Site Map
Carl Gustav Jung and the Scientific Attitude
Section › 10   Set    Search  Previous Next


Reservations   Contents    

From Chapter 1 - The Complex

A NOTE: The essays that follow, are structured summaries. So when you see this sign -   - it's time to wake up, for by that you are told a Tao essay is ended.

Also, the image of a hen in some of them stands for supposed footing and groundwork. Text markers are otherwise explained on a separate page. There is a link to it at the bottom of this page.

Otherwise, concluding text in a table-formed essay (after 'So' and similar) suggests how to make profitable use of ideas in the essay, for example by a sketchy program to adjust or adhere to or follup up step by step. [The way]

1.1. Jung in Short

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist-thinker. He founded analytical psychology, also called Jungian psychology. Jung's approach to understanding sides to the mind has been influential. Jung stressed understanding the mind through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. He became a well known pioneer in the field of dream analysis. A practicing clinician, much of his life was spent exploring Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, literature and the arts.

Jung emphasized balance and harmony. He found that modern people would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms. For a person to become whole, a psychological process of integrating the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining conscious autonomy seemed vital to him. Such individuation became the central concept of his analytical psychology, and gave rise to Abraham Maslow's concept of self-actualisation (self-realization) and the fully functioning individual of Carl Rogers.

Jungian ideas are not typically included in curriculum of psychology departments in most major universities, but are at times and here and there explored in humanities departments. [Example 3, part 3, of a thesis in American culture at NTNU] [Sugg 1992]

Many concepts were originally proposed by Jung, such as the archetype; the collective unconscious; the complex, and synchronicity. A much used career test offered by high school and college career centers, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, MBTI, is also based on Jung's theories. Much used as it is, it is far from the best. [Personality issues] [MBTI compared with the OCEAN]

[Main source: WP, "Carl Gustav Jung"]

Jung and science as he saw it

Below are sides to what Carl Jung thinks is scientific.

Every facet of the psychology of Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) is imbued with scepticism and modest regard for the limitations of our knowledge, writes Edmund Cohen 1975, in C. G. Jung and the Scientific Attitude (1975, vii).

Below is "Jung made easy," at least "Jung made easier": key-lines and extracts from the four first chapters of the book. As for how these particular extracts are formed and may be used to improve your luck in life, see this link: [Patching].


According to Carl Jung:

  • The self is a totality of conscious and unconscious contents.
  • Maturation of the self is through individuation, a process which is of the healthy personality.
  • A person's self-concept determines his behaviour.

  • True therapeutic improvement may occur when the individual changes his self-concept.
  • In Jung's model of man's mind, tentativeness is in place too.

This series of Jung extracts draws special attention to maturation and healthy individuation ("making of an individual").


1.2. Different sides to mind are to be harmoniously blended as maturation or integration goes on ☼

1. Censoring tends to get over-emphasis

Freud's model, with its well defined structures of ego and superego channelling libido, is far more clear and explicit than Jung's with its multifaceted constellations with feeling-toned centres. . . . [It should be] better to have . . . a tentative idea that accords with what little is known about an elusive object of study. (Cohen 1975, 8n)

In Jung's model, dissociation (of psychic contents from the ego-personality) is the fundamental pathological mechanism, and repression (voluntarily, or by a censoring mechanism such as Freud's superego), a special case of it (Cohen 1975, 11)

The complex-model phase of Jung's work gave the autonomy of the complexes too much emphasis. (Cohen 1975, 11)

2. The ego instance of the personality may be established and perhaps re-instated in some, due to good opportunities for it

Spirits of the dead spoke up, and Jung disserted and stopped following Freud - Jung conceived of libido as a universally convertible energetic resource of the psyche. It is quite different from Freud's conception, in which libido is basically erotic or destructive, (Cohen 1975, 8)

When the complex could be integrated with the conscious attitude, the ego-personality could re-establish itself. (Cohen 1975, 9)

Much of his fortunate insight into the nature of the complex, and also the material for his Doctor of Medicine dissertation, came from observing a fifteen-year-old girl, a psychic medium, through whom the spirits of the dead ostensibly spoke. (Cohen 1975, 2)

The ancient Asiatics knew . . . well enough, and in the Buddhist Yoga an exact technique was devised for unmasking the illusion of the personality. (Cohen 1975, 11)

3. Complex-ridden mentalities tend to get alarmingly unconscious of very important things

The loss of stimuluses is bad - and so is being screwed up inside. A truly schizophrenic person, however, is more accurately described as having a shattered, rather than a split personality. In Jung's words: . . . it is like a splinter of glass. (Cohen 1975, 7)

Jung did some other work which securely establishes him as one of the fathers of the modern lie detector. . . . he found that a sudden shift in GSR [Galvanic Skin Resistance] was more likely to occur when the stimulus word was associated with an unconscious complex, than a conscious one. (Cohen 1975, 6)

When a person is particularly complex-ridden, the energy available to the ego-personality is reduced. (Cohen 1975, 9)

Thoughts, feelings, images, reminiscences, urges . . . overlap extensively in meaning, and are convertible into one another (Cohen 1975, 8) ✪ 

By being tentative and gentle you stand in less need of being corrected. Great tact is thus good for something.


  1. Censoring tends to get over-emphasis. And being festive does not solve everything either.
  2. The ego instance may be established on a sound track and develop, thanks to the upbringing and if given good opportunities.
  3. On the other hand, complex-ridden mentalities tend to get sordid somehow.
The main emphasis and thrust in general upbringing should be on helping the sound mind to develop in many ways.


From Chapter 2 - The Structure of the Psyche and the Psychological Types

2.1. It seems fit to invest personal authority in the future family too ☼

1. The most liberal and sexual encounters risk authority somehow, one way or another, as further development may show

While Jung was no mystic, his work developed along lines so different from Freud's . . . Freud . . . forthrightly sought to reduce the psyche to physiology. (Cohen 1975, 13) [1]

In 1910, Freud said to Jung, ". . . Promise me never to abandon the sexual theory. That is the most essential thing of all. You see, we must make a dogma of it, an unshakable bulwark."

