sacrifice by the Self in the fire of Brahman alone.
Shrotraadeeneendriyaanyanye samyamaagnishu juhwati;
26. Some again offer hearing and other senses as sacrifice in the fire of restraint; others offer sound and various objects of the senses as sacrifice in the fire of the senses.
Sarvaaneendriya karmaani praanakarmaani chaapare;
27. Others again sacrifice all the functions of the senses and those of the breath (vital energy or Prana) in the fire of the Yoga of self-restraint kindled by knowledge.
Dravyayajnaas tapoyajnaa yogayajnaastathaapare;
28. Some again offer wealth, austerity and Yoga as sacrifice, while the ascetics of self-restraint and rigid vows offer study of scriptures and knowledge as sacrifice.
Apaane juhwati praanam praane'paanam tathaa'pare;
29. Others offer as sacrifice the outgoing breath in the incoming, and the incoming in the outgoing, restraining the courses of the outgoing and the incoming breaths, solely absorbed in the restraint of the breath.
Apare niyataahaaraah praanaan praaneshu juhwati;
30. Others who regulate their diet offer life-breaths in life-breaths; all these are knowers of sacrifice, whose sins are all destroyed by sacrifice.
Yajnashishtaamritabhujo yaanti brahma sanaatanam;
31. Those who eat the remnants of the sacrifice, which are like nectar, go to the eternal Brahman. This world is not for the man who does not perform sacrifice; how then can he have the other, Arjuna?
Evam bahuvidhaa yajnaa vitataa brahmano mukhe;
32. Thus, various kinds of sacrifices are spread out before Brahman (literally at the mouth or face of Brahman). Know them all as born of action, and knowing thus, you shall be liberated.
Shreyaan dravyamayaadyajnaaj jnaanayajnah parantapa;
33. Superior is wisdom-sacrifice to sacrifice with objects, Parantapa! All actions in their entirety, Arjuna, culminate in knowledge!
Tadviddhi pranipaatena pariprashnena sevayaa;
34. Know that by long prostration, by question and by service, the wise who have realised the Truth will instruct you in (that) knowledge.
Yajjnaatwaa na punarmoham evam yaasyasi paandava;
35. Knowing that, you shall not, Arjuna, again become deluded like this; and by that you shall see all beings in your Self and also in me!
Api chedasi paapebhyah sarvebhyah paapakrittamah;
36. Even if you are the most sinful of all sinners, yet you shall verily cross all sins by the raft of knowledge.
Yathaidhaamsi samiddho'gnir bhasmasaat kurute'rjuna;
37. As the blazing fire reduces fuel to ashes, Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge reduce all actions to ashes!
Na hi jnaanena sadrisham pavitram iha vidyate;
38. Verily there is no purifier in this world like knowledge. He who is perfected in Yoga finds it in the Self in time.
Shraddhaavaan labhate jnaanam tatparah samyatendriyah;
39. The man who is full of faith, who is devoted to it, and who has subdued all the senses, obtains (this) knowledge; and, having obtained the knowledge, he goes at once to the supreme peace.
Ajnashchaashraddhadhaanashcha samshayaatmaa vinashyati;
40. The ignorant, the faithless, the doubting self proceeds to destruction; there is neither this world nor the other nor happiness for the doubting.
Yogasannyasta karmaanam jnaanasamcchinnasamshayam;
41. He who has renounced actions by Yoga, whose doubts are rent asunder by knowledge, and who is self-possessed, – actions do not bind him, Arjuna!
Tasmaad ajnaanasambhootam hritstham jnaanaasinaatmanah;
42. Therefore, with the sword of knowledge (of the Self) cut asunder the doubt of the self born of ignorance, residing in your heart, and take refuge in Yoga; arise, Arjuna!
Sannyaasam karmanaam krishna punar yogam cha shamsasi;
1. Krishna, you praise renunciation of actions, and again Yoga! Tell me conclusively which is the better of the two.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Sannyaasah karmayogashcha nihshreyasakaraa vubhau;
The Blessed Lord said:
2. Renunciation and the Yoga of action both lead to the highest bliss; but of the two, the Yoga of action is superior to the renunciation of action.
