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Subala-Upanishad in Short

Khanda 1

Raikva asked: "At first?"

The Lord answered: "It became an egg. After remaining so for one year, it split into two."

Khanda 2

The breath of this great Being became the Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, Siksha (the science of sounds), [etc.]

This Atma (or the Self of Purusha) is Hiranyajyotis (or golden or effulgent Light) into which all the universe is absorbed.

Becoming Vaishvanara (fire) at the end (of creation), He burnt up all objects.

And Lamas* becomes one with the supreme Lord. This is the teaching of Nirvana and this is the teaching of the Vedas.

*Lamas: Darkness.

Khanda 3

Atma is pranaless, [etc.]

"Means for attaining Atmahood: satya (truth), dana (charity), tapas (religious austerities), non-injury to any creature, celibacy and complete indifference to worldy objects.

Khanda 4

"In the middle of the heart is something like a lotus. It opens into many (petals). There are ten openings in the heart. The (different kinds of) pranas are located there. This dahara-lotus has many petals like a lily.

The divine Atma (resplendent effulgence) [first] sleeps in the supreme kosha (or anandamaya sheath).

Khanda 5

"He who moves in the eye, in the visible, in the sun, in the midis, in prana, in vijnana, in ananda, in the deep heart, and within all else, is Atma. He who moves in ahankara and mind-stuff (chitta), is [ultimately] Atma. He is the knower of all, the one."

Khanda 6

"The hand and that which is lifted are Narayana. And that is the teaching of the Vedas."

Khanda 7

"The eternal Aja (unborn), is located in the cave (of the heart). Earth is His body. Such an one is the Mind within all creatures, the one Narayana."

Khanda 8

"The Atma lives in the midst of the body filled with fat, flesh and phlegm in a seat very closely shut up with shining many-coloured walls resembling a Gandharva city and with the (subtle) essence going out of it (to other parts of the body)."

"He is a wise person who cognizes Atma thus."

Khanda 9

Raikva questioned: "Lord, in whom does everything disappear (or merge)?"

He was informed: "He who) disappears into something subtler, becomes that something [for a while].

That which disappears in manas becomes manas. That which disappears in ananda becomes ananda itself; that which disappears in turya becomes turya."

"He who knows this [fully experiences this lifting] is neither born, nor dies, and is capable of burning all. Such an Atma is not attained by a hundred sayings."

"He who, having centred his mind on Atma sees Atma and becomes one with the Atma of all, is also he who knows this."

Khanda 10

Raikva asked: "Lord, where do all things rest?"

He answered: "In nether worlds [Rasatals realms]."

"In what are these Rasatala worlds woven, warp and woof?" He answered: "In the worlds of Bhuh."

[The chain of thought goes through nether lokas to the higher lokas, including Satya loka, Prajapati loka, Brahmaloka, and Sarvaloka.]

"In what are these (Sarva lokas) woven warp and woof?"

"In Atma—which is Brahman, like beads (in a rosary) warp-wise and woof-wise."

Then he said: "All these rest in Atma."

Khanda 11

Raikva asked again: "What is the seat of Atma which is replete with vijnana?"

Answer: "In the middle of the heart is a lotus called dahara. It buds forth in many petals like a water-lily. In the middle of it is an ocean (samudra)."

Khanda 12

"Anna (food) was first cooked in Brahmaloka in the Maha-samvartaka fire.

Khanda 13

"The wise man should conduct himself like a lad, with the nature of a child, wise and without exercising any authority."

"Having found with certitude the supreme seat . . . he will stand by Satya (truth), since Atma is Satya."

Khanda 15

Raikva asked: "What does it burn and how?"