Jung asked, "A bulwark - against what?"

Freud answered, "Against the black tide of mud . . . of occultism."

This exchange had been brought on by Freud's refusal to cooperate with Jung's attempt to interpret one of Freud's dreams, saying, "But I cannot risk my authority!"

2. It may be good to go against prejudice and even personal authority, since it is hardly needed in the larger scheme of affairs

In Jung's words, "Freud was placing personal authority above truth." (Cohen 1975, 15n)

A "black tide" of stubbornness and prejudice should be fought too. 

A solution to hold

With these two ideas we are already a good way away from getting our head in a vice or having a boa constrictor around our neck. Seek to get a footing by good and sound use of them:
  1. Truly liberal and sexual encounters risk lots of authority somehow. It is generally best to invest it toward better conditions to come.
  2. Yet it may be good to go against prejudice and too stiff personal authority for the sake of those who are to develop and grow up and run the future family, or take over the business, for ourselves in the future too, and so on.


2.2. Symbolism in Jung's Teachings ☼

1. Psychic productions may give vent to unconscious content and intent, as the case may be

An incomplete expression - a symbol. For Jung, the symbol 11 was the sine qua non of the psyche, conscious and unconscious. Accordingly, he placed much more emphasis than Freud on dreams and spontaneous artistic production, in understanding an individual person. A symbol is a representation or expression of a partially unconscious psychic state. (Cohen 1975, 15)

A symbol goes beyond its referent, yet is an incomplete representation of it. (Cohen 1975, 16)

A myth is a series or progression of symbols expressive of a common large, complex referent.) (Cohen 1975, 16)

2. Very dogmatic psychoanalysts talk of the content of the mind as if they had actually seen and verified it, and find it hard to remember that guesses based on interpretative activity very often leave room for different interpretations

A differentiated something that shares in the reality of dreams - a symbol. We [tend to] symbolize those things about which, in the words of Michael Polanyi, "we can know more than we can tell" (Cohen 1975, 16)

A psychic state can be a perception, an emotion, an insight, an intuition, or a desire, to name a few possibilities. It can be totally intra-psychic, or can involve some physical occurrence to which the psyche responds. A symbol serves to make knowable and communicable that which cannot be fully explicated or analyzed, that which is known tacitly and implicitly rather than explicitly (Cohen 1975, 15)

A symbol has a life of its own . . . A symbol is a differentiation of the psyche, (Cohen 1975, 16)

Symbolism, then, played a role subservient to that of rational thinking in Freud's view. Art became a last resort of the neurotic, and religion, a collective control of the socially unacceptable in man. Analysis became an interminable, distasteful process, since man's dreaded secrets were great, and his ability to face them, small. Inability or reluctance to accept the somber insights of a Freudian analysis was termed "resistance." It became customary for psychoanalysts to be dogmatic, (Cohen 1975, 15)

The essence of the difference is shown by the role each viewpoint assigns to the symbol in human thought. For Freud, the psyche was clearly divided into the unconscious, where the primary id processes of infantile erotic, incestuous, and destructive impulses were repressed by the reified agent of the superego; and the conscious, where the rational, reality-oriented thought processes of the ego took place. The latter made some gratification of id impulses possible, in compromise with morality and reality. The superego also censored threatening memories from the conscious, i.e. those too dangerous or immoral for the ego to tolerate; most strongly censored were memories repressed since early in life. The symbolism of dreams, religion, and art works represented a diluted, depotentised form of the terrible, taboo products of the id. So disguised, these could come to consciousness and be integrated with the ego, one sub-lethal dose at a time. (Cohen 1975, 14-15)

An incomplete expression that allows itself to be shared: the symbol. 

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. Psychic productions may give vent to unconscious content and intent.
  2. Very dogmatic psychoanalysts talk of the content of the mind as if they had actually seen and verified it, and find it hard to remember that more or less educated guesses based on interpretative activity have to leave room for other plausible interpretations too.


2.3. From the Depths of Mind ☼

1. The basic attitudes and views of psychoanalysts tend to differ and be the cause of schools

Differences and lack of empathy among psychoanalysts is seen. The Freud-Adler contrast: Certainly both investigators see the subject in relation to the object; but how differently this relation is seen! (Cohen 1975, 17)

Adler, then, wrote a psychology of introversion, in contrast to Freud's extraverted one. (Cohen 1975, 17)

Jung paraphrases Worringer in regarding the difference between Oriental and Occidental viewpoints as explicable in terms of abstraction and empathy: / . . . it is precisely the Oriental art-forms and religious that display this abstracting attitude (Cohen 1975, 18)

2. Man can hardly cope well without forming and holding on to principles to function by

A cardinal principle: A mind can organise its content from deep inside too. Jung quotes Schiller in formulating that problem: "Externalize all within and shape everything without."20 (Cohen 1975, 18)

Once we conceive of the psyche as a field of energy, differentiated, segregated, and structured into symbols, on one level, and into complexes, on another, we come to the search for principles of organization of the contents of the psyche, as the next step. (Cohen 1975, 16)

Differences and lack of empathy can organise schools of analysis - in part against a better or (more) unified foundation . . . 

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. The basic attitudes and views of psychoanalysts tend to differ and be the cause of schools.
  2. Man can hardly cope well without forming and holding on to principles to function by, and find some such principles here, some there, like the hen who is finding corn here and there. Skilful eclectic (selective) activity can pay handsomely, for good points are found in many quarters.


2.4. Persons and Types

1. A foremost function of feelings is to prop up and advance ideas embedded in them and belonging to them

Thinking and intuition can be put into diagrams by intuition and thinking - yes, it gives basic and dogmatic tenets that can be impossible prove per se, because they are paradigmatic: Thinking and feeling are designated rational functions by Jung, since they are both kinds of reflection (Cohen 1975, 19).

Jung . . . the four functions of thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition can be diagrammed thus: / Thinking / Sensation + Intuition / Feeling (Cohen 1975, 19). [There is a figure to study.]