Jneyah sa nityasannyaasi yo na dweshti na kaangkshati;
3. He should be known as a perpetual Sannyasin who neither hates nor desires; for, free from the pairs of opposites, mighty-armed Arjuna, he is easily set free from bondage!
Saankhyayogau prithagbaalaah pravadanti na panditaah;
4. Children, not the wise, speak of knowledge and the Yoga of action or the performance of action as Though they are distinct and different; he who is truly established in one obtains the fruits of both.
Yatsaankhyaih praapyate sthaanam tad yogair api gamyate;
5. That place which is reached by the Sankhyas or the Jnanis is reached by the (Karma) yogis. He sees who sees knowledge and the performance of action (Karma Yoga) as one.
Sannyaasastu mahaabaaho duhkham aaptuma yogatah;
6. But renunciation, mighty-armed Arjuna, is hard to attain without Yoga; the Yoga-harmonised sage proceeds quickly to Brahman!
Yogayukto vishuddhaatmaa vijitaatmaa jitendriyah;
7. He who is devoted to the path of action, whose mind is quite pure, who has conquered the self, who has subdued his senses and who has realised his Self as the Self in all beings, Though acting, he is not tainted.
Naiva kinchit karomeeti yukto manyeta tattwavit;
8. "I do nothing at all" – thus will the harmonised knower of Truth think – seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, going, sleeping, breathing,
Pralapan visrijan grihnan nunmishan nimishannapi;
9. Speaking, letting go, seizing, opening and closing the eyes – convinced that the senses move among the sense-objects.
Brahmanyaadhaaya karmaani sangam tyaktwaa karoti yah;
10. He who performs actions, offering them to Brahman and abandoning attachment, is not tainted by sin as a lotus leaf by water.
Kaayena manasaa buddhyaa kevalair indriyair api;
11. Yogis, having abandoned attachment, perform actions only by the body, mind, intellect and also by the senses, for the purification of the self.
Yuktah karmaphalam tyaktwaa shaantim aapnoti naishthikeem;
12. The united one (the well poised or the harmonised), having abandoned the fruit of action, attains to the eternal peace; the non-united only (the unsteady or the unbalanced), impelled by desire and attached to the fruit, is bound.
Sarvakarmaani manasaa sannyasyaaste sukham vashee;
13. Mentally renouncing all actions and self-controlled, the embodied one rests happily in the nine-gated city, neither acting nor causing others (body and senses) to act.
Na kartritwam na karmaani lokasya srijati prabhuh;
14. Neither agency nor actions does the Lord create for the world, nor union with the fruits of actions; it is Nature that acts.
Naadatte kasyachit paapam na chaiva sukritam vibhuh;
15. The Lord accepts neither the demerit nor even the merit of any; knowledge is enveloped by ignorance, thereby beings are deluded.
Jnaanena tu tad ajnaanam yeshaam naashitam aatmanah;
16. But, to those whose ignorance is destroyed by knowledge of the Self, like the sun, knowledge reveals the Supreme (Brahman).
Tadbuddhayas tadaatmaanas tannishthaas tatparaayanaah;
17. Their intellect absorbed in That, their self being That; established in That, with That as their supreme goal, they go whence there is no return, their sins dispelled by knowledge.
Vidyaavinaya sampanne braahmane gavi hastini;
18. Sages look with an equal eye on a Brahmin endowed with learning and humility, on a cow, on an elephant, and even on a dog and an outcaste.
Ihaiva tairjitah sargo yeshaam saamye sthitam manah;
19. Even here (in this world) birth (everything) is overcome by those whose minds rest in equality; Brahman is spotless indeed and equal; therefore, they are established in Brahman.
