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Paingala-Upanishad and Adhyatma-Upanishad in Short

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Paingala-Upanishad in Short

Adhyaya 1

Paingala had served under Yajnavalkya for twelve years, and asked him to initiate him into the supreme mysteries of Kaivalya.

Yajnavalkya answered: "Sat (Be-ness) is spoken of as Brahman - changeless, Truth, Wisdom, and Bliss.

"He created the deities ruling over the organs of sense and actions. Those He created, He located in the spheres (pertaining to them)."

Adhyaya 2

Paingala again: "How did Ishvara, who is the creator, preserver, and destroyer and the Lord of all the worlds, acquire the state of Jiva?"

Yajnavalkya answered:

"Passion, anger, etc., are of the essence of akash.

"Out of the collective three parts of Sattva-essence, He created the internal organ: manas, buddhi, chitta, and ahankara are its modifications. Sankalpa (thought), certitude, memory, egoism, and [proper] inquiry (anusandhana) are their functions. Throat, face, navel, heart, and the middle of the brow are their seats.

"Dik (the quarters), Vayu, Arka (the sun), Varuna, Ashvini Devas, Indra, Upendra, Mrityu (the God of death), Prajapati, the Moon, Vishnu the four-faced Brahma and Sambhu (Siva) are the presiding deities of the organs.

There are the five koshas (sheaths), viz., annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijnanamaya, and anandamaya.

  1. Annamaya sheath is created and developed out of the essence of food, and is of the form of food. It alone is the gross body.

  2. The pranas with the organs of action (karmendriyas) is the pranamaya sheath.

  3. Manas with the organs of sense (jnanendriyas) is the manomaya sheath.

  4. Buddhi with the jnanendriyas is the vijnanamaya sheath. These three sheaths [2, 3, and 4] constitute the lingasharira (or the subtle body).

  5. That which tends to the ajnana (ignorance) of the Reality (of Atma) is the anandamaya sheath. This is the karana body.

"There is the perception of objects, of sound, etc., through the grace of the devata presiding over each of them. In it, the Jiva, being in the middle of the eyebrows and pervading the body from head to foot, becomes the agent of actions. He becomes also the enjoyer of the fruits of it.

"Having resorted to a good Guru and served under him for a long time, one out of many attains moksha, free from bondage. "There should always be inquiry (into Atma), and into the universe, Jiva and Paramatma.

Adhyaya 3

Paingala asked Yajnavalkya to explain the mahavakyas (sacred sentences, great sayings, of the Vedas).

Yajnavalkya answered: "One should scrutinise (the sacred sentences), Tattvamasi (That are you), Tvamtadasi (You are That), Twambrahmasi (You are Brahman) and Ahambrahmasmi (I am Brahman).

"Try to meditate like a lamp in a place without wind.

"These sentences (Tattvamasi and Ahambrahmasmi), bring him face to face with the ultimate Reality.

"Virat, Hiranyagarbha and Ishvara being freed from the vehicle of Maya, are absorbed into Paramatma.

"Atma, the Kutastha, should be meditated on as being of the size of a thumb, as being of the nature of the jyotis (light) without smoke, as being within, illuminating all and as being indestructible."

Adhyaya 4

Paingala: "To the wise, what is their karma? And what is their state?"

Yajnavalkya answered:

"Know Atma to be the rider and the body as the chariot. Know also buddhi as the charioteer and manas as the reins. The wise say the organs are the horses, the objects are the roads (through which the horses travel) and the hearts are the moving balloons.

"Maharishis say that Atma, when associated with the sense organs and manas, is the enjoyer.

"Narayana alone is established in the heart.

"Of what avail is milk to one content with nectar? Of what avail are the Vedas to him who has known his Atma thus? After having purified the heart and contemplated on the One without disease (viz., Brahman), the cognizing of 'I' as the supreme and the all is the highest bliss.

"The inner Atma is invisible like vayu ["wind"]. Through the torch of wisdom, the internal Atma sees (or knows).

"That which exists (in this world) is only impermanent. "One should worship that which is satya (truth).

"Never shall he attain emancipation who has not the self-cognition, 'I am Brahman'.

"Brahmanas have their spiritual eyes wide open.

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Adhyatma-Upanishad in Short

The One Aja (unborn) is ever located in the cave (of the heart) within the body. (Prithivi) the earth is His body; though He pervades the earth, it does not know Him. The waters are His body; though He pervades the waters, they do not know Him. Agni is His body; though He pervades agni, it does not know Him. Vayu is His body; though He pervades vayu, it does not know Him. Akash is His body; though He pervades akash, it does not know Him.

Manas is His body. Buddhi is His body. Ahankara is His body. Chitta is His body. But [most often] they do not know Him, the One pervading them all.

The inner soul is the one divine.

The wise of deep meditation should leave off the idea of Atma in all others, removing the false attribution of self. Think of Atma (in yourself), to be the (supreme) Atma. Become Brahman and be (in a) blessed (state).

Having become the self-resplendent, give up the macrocosm and microcosm alike.

Maya envelops even the wise, should they be careless.

One should see (or cognize) his Atma as all-full and existing by itself (alone). This universe is Atma and there is nothing but Atma.

Unite the chitta with Paramatman. If one knows Atma as unbroken bliss in itself, then he drinks always the juice (or essence) of bliss in his Atma.

The fruit of vairagya is bodha (spiritual wisdom).

Realise Parabrahman is partless and Sachchidananda.

That ascetic is said to possess Sthitaprajna who enjoys bliss always

A man is subject to prarabdha karma [result of past karma now experienced] so long as he is affected by pleasure, etc.

An arrow that is discharged towards an object with the idea that it is a tiger, does not stop when the tiger is found to be a cow.

Atma is replete with Sat, Chit, and Ananda, the one essence, the eternal.

The true nature of one's Atma is above the reach of speech and mind.

Sat, the self-existent,

I am of the nature of pure enlightenment. I am the one and the perpetual bliss.

This is the teaching of Nirvana; and this is the teaching of the Vedas.

Note

This Upanishad is also called Turiyatita Avadhuta Upanishad.

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