2. Nice and orderly surroundings may suit all

Eight types surround people - and later mother and daughter Myers and Briggs expanded the list to sixteen types as well: The German nation . . . its feeling function is inferior, it is not differentiated. - Jung (Cohen 1975, 20).

For general descriptions of the eight (i.e., 23) basic types . . . Jung said, "It is no use at all putting people into drawers with different labels."

The more undifferentiated and unconscious its psychological opposite, feeling (Cohen 1975, 19).

The sensation type . . . Stable, orderly surroundings are his preference (Cohen 1975, 20- 21).

The intuitive type may possess artistic sensitivities (Cohen 1975, 21).
      Knowing the unique person is the essential thing, and knowing his type merely an aid thereto (Cohen 1975, 21]

Belonging to (associatively) ideas are moods, feelings, and surroundings, as studies of memory cues reflect.

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. Feelings may serve to prop up and advance ideas embedded in them and belonging to them.
  2. Nice and orderly surroundings may suit all and sundry.


2.5. Dreams

1. There is a good deal of prestructuring going on in the mind, as revealed by so many constants we are served by, including colour constancy, concept constants and further

A Jungian should presuppose deep prestructuring: The dream shows the fluctuating quality of consciousness. Jung's thoughts in this area were heavily influenced by Pierre Janet who conceived of consciousness as a kind of mental tension (Cohen 1975, 24).

What we have covered so far has been too highly structured not to presuppose a good deal of prestructuring of the organism that exhibits it (Cohen 1975, 28).

2. In some cases we get aware that perception relies a whole lot on mental constants, and we perceive parts of it for example when we get tired

Some mental contents can be easily seen, and more can be speculated about - Jung does: [Contents talk:] temporarily subliminal contents that can be reproduced voluntarily (memory); second, unconscious contents that cannot be reproduced voluntarily; third, (hypothetical) contents that are not [normally] capable of becoming conscious (Cohen 1975, 26).

"What to the causal view is fact to the final view is symbol, and vice versa (Cohen 1975, 27]

Our perceptions of ourselves, humans, and the world at large relies heavily on mental constants. Some are built into our very perceptional systems.

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. Prestructuring goes on deep in the mind, as revealed by so many constants we are served by, including colour constancy, concept constants and many others.
  2. Perception relies a whole lot on mental constants, and we may come to notice parts of it for example when we get tired.


2.6. Ego

1. Paradigms are attitudinal, and hard to prove and get into

Equal stress on all words in a sentence confuses none - hence: Jungian teachings about the ego versus "the four functions" may be wrong - and none may stand up and prove it (it is paradigmatic, and paradigms may not be provable): The Ego "rests" on the total field of consciousness (Cohen 1975, 26).

If all four functions could be developed equally, . . . the ego-personality would be like a ship . . . with no means (Cohen 1975, 22).

[Jung came to] stress increasingly the Ego's involvement in making unconscious contents known (Cohen 1975, 25).

2. Being one-sided is hardly top, but can help some on and up

What rests on the not-experienced, widely postulated "total field", is surely speculated about: A certain one-sidedness is necessary for there to be an ego-personality (Cohen 1975, 22).

By 1950, the role of the Ego as synthesizer of conscious and unconscious was more explicitly seen: ". . . the ego rests on the total field of consciousness, and on the other, on the sum total of unconscious contents (Cohen 1975, 26).

3. One has to discern between "I" and "how I appear"

Rest is at times an outward appearance only - consider that too: When I said that the ego "rests" on the total field of consciousness I do not mean that it consists of this (Cohen 1975, 26).

The Ego must not be confused with the persona. The persona (from the Greek word for "mask") is the appearance one presents to others . . . At best, it represents a conscious compromise between the constraints of reality, and the need to develop one's own, true, authentic personality. At its worst, it can represent a deceit (Cohen 1975, 25).

One-sided focus on appearances leaves the inner "I" more or less undeveloped, and vice versa too. Good balance seems fine.


  1. Paradigms are attitudinal, and very hard to prove and get into
  2. Being one-sided is hardly top, but can help some on and up with a more or less technical attitude to things. It can be sensible too.
  3. It is often fit to discern between "I" and "how I appear", as being is more than seeming. The sound balancing of in and out, yin and yang - and I-ness and externalising oneself in work, play, and so on - is called for many times. Transcendental Meditation is a means toward it.

Paradigms help some on and up when their fore-running adherents of other paradigms are nearly died out or have to leave their high positions in university hierarchies and other such informative places. For more input, see Thomas Kuhn's book on paradigm changes if you like [Kuhn 1970].


2.7. Self-Teachings

1. An individual's actualisation takes him or her to some extent higher than many common outlets

A fully developed self-actualization, does it lead into something or someone else that self-actualization and Self? Does Jung tell? The terms "self-actualization" and "psychological growth," have their origin in Jung's work (Cohen 1975, 27n).

The condition of complete, fully developed authenticity toward which an individual life moves . . . without ever reaching it [without], is the Self. (With Cohen 1975, 27).

2. Variety of expression is fine, accordingly

Does the self-actualization bring out a nearly unlimited variety for a deeper, better purpose we don't yet know enough about? [The Self:] As the hardest thing in life to explicate, it gives rise to an almost unlimited variety of symbolic expression (Cohen 1975, 27).

3. A vast field results

Unfolding merely one personality of an array, could it be erring altogether? [What] Jung called individuation, . . . represents the unfolding of a particular personality out of a vast field of possibilities (Cohen 1975, 28]

Different persons' unique sides tend to be like flowers. They are not all the same, and most of them may appeal to higher beings some way or other. At least many sorts of flowers do.


  1. Self-actualisation can be developed, but even good conformity may come in the way.
  2. Variety of expression can be fine.
  3. Individuation is also unfolding towards a Self within, and not merely a matter of expressing (externalising).

One is to allow variety and go for sensible forms of it, that spice of living.