Na prahrishyet priyam praapya nodwijet praapya chaapriyam;
20. Resting in Brahman, with steady intellect, undeluded, the knower of Brahman neither rejoiceth on obtaining what is pleasant nor grieveth on obtaining what is unpleasant.
Baahyasparsheshwasaktaatmaa vindatyaatmani yat sukham;
21. With the self unattached to the external contacts he discovers happiness in the Self; with the self engaged in the meditation of Brahman he attains to the endless happiness.
you hi samsparshajaa bhogaa duhkhayonaya eva te;
22. The enjoyments that are born of contacts are generators of pain only, for they have a beginning and an end, Arjuna! The wise do not rejoice in them.
Shaknoteehaiva yah sodhum praak shareera vimokshanaat;
23. He who is able, while still here in this world to withstand, before the liberation from the body, the impulse born of desire and anger – he is a yogi, he is a happy man.
Yo'ntah sukho'ntaraaraamas tathaantarjyotir eva yah;
24. He who is ever happy within, who rejoices within, who is illumined within, such a yogi attains absolute freedom or Moksha, himself becoming Brahman.
Labhante brahma nirvaanam rishayah ksheenakalmashaah;
25. The sages obtain absolute freedom or Moksha – they whose sins have been destroyed, whose dualities (perception of dualities or experience of the pairs of opposites) are torn asunder, who are self-controlled, and intent on the welfare of all beings.
Kaamakrodhaviyuktaanaam yateenaam yatachetasaam;
26. Absolute freedom (or Brahmic bliss) exists on all sides for those self-controlled ascetics who are free from desire and anger, who have controlled their thoughts and who have realised the Self.
Sparsaan kritwaa bahir baahyaamschakshus chaivaantare bhruvoh;
27. Shutting out (all) external contacts and fixing the gaze between the eyebrows, equalising the outgoing and incoming breaths moving within the nostrils,
Yatendriya manobuddhir munir mokshaparaayanah;
28. With the senses, the mind and the intellect always controlled, having liberation as his supreme goal, free from desire, fear and anger – the sage is verily liberated for ever.
Bhoktaaram yajnatapasaam sarvaloka maheshwaram;
29. He who knows me as the enjoyer of sacrifices and austerities, the great Lord of all the worlds and the friend of all beings, attains to peace.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Anaashritah karmaphalam kaaryam karma karoti yah;
The Blessed Lord said:
1. He who performs his bounden duty without depending on the fruits of his actions – he is a Sannyasin and a yogi, not he who is without fire and without action.
Yam sannyaasamiti praahuryogam tam viddhi paandava;
2. Do you, Arjuna, know Yoga to be that which they call renunciation; no one verily becomes a yogi who has not renounced thoughts!
Aarurukshormuneryogam karma kaaranamuchyate;
3. For a sage who wishes to attain to Yoga, action is said to be the means; for the same sage who has attained to Yoga, inaction (quiescence) is said to be the means.
Yadaa hi nendriyaartheshu na karmaswanushajjate;
4. When a man is not attached to the sense-objects or to actions, having renounced all thoughts, then he is said to have attained to Yoga.
5. Let a man lift himself by his own Self alone; let him not lower himself, for this self alone is the friend of oneself and this self alone is the enemy of oneself.
Bandhuraatmaa'tmanastasya yenaatmaivaatmanaa jitah;
6. The self is the friend of the self for him who has conquered himself by the Self, but to the unconquered self, this self stands in the position of an enemy like the (external) foe.
Jitaatmanah prashaantasya paramaatmaa samaahitah;
7. The Supreme Self of him who is self-controlled and peaceful is balanced in cold and heat, pleasure and pain, as also in honour and dishonour.
Jnaana vijnaana triptaatmaa kootastho vijitendriyah;
8. The yogi who is satisfied with the knowledge and the wisdom (of the Self), who has conquered the senses, and to whom a clod of earth, a piece of stone and gold are the same, is said to be harmonised (that is, is said to have attained the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi).