From Chapter 3 - The Collective Unconscious and the Universal Realm

3.1. Misrepresented independence

1. Popularity tends to allow for greater independence, and the same holds good for some forms of technological progress

Good independence is also from popularity: [To take into account] The dreamer's cultural background (Cohen 1975, 31]

Today we witness the immense popularity of the psychologists Maslow . . . who supposes the most highly developed, "self-actualized" human character to embody the American cultural values of good interpersonal relations, independence, and restlessly extraverted preoccupation with change and technological progress. We have not yet learned to guard against this mistake (Cohen 1975, 29n, emphasis added).

2. Jung's concepts and hypotheses of the meaning of various symbols are not exempt from mature scrutiny either

Both a symbol and a figure can be misrepresented - guard against it. [Jung:] I found the patient standing at the window, wagging his head and blinking into the sun. He . . . said: "Surely you see the sun's penis - (In Cohen 1975, 30).

The fire- or sun-god here invoked is a figure (Cohen 1975, 31).

Jung's concept of the collective unconscious, which has been so widely maligned and misrepresented, is really nothing but a working hypothesis (Cohen 1975, 29).

A certain popularity - including the institution's popularity and support - allows scholars and researchers enough freedom to form alternative hypotheses and counter-hypotheses instead of believing. Buddha's teachings from 2,500 years ago allow such freedom too.

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. Popularity tends to allow for greater independence, and the same holds good for some forms of technological progress.
  2. Jung's concepts and hypotheses of a collective unconscious and various meaning of various symbols should not be exempt from mature scrutiny.


3.2. Archetypes and a Case

1. Jung surmises there are archetypes in the unconscious, which is an area that remains out of awareness.

Pure form is a means of postulating - The archetypes are pure form [You may ask what pure form is like.] (Cohen 1975, 34]

2. One mind is hardly like all minds, contrary to some of Jung's basic ideas

Be aware of the current collective's myths. The universal symbols per se, Jung called archetypes (Cohen 1975, 34).

The hypothesis of the collective unconscious is that there are universal symbols and myths which are a function of the nature of the psyche itself; (Cohen 1975, 33).

Jung was very sensitive to the factor of early suggestions and experiences in apparently spontaneous creativity (Cohen 1975, 33n).

3. Some shrinks make a living of patronising their clients or patients by assuming roles and such means. Good psychologists like Carl Rogers warn against it.

Wild dreams - much seems involved - [From a case Jung treated: The patient was a twenty-five year old unmarried lady who complained of excessive emotionality, had weird erotic fantasies etc. Jung lapsed into a patronizing attitude toward her till he had a dream of having to strain his neck to look up at her standing on the highest parapet of a great castle. That dream served as a corrective to his "looking down" attitude, and this improvement triggered off such as:] she experienced a vague excitation of the perineal region, and dreamed of a white elephant coming out of her vagina [and] she became troubled by the idea that her cranium was becoming soft (Cohen 1975, 32).

The first thorough account of Tantric, Kundalini Yoga appeared (The Serpent Power by Sir John Woodroffe, under the pseudonym of Arthur Avalon), and Jung got hold of it (Cohen 1975, 32).

Postulating pure forms that ride on the current and present collective around you seems like wild dreams to some, and may be so too. At any rate, it remains to be proven. But there is no proof against the old Platonic idea of 'pure forms' either, for that matter.  


  1. Popularity tends to allow for greater independence.
  2. Jung's concepts and hypotheses of the meaning of various symbols are not exempt from mature scrutiny by those who are allowed a free say in such matters.
  3. Jerk shrinks make a living of patronising their clients or patients by assuming roles and such means. Eminent psychologists like Carl Rogers warn against it and advocate a figurative form of "jelly-rolling" clients instead, under the heading person-centred therapy. It can be a very useful method under some conditions.
To allow your dear children to have other surmisions and get other conclusions than your own shows all right maturity within responsible limits, whereas patronising or condescending parading is not fit, and shows lack of empathy or sympathy - lack of humaneness.


3.3. Further - Archetypes

1. Even compensatory attitudes are for adaptations

Most ingrained attitudes are for adaptations, one may say. The ultimate example is . . . man's intelligence . . . The synthetic theory of evolution cannot account for the appearance of such capabilities (Cohen 1975, 38).

Dreams, fantasies, and spontaneous artistic endeavors that provide the material for a Jungian analysis, it is that they are compensatory to the conscious attitude (Cohen 1975, 38).

According to the synthetic theory of evolution, . . . Random genetic mutations (changes of the genotype) produce changes in the structure and behavior (phenotype) of the organism. The overwhelming majority of such alterations undermine a strain's adaptation, and put it at a propagatory disadvantage. A very few such changes will happen to improve its adaptation (Cohen 1975, 36-37).

2. Life expressions may get odd and all collective too, not only healthy

Peculiar or particular life expressions could speak of an individuation process awry or on some profitable tracks - it may be hard to tell. Archetypes give structure to symbols, which express the life situation of the person who produces them, and prefigure the individuation of his particular personality out of the background of possibilities represented by his collective unconscious (Cohen 1975, 38).

In this case also "les extremes se touchent." (Cohen 1975, 36).

3. Heavily one-sided and rigid attitudes are animalistic signs against a fit personality

Good designs are not always incorporated around - and some have died out. It might apply to personality structures also. The fore-fin of a whale, the wing of a bird, the forefoot of a quadruped, and the hand of a man are all homologous variations of one characteristic design. [cf. e.g. the book On Growth and Form by D'Arcy Thompson] (Cohen 1975, 37).

If the conscious attitude becomes too one-sided and rigid, then the corrective is not assimilated: instead, it becomes an autonomous complex that will assert itself against the conscious personality, as described in the first chapter above. Instead of the ongoing integration of the personality which is individuation, a division of the personality against itself takes place (Cohen 1975, 38-39]


  1. Even compensatory attitudes aim at adaptations.
  2. Life expressions may get odd and all collective too, not only healthy. Some need to be handled by experts - true knowers of the mind. As a rule of the thumb, (1) before nervous expressions become habitual, a gentle reminder or soft cure may be fit. (2) But if nervousness becomes "cemented" and neurotic, it seems too hard for self-help and treatment efforts by lay persons. (3) Alarming mental illnesses, as defined by WHO and APA, for example are the third rung of this ladder downward.
  3. Heavily one-sided and rigid attitudes are animalistic signs against a fit personality.
Attitudes are partly shared with a group, even the collective, and may be odd and in need of gentle help. If not fit for reality, they are sure signs against good personality development.


3.4. Dreams Interpreted

1. Try to recall and jot down the salient parts of your nightly dream upon waking, and associate to them. This can bring about welcome and needed insights

Tedious and inefficient - there are reasons for its being so. The free association of the Freudian method, being extremely inefficient and tedious, is seldom used. Great attention is paid to dreams (Cohen 1975, 39).

2. Adhere to this: relate a dream to its dreamer above all

The antecedent "Learn much and forget it" allows for more fun. To be sure what a single dream means, series of dreams, and trends noted in them, are needed for the analysis to proceed. . . . the relationship of the dream to the dreamer is paramount and must take precedence over mere intellectual comparison of the dream to its historical antecedents: "Learn as much as you can about symbolism; then forget it all when you are analyzing a dream." (Cohen 1975, 39).

3. Satisfaction and the finding that some interpretation rings true somehow, are worth studying and may also be of value

If anything rings true, it may be wrong all the same, as history so often documents. The ultimate criterion for an interpretation is the satisfaction of the person to whom it pertains. If it "rings true" for him, then it has value. Thus, more than one interpretation may be fruitful (Cohen 1975, 39]  

Inefficient antecedents that ask you to throw off good learning routines and results: forget them, as they are not fit for prosperous living. You are also supposed to learn throughout life.


  1. Try to recall and jot down the salient parts of your nightly dream in the dream diary upon waking, and associate to them relaxedly. This can bring about welcome and needed insights.
  2. It is generally fit to relate a dream to its dreamer above standard interpretations had from books, because what minds form, are results of the same mind as that of the dreamer, and both content and significance can be quite individualistic.
  3. Satisfaction with the interpretation and resulting pieces of understanding is good, and if an interpretation rings true it may worth digging into also, and may also be of value. Many scientific discoveries have been in just that way. So first apply your mind to some issue, then recall your dreams in following days and weeks and years.
Jot down nightly dreams as a matter of habit, and spend some thought of what the striking and vivid parts may signify to yourself. Some of the pieces of understanding thus had could help you in your waking life too.


3.5. Honest People

1. Most people consistenly have their best foot forward and strive not to appear vulgar, brutal, ruthless, and disorganised, and they may be afraid of "Mr. Hyde" sides in various dreams

An imago interferes or disorganises. Most people have their best foot forward most of the time, the evil in them is relatively unconscious. Our inferior, negative aspect is consistently found as a complex, symbolized or personified as a sinister person in our dreams; it is so consistent that we must also call it an archetype. Jung called it the shadow, . . . This imago interferes with our good intentions at times, and it negates some of them too. (With Cohen 1975, 40).

[What] makes active imagination possible . . . can also yield up whole fantasies and artistic creations (With Cohen 1975, 39).

A New York City narcotics policeman, who is vulgar, brutal, ruthless, and disorganized. The villain whom he pursues is a French narcotics smuggler . . . urbane, civilized, honorable in his own way, and superbly well organized: (Cohen 1975, 41] . . . [Cf. too:] The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson are examples of the shadow (Cohen 1975, 41).

[In Jungian terminology and thinking] A spirit is comparable to an autonomous complex (Cohen 1975, 43).

The therapist and the patient meet on as equal terms as possible . . . the typical posture is face to face . . . an honest encounter between real people, rather than the transference that the Freudians so insist upon. . . . a transference is not always necessary or even desirable (Cohen 1975, 40).

The Yiddish world schlemiel . . . refers to a person whose conscious intentions are chronically backfiring . . . a Swiss German expression for it, Pechvogel ("pitch-bird") (Cohen 1975, 40n).

2. Respect for competence is fine. An meditating for several years help many to get to grips with deeper sides to themselves too

To have one's own personal moral is fine. The "ethical" involvement may at times be too abstract to be fruitful. Jung summed up the essence of the difference: ". . . primitive pathology recognizes two causes of illness: loss of soul, and possession by a spirit." (Cohen 1975, 43).

Jung, himself, liked to chisel his fantasy into stone, and became quite a competent sculptor (Cohen 1975, 40n).

Extreme inflation - are the result of too close an identification with some unconscious archetype (Cohen 1975, 41).

The interpretation of pictures drawn by the patient is frequently done. (Cohen 1975, 40).

[One is to have and show] Respect for the patient as ethically free and independent (Cohen 1975, 40).

The myth of Satan having originally been in God's presence (Cohen 1975, 42).
      This formulation of neurosis, it should be noted, does not contradict the conventional Freudian one, rather, it is more comprehensive (Cohen 1975, 39n).  

An imago interferes up to superbly. And one's personal moral may be like stucco. Deeper involvement makes better depth-development possible. Contemplating sanely helps it.

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. So-called honest people may not be as honest as they seem. You should hardly depend solely on their reputation, for it may be misleading.
  2. Respect for competence is fine. An meditating for several years help many to get to grips with deeper sides to themselves too, apart from improving their lives.


3.6. Falling in Love

1. To drop the use of force against good family members, may pay off later

Never force someone to exchange winds - The terms "spirit" and "soul" are intertwined with the Greek concept of pneuma, where wind or breath . . . gives life (Cohen 1975, 45n). Never force a man into his feeling when he is an intellectual (Cohen 1975, 44).

2. Falling wildly in love is easier than life as a marriage partner

Some who fall in love may marry beneath themselves - up to half of those who marry should marry in this way - A typical intellectual . . . will very likely make foolish nonsense when he falls in love (Cohen 1975, 44).

Falling in love, being wildly infatuated with another person, is one result of such a soul projection (Cohen 1975, 44).

By falling in love, the lover tries to compensate for his weak side by an easier means than developing it (Cohen 1975, 44).

Many intellectuals are inclined to marry beneath them (Cohen 1975, 44). 

An old insider teaching: Exchange of tall winds happens during sexual intercourse, and love and marriage seem unimportant for it to take place.