Suhrinmitraary udaaseena madhyastha dweshya bandhushu;
9. He who is of the same mind to the good-hearted, friends, enemies, the indifferent, the neutral, the hateful, the relatives, the righteous and the unrighteous, excels.
Yogee yunjeeta satatamaatmaanam rahasi sthitah;
10. Let the yogi try constantly to keep the mind steady, remaining in solitude, alone, with the mind and the body controlled, and free from hope and greed.
Shuchau deshe pratishthaapya sthiramaasanamaatmanah;
11. In a clean spot, having established a firm seat of his own, neither too high nor too low, made of a cloth, a skin and kushagrass, one over the other,
Tatraikaagram manah kritwaa yatachittendriyakriyah;
12. There, having made the mind one-pointed, with the actions of the mind and the senses controlled, let him, seated on the seat, practise Yoga for the purification of the self.
Samam kaayashirogreevam dhaarayannachalam sthirah;
13. Let him firmly hold his body, head and neck erect and perfectly still, gazing at the tip of his nose, without looking around.
Prashaantaatmaa vigatabheer brahmachaarivrate sthitah;
14. Serene-minded, fearless, firm in the vow of a Brahmachari, having controlled the mind, thinking of me and balanced in mind, let him sit, having me as his supreme goal.
Yunjannevam sadaa'tmaanam yogee niyatamaanasah;
15. Thus, always keeping the mind balanced, the yogi, with the mind controlled, attains to the peace abiding in me, which culminates in liberation.
Naatyashnatastu yogo'sti nachaikaantamanashnatah;
16. Verily Yoga is not possible for him who eats too much, nor for him who does not eat at all; nor for him who sleeps too much, nor for him who is (always) awake, Arjuna!
Yuktaahaaravihaarasya yuktacheshtasya karmasu;
17. Yoga becomes the destroyer of pain for him who is always moderate in eating and recreation (such as walking, etc.), who is moderate in exertion in actions, who is moderate in sleep and wakefulness.
Yadaa viniyatam chittamaatmanyevaavatishthate;
18. When the perfectly controlled mind rests in the Self only, free from longing for the objects of desire, then it is said: "He is united."
Yathaa deepo nivaatastho nengate sopamaa smritaa;
19. As a lamp placed in a windless spot does not flicker – to such is compared the yogi of controlled mind, practising Yoga in the Self (or absorbed in the Yoga of the Self).
Yatroparamate chittam niruddham yogasevayaa;
20. When the mind, restrained by the practice of Yoga, attains to quietude, and when, seeing the Self by the Self, he is satisfied in his own Self,
Sukhamaatyantikam yattad buddhi graahyamateendriyam;
21. When he (the yogi) feels that infinite bliss which can be grasped by the (pure) intellect and which transcends the senses, and, established wherein he never moves from the Reality,
Yam labdhwaa chaaparam laabham manyate naadhikam tatah;
22. Which, having obtained, he thinks there is no other gain superior to it; wherein established, he is not moved even by heavy sorrow, –
Tam vidyaad duhkhasamyogaviyogam yogasamjnitam;
23. Let that be known by the name of Yoga, the severance from union with pain. This Yoga should be practised with determination and with an undesponding mind.
Sankalpaprabhavaan kaamaan styaktwaa sarvaan asheshatah;
24. Abandoning without reserve all the desires born of Sankalpa, and completely restraining the whole group of senses by the mind from all sides,
Shanaih shanairuparamed buddhyaa dhritigriheetayaa;
25. Little by little let him attain to quietude by the intellect held firmly; having made the mind establish itself in the Self, let him not think of anything.
Yato yato nishcharati manashchanchalamasthiram;
26. From whatever cause the restless, unsteady mind wanders away, from that let him restrain it and bring it under the control of the Self alone.
Prashaantamanasam hyenam yoginam sukhamuttamam;
27. Supreme bliss verily comes to this yogi whose mind is quite peaceful, whose passion is quieted, who has become Brahman, and who is free from sin.