In homosexuality . . . the Ego is most strongly identified with the soul . . .The witty, catty, creative intelligence that one often notices in homosexuals and effeminate men is due to a special closeness to the unconscious. In a sense, the superior completeness that some homosexuals claim to experience, is justified (Cohen 1975, 43n).

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. To drop the use of force against good family members could pay off later.
  2. Falling wildly in love is easier than life as a marriage partner.


3.7. Animus, Mainly

1. A human has both masculine and feminine sides, and they are differently fronted too

Animus - Jung used the term anima (Latin for "soul") for the masculine soul experience, and animus (Latin for "spirit") for the corresponding feminine one (Cohen 1975, 43-44). [1]

Animus continued. "Animus and anima. No philosopher in his senses would invent such irrational and clumsy ideas." - Jung (Cohen 1975, 141]

A young lady dreamt of human-sized rabbits, collectively representing her animus The animus frequently takes the plural form, while the anima seldom does so (Cohen 1975, 45, 45n).

2. Deep men are likely to have feminine sides that they are aware of

Spiritual humans may seem more refined and effeminate than others, and feminine too; that is in part of the teachings of Ramakrishna, for example "What is the mark of a man who has become perfect (Siddha)?" . . . He becomes softer" "Get a soft bed" [see Advaita Ashram 1975, 53-54; 9]."

He also says that realised persons are like five-year old children. "The paramhansa is like a five-year old child. He sees everything filled with consciousness [Ramakrishna 1974, 207]."

Yet: By their works you shall know them. Even so: "God-men . . . act and behave to all appearances as common men [Tos 50]." A tentative conclusion: "It takes one to know one (A proverb)." 3. The deep feminine nature of husbands and other men has yin yang counterparts

Animus in the plural - The animus often is personified in the plural (Cohen 1975, 50). 

Animus is a deep feminine contact experience, often personified in the plural.


  1. A human has both masculine and feminine sides, and they are differently fronted as well.
  2. Deep men are likely to have feminine sides that they are aware of
  3. The deep feminine nature of husbands and other men has yin yang counterparts - compare the yin (feminine) in yang (masculine) in Taoist cosmology.
A human male has deep-going feminine sides in yang - and it may pay to get better aware of them, to get a more well-rounded, properly formed individual.


3.8. Anima Influence (The Speculation)

1. Some are seductive and cunning and forcing nonsense onto others to steer them - and feel sorry for themselves

Postulated: Something seductive and cunning inside against oneself - [There can be] harmful anima influence (Cohen 1975, 48).

When one must get up in the morning, but doesn't feel like it, it is the inferior woman in one that does the whining, complaining, and feeling sorry for oneself . . . The anima can also be an accessory to the fact of inflation. Jung described the experience: "What the anima said seemed to me full of a deep cunning . . . She might then have easily seduced me . . . [Then, later,] she would in all probability have said to me one day, "Do you imagine the nonsense you're engaged in is really art? Not a bit." (Cohen 1975, 48).

2. Many, many words are suspect, and so are chatterboxes - hard to live with

Deceptive words from inside - The most characteristic manifestation of the animus is not in a configured image . . . but rather in words (Cohen 1975, 49).

3. The troublesome man or woman is intelligent for it too, I assume

And other troublesome words to deal with - [This was said to] illustrate the prominent, troublesome aspect of the animus (Cohen 1975, 49] 

Something seductive and deceptive and troublesome from inside is from someone intelligent, it can be assumed.


  1. Some are seductive and cunning and forcing nonsense onto others to steer them - and feel sorry for themselves.
  2. Many, many words are suspect, and so are chatterboxes - hard to live with.
  3. The troublesome man or woman is intelligent for it too, it can be assumed.
Seductive and cunning chatterboxes may be called troublesome-intelligent.


3.9. Humanizing One's Near-Environment Too

1. New enterprises may be fit all through life, and thoughts of women may grow into big things

In the world - A person in the first half of life [is the phase most fit] a time for making a place in the world (Cohen 1975, 53).

In earlier times women were used by many nations as diviners and seers [with] thoughts and ideas that stimulate men to new enterprises (Cohen 1975, 51]

The feminine consciousness has a lunar rather than a solar character [and] a deceptive shimmer [that can], magically transform . . . little things into big things (Cohen 1975, 49).

2. What is worth going for may be within a continuous, unitary whole

Into a humanized whole - The conscious attitude dominated by Eros . . . seeks to humanize . . . make things into a continuous, unitary whole.  

Being in the world, going for humanized environments and wholeness, could be good.

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. Some new enterprises may grow big, and both men and women may be behind it.
  2. A unitary whole should not disregard female points of views, for the results of that are at best one-sided, and often destructive out of infantile incompleteness.


3.10. "I climbed"

1. Geometrical or symmetrical model shapes may be resorted to for "getting things together" in the deeper layers of the mind

Jungian Mandala thinking and a disturbed patient - [One of Jung's woman patients:] I climbed the mountain . . . I tried to lift the four stones . . . until their heads touched (Cohen 1975, 51).

The circle, or ring, (made up in this case of a blue fire that transforms but does not consume) is another universal symbol of individuation; Jung called [many] a circle a mandala (Sanskrit for "magic circle"), and it represents a containment or "getting it together" of the personality.. . . Using the mandala as a model, Jung came to think of individuation as a circumambulation of a centre . . . "The . . . mandala is always an inner image, which is gradually built up through (active) imagination, at such times when psychic equilibrium is disturbed" (Cohen 1975, 52-53).

2. Pertinent development fit for individuation, rather than silly boasts, senility and blunt isolation, is fit for normal, old persons too

Refined work and not senility - It is the same problem that is symbolized by the old conundrum of squaring the circle (Cohen 1975, 52).

Jung himself had a very productive old age, continuing to do increasingly advanced and refined work (Cohen 1975, 53n).

Spiritual development, [Jung] thought, was pertinent . . . the refining and differentiating course of individuation (Cohen 1975, 53).

The process of individuation is normally gradual (Cohen 1975, 53).

His [Jung's] stress on completeness rather than senility as the culmination of a human life was consistent with his personal experience (Cohen 1975, 53n] 

Disturbed circumambulation is not senility per se -

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. Some forms of art work help elderly persons too. For example, geometrical or symmetrical model shapes (such as Buddhist mandalas) may be resorted to for "getting things together" in the deeper layers of the mind.
  2. Pertinent development fit for individuation may counteract the effects of senility and blunt isolation in very happy cases.


3.11. A Case of Split Personality: Eve Black, White, etc.

1. Not unified

Not unified outwards - symbolised thus: She came to call herself "Januce," since she had faces pointing in each direction, like the Roman god, Janus (Cohen 1975, 59]

2. Several personalities are from Self

The ineffable spook was inadequate - Consecutive syntheses of unconscious material with the conscious attitude transform the Ego, producing the transitory Jane, and then Evelyn, an approximation of the Self. Her emergence is an ecstatic experience of rebirth (Cohen 1975, 57).

A third personality appeared, dubbed Jane. She was characterized by higher intelligence and generally greater depth of personality (Cohen 1975, 56).

Eve Black also had an allergy to nylon that Eve White did not have (Cohen 1975, 54-55).

She became aware of a formless, interloping spirit, whom she named, "the Spook." The Spook was experienced as standing between her "I," and a more important spirit, the mysterious, ineffable, "you," whom she came to identify with the therapist (Cohen 1975, 61).

There is a healing effect of the therapist to reckon with too, among other factors. (cf. Cohen 1975, 62]

With . . . powerful complexes . . . the unconscious is likened to a quagmire (Cohen 1975, 55).

3. Ecstacy faces hidden dangers, unknown to some.

A unification - The disunited pieces came together, smoothly, and not in any sudden, ecstatic experience (Cohen 1975, 61).

Then she had an ecstatic experience of rebirth, in which she felt she was no longer Jane, but all the previous personalities synthesized into (Cohen 1975, 57). 

A symbol of not being rightly focused or united outwards: having two faces like the Roman god Janus.

Becoming conscious through "plumbing heart and soul" has possible dangers and experiences.


  1. Who is not mentally unified may call herself by many names in a variety of ways.
  2. Several personalities may stem from Self. Where else?
  3. Ecstacy in Self faces hidden dangers, unknown to some. They are reckoned with in top yoga, by how things are organised and much else.
Mental unification is good, and helps the individual into Self and its talked of dangers for ecstatic individuals. A true friend's help is said to be invaluable here.


3.12. Jungian Attitudes

1. The Buddhist nirvana is happiness and worth going for, says Buddha, and that should be a given against common misconceptions among translators and readers

"Friends of God" are full of Jungian meaning, but nirvana [being extincted] hardly. The archetype of the manapersonality. The target of the projection of this archetype is seen as ". . . the mighty man in the form of the hero, chief, magician, medicine man, saint, the ruler of men and spirits, the friend of God." The feminine counterpart is the ". . . sublime, matriarchal figure" (Cohen 1975, 69).

The Buddhist nirvana . . . Jung felt that state had no meaning in human terms (Cohen 1975, 67n).

The Trinity is another such symbol that Jung examined at length (C. W. vol. 11, pars. 169-295 (Cohen 1975, 67n).

Parts of the truth will be found in different viewpoints: (Cohen 1975, 66).

2. Not all religious takes are pathological. Some may be quite noble, really

It is common that the Jungian speak of nobility, good and evil. It helps to attain supreme clarity . . . [Jung's] view was a view in which the scientific attitude and the religious one did not contradict (cf. Cohen 1975, 66).

A person or an idea is able to exert influence because some archetypal projection is evoked, we often speak of charisma (Cohen 1975, 68-69).

It is a common error among Jungian enthusiasts, for instance, to refer to any fascination caused by an archetypal projection as numinous, and thus give an aura of nobility to a pathological condition (Cohen 1975, 68n).

True faith, for [Paul] Tillich, was the state of being ultimately concerned (Cohen 1975, 66).

The paradox of the split between the goodness and evilness in us is probably the most fundamental such ambiguity (Cohen 1975, 66).  

Meanings depend on viewpoints, on vantage points, and the dichotomy between good and evil at times allows for shades of grey between those poles apart, if not colours too.

A solution to hold

Get a hold
  1. It is a dangerous misconception that the Buddhist nirvana is extinction, when it is spoken of by Buddha as happiness and worth going for.
  2. One should not hold the thought that there is such a thing as noble-pathological religiousness either. Thus, happiness and genuine nobility of spirit are twins, and may manifest in calmness.


From Chapter 4 - Jung and the Scientific Attitude

4.1. Not Delirium Tremens: Astrology-related

1. A spirit-mind-body should not at all times or in all respects be subjected to bodily and mental medicine men, after all

A moving vision - The intimacy of the mind-body relationship is shown in the highly sensitive indicators of physical pathology Jung found in psychological phenomena (Cohen 1975, 70).

Psychoanalysis should never be too far removed from medical supervision.) (Cohen 1975, 71]

2. The coiled and rising serpent in yoga is often called kundalini, and moves along the subtle spine area, we are told

A stiff teaching: A serpent (power) moves in the space-and-time body. A reliable symptom of . . . delirium tremens, is hallucinations of little, scurrying animals, usually insects or rodents. . . . are simply part of the universal structure of delirium tremens, and are, thus, an archetype (Cohen 1975, 71).

Knowledge finds itself in a space-time continuum . . ." (C. W., vol. 8, par. 912. Synchronicity: an Acausal Connecting Principle) (Cohen 1975, 70).

The serpent very often represents the cerebro-spinal system (Cohen 1975, 71 - He's guessing wildly. TK).

When we turn from that question to the one of psyche interacting with aspects of reality other than the body, we do not get much further into the dark (Cohen 1975, 70).

3. "May I not oversimplify the Crab in me."