Yunjannevam sadaa'tmaanam yogee vigatakalmashah;
28. The yogi, always engaging the mind thus (in the practice of Yoga), freed from sins, easily enjoys the infinite bliss of contact with Brahman (the Eternal).
Sarvabhootasthamaatmaanam sarvabhootaani chaatmani;
29. With the mind harmonised by Yoga he sees the Self abiding in all beings and all beings in the Self; he sees the same everywhere.
Yo maam pashyati sarvatra sarvam cha mayi pashyati;
30. He who sees me everywhere and sees everything in me, he does not become separated from me nor do I become separated from him.
Sarvabhootasthitam yo maam bhajatyekatwamaasthitah;
31. He who, being established in unity, worships me who dwells in all beings, – that yogi abides in me, whatever may be his mode of living.
Aatmaupamyena sarvatra samam pashyati yo'rjuna;
32. He who, through the likeness of the Self, Arjuna, sees equality everywhere, be it pleasure or pain, he is regarded as the highest yogi!
Yo'yam yogastwayaa proktah saamyena madhusoodana;
33. This Yoga of equanimity taught by you, Krishna, I do not see its steady continuance, because of restlessness (of the mind)!
Chanchalam hi manah krishna pramaathi balavad dridham;
34. The mind verily is restless, turbulent, strong and unyielding, Krishna! I deem it as difficult to control as to control the wind.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Asamshayam mahaabaaho mano durnigraham chalam;
The Blessed Lord said:
35. Undoubtedly, mighty-armed Arjuna, the mind is difficult to control and restless; but, by practice and by dispassion it may be restrained!
Asamyataatmanaa yogo dushpraapa iti me matih;
36. I think that Yoga is hard to be attained by one of uncontrolled self, but the self~controlled and striving one attains to it by the (proper) means.
Ayatih shraddhayopeto yogaacchalitamaanasah;
37. He who is unable to control himself, though he has the faith, and whose mind wanders away from Yoga, what end does he meet, having failed to attain perfection in Yoga, Krishna?
Kacchinnobhayavibhrashtash cchinnaabhramiva nashyati;
38. Fallen from both, does he not perish like a rent cloud, supportless, mighty-armed (Krishna), deluded on the path of Brahman?
Etanme samshayam krishna cchettumarhasyasheshatah;
39. This doubt of mine, Krishna, completely dispel, because it is not possible for any but you to dispel this doubt.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:
Paartha naiveha naamutra vinaashas tasya vidyate;
The Blessed Lord said:
40. Arjuna, neither in this world, nor in the next world is there destruction for him; none, verily, who does good, my son, ever comes to grief!
Praapya punyakritaam lokaanushitwaa shaashwateeh samaah;
41. Having attained to the worlds of the righteous and, having dwelt there for everlasting years, he who fell from Yoga is reborn in the house of the pure and wealthy.
Athavaa yoginaameva kule bhavati dheemataam;
42. Or he is born in a family of even the wise yogis; verily a birth like this is very difficult to obtain in this world.
Tatra tam buddhisamyogam labhate paurvadehikam;
43. There he comes in touch with the knowledge acquired in his former body and strives more than before for perfection, Arjuna!
Poorvaabhyaasena tenaiva hriyate hyavasho'pi sah;
44. By that very former practice he is borne on in spite of himself. Even he who merely wishes to know Yoga transcends the Brahmic word.
Prayatnaadyatamaanastu yogee samshuddhakilbishah;
45. But, the yogi who strives with assiduity, purified of sins and perfected gradually through many births, reaches the highest goal.
Tapaswibhyo'dhiko yogee jnaanibhyo'pi mato'dhikah;
46. The yogi is thought to be superior to the ascetics and even superior to men of knowledge (obtained through the study of scriptures); he is also superior to men of action; therefore, be a yogi, Arjuna!
Yoginaamapi sarveshaam madgatenaantaraatmanaa;
47. And among all the yogis, he who, full of faith and with his inner self merged in me, worships me, he is deemed by me to be the most devout.