Abdomen - or two big breasts and abdominal sides and the insides of upper arms too? The crab, on the other hand, having a sympathetic nervous system only, represents chiefly the sympathicus and para-sympathicus of the abdomen...." (Cohen 1975, 71 - He oversimplifies the crab emblem. In astrology the crab represents the organism, the home, a death sphere, emotional living, and not the small part that Cohen 1975, identifies.) 

In astrology, which Jung subscribes to, the Crab, Cancer, is one of the twelve symbols of the Zodiac, and represents things aligned with it.


  1. A mind-body should not at all times or in all respects be subjected to bodily and mental medicine men, even though "every little helps," hopefully, from their side too.
  2. The coiled and rising serpent in yoga is often called kundalini, and moves along the subtle spine, it is said. Sir John Woodroffe has written a book about it, The Serpent Power [Avalon 1974]. It is a cornerstone of yoga, actually.
  3. "May I not oversimplify the Crab in me, and not clown."
The mind-body needs more than health and well-being no matter what. It also depends on healthy moral stands and living up to them nicely, for example. Dr Rudolf Steiner is among those who teach thus.


4.2. Like a Near-Death Experience of Carl G. Jung (Proem)

I concluded that I was close to death.

My nurse afterward told me,

"It was as if you were surrounded by a bright glow."

Far below I saw the globe of the earth,

It was bathed in a gloriously blue light.

I saw the deep sea and the continents.

Far below my feet lay Ceylon,

And in the distance ahead of me the subcontinent of India . . .

A short distance away I saw in space a tremendous dark block of stone, like a meteorite. It was about the size of my house, or even bigger. It was floating in space....

It was sloughed away

If I now carried along with me everything I had ever experienced or done,

Everything that had happened around me.

I consisted of my own history,

And I felt with great certainty:

This is what I am.

From below, an image [of] my doctor, Dr. H. floated up (from the direction of Europe)

In life he was an avatar of this basileus,

The temporal embodiment of the primal form,

Which has existed from the beginning.

Now he is appearing in that primal form."

A mute exchange of thought took place between us.

[He had] a message to me:

To tell me there was a protest against my going away.

I was not to be allowed to enter the temple, to join the people in whose company I belonged....

I was worried about him.

For heaven's sake! He had appeared to me in his primal form!

So he was going to die.

Jung considered: "Why does he always pretend he doesn't know He is a basileus of Kos?

And that he has already assumed his primal form?

Damn it all, he ought to watch his step."

I was his last patient.

On April 4, 1944 - I still remember the exact date - I was allowed to sit up on the edge of my bed for the first time since the beginning of my illness.

On this same day Dr. H. took to his bed and did not leave it again.

He was a good doctor; there was something of the genius about him. . . . a prince of Kos."

(cf. Cohen 1975, 72-74]


4.3. Jung's Night Experience in England in the Summer of 1920

"With effort I opened my eyes.

I saw there, next to me on the pillow, the head of an old lady, the right eye wide open staring at me.

The left half of the face was missing up to the eye."

Moving to another room, Jung was not disturbed again.


4.4. Jung and the Scarab Beetle

Jung tells,

"I was sitting opposite (a young woman patient) one day, listening to her. She had had an impressive dream the night before, in which someone had given her a golden scarab - a costly piece of jewellery.

While she was still telling me this dream, I heard something behind me gently tapping on the window. I turned around and saw that it was a fairly large flying insect that was knocking against the window-pane from outside in the obvious effort to get into the dark room.

This seemed to me very strange. I opened the window at once and caught the insect in the air as it flew in. It was a scarabaeid beetle, or common rose-chafer (Cetonia aurata), whose gold-green colour most nearly resembles that of a golden scarab.

I handed the beetle to my patient with the words, 'Here is your scarab.'" (cf. Cohen 1975, 76)


4.5. Jung's Exposure to Einstein

"It was Einstein who first started me off thinking about a possible relativity of time as well as space. . . . We psychiatrists had difficulty in following his argument." [C. G. Jung] (in Cohen 1975, 77]

Einstein was developing his first theory of relativity. [3]

In a letter dated February 25, 1953, to Dr. Carl Selig, Jung wrote: "Professor Einstein was my guest on several occasions at dinner, when, as you have heard, Adolf Keller was present on one of them and on others Professor Eugen Bleuler . . ." (Cohen 1975, 77).

Discounting the cranks who inevitably take up such ideas, willingness to consider the validity of para-psychological phenomena seems to be the greatest in those attuned to modern physics. Jung's early exposure to it, arising from his acquaintance with Einstein in the early twenties, had a crucial formative effect on his thinking (Cohen 1975, 77).

"It was above all the simplicity and directness of his [Albert Einstein's] genius as a thinker that impressed me mightily." [Jung]

Survey of Jung Material

Jung on Individuation


Carl Gustav Jung, C G Jung, Carl Jung, Scientific Attitude, Literature  

Advaita Asram. 1975. Teachings of Sri Ramakrishna. Calcutta: Advaita Asram.

Avalon, Arthur 1974. (Sir John Woodroffe). The Serpent Power: The Secrets of Tantric and Shaktic Yoga. 7th ed. New York: Dover.

Cohen, Edmund D. 1975. C. G. Jung and the Scientific Attitude. New York: Philosophical Library.

Jung, Carl Gustav. 1957-1979. Collected works. New York: Pantheon (Bollingen Series, vols 1-20).

Kuhn, Thomas. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd enlarged ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Sharp, Daryl. 1991. ◦Jung Lexicon. Toronto: Inner City Books.

Sugg, Richard P., ed. 1992. Jungian Literary Criticism. Evanston, ILL: Northwestern University Press.

Ramakrishna. 1974. Tales and Parables of Sri Ramakrishna. 5th ed. Madras: Ramakrishna Math.

Harvesting the hay

Symbols, brackets, signs and text icons explained: (1) Text markers(2) Digesting.

Carl Gustav Jung, C G Jung, Carl Jung, Scientific Attitude, To top    Section     Set    Next

Carl Gustav Jung, C G Jung, Carl Jung, Scientific Attitude. User's Guide   ᴥ    Disclaimer 
© 2003–2019, Tormod Kinnes, MPhil [Email]