He was told: "When it goes away, it burns prana, apana, vyana, udana, samana, vairambha, mukhya, antaryama, prabhanjana, kumara, shyena, krishna, shveta, and naga. Then it burns prithivi, apas, tejas, vayu, and akash; then it burns the waking, the dreaming, the dreamless sleeping and the fourth states as well as the maharlokas and worlds higher; then it burns the lokaloka (the highest world forming a limit to the other worlds). Then it burns dharma and adharma. Then it burns that which is beyond, is sunless, limitless, and worldless. Then it burns mahat; it burns avyakta; it burns akshara; it burns mrityu; and mrityu becomes one with the great Lord."

Khanda 16

"These doctrines should be taught to him who has supreme devotion to the Lord."


In the Chhandogya Upanishad, Raikva is said to be the imparter of Samvargavidya.

Khanda means divided or with parts.

Narayana is the Universal Self. The whole universe is God Narayana.

The cause of an effect is in turn regarded as the effect of a higher cause in such expositions.


Tejobindu-Upanishad in Short

Chapter 1

Param-Dhyana (the supreme meditation) should be on tejo bindu, which is the Atma of the universe, and seated in the heart, which is of the size of an atom, quiescent, gross and subtle, as also above these qualities. That should be the dhyana of the Munis as well as of men.

It is very subtle, and is the supreme seat. That seat is above the reach of speech. It is Svabhava (Self or nature) reachable only by bhava (being). The indestructible seat is difficult to perceive. It is Brahman, is adhyatma (or the deity presiding as Atma) and is beyond the void, and abiding in the heart. t is realised by the Munis.

Yama (forbearance), niyama (religious observance), tyaga (renunciation), mouna (silence) according to time and place, asana (posture), mulabandha, seeing all bodies as equal, the position of the eye, prana-samyamana (control of breath), pratyahara (subjugation of the senses), dharana, atma-dhyana and samadhi—these are spoken of as the parts (of yoga) in order.

1. By yama one controls all his organs (of sense and actions) through the vijnana that all is Brahman; this should be practised often and often.

2. In niyama there is the supreme bliss enjoyed through the flowing (or inclination) of the mind towards things of the same (spiritual) kind, (viz., Brahman).

3. In tyaga (renunciation), one abandons the manifestations (or objects) of the universe through the cognition of Atma that is Sat and Chit.

4. Mouna is the silence, and without reaching That, speech returns along with [ordinary] mind. How is it possible to speak of "That", from which speech returns? It is "That" which is (really) called silence, and which is naturally understood (as such). That should be known as "the lonely seat" through which all this (universe) is fully pervaded.

5. That should be known as asana (posture), in which one has with ease and without fatigue (uninterrupted) meditation of Brahman.

One should look on the world as full of Brahman. That vision is very noble.

Dharana of the mind is thought of highly by the wise. By dharana is meant that state where one indulges in the good thought, "I am Brahman alone," and is without any support. This dhyana is the giver of supreme bliss. This kind of bliss should be practised (or enjoyed) by a wise person until his cognition itself united in a moment with the state of pratyag (Atma). Then this King of Yogins becomes a Siddha, and is without any aid (outside himself).

Obstacles to samadhi should be overcome by inquirers into Brahman. Through the vrittis of Brahman, one gets fullness. This vritti of Brahman is very purifying and supreme. He who having understood this vritti, makes advances in it, becomes a good and blessed person.

Reducing the visible into the invisible state, one should see everything as Brahman. The wise should ever stay in bliss with their understanding full of the essence of Chit.

Chapter 2

The partless essence is the visible world, it is the Self, happiness, vidya; eternal. It is knowable, it is you.

It is the house and the holy seat. It is Om, japa, meditation, the seat, all."

"The partless essence should be regarded as Chinmatra* and the Absolute Consciousness; and it alone is the (real) essence. There is nothing beyond Chinmatra. I and you are Chinmatra. There is nothing without Chinmatra. Maya is nothing without Chinmatra.

*Chinmatra: Essential consciousness or deep mind, basic thought, original mind; used in Advaita Vedanta, for the germ of cosmic ideation (the Essence). In the human constitution it is atman.

Everything is from Chinmatra. Whatever is seen and however seen—it is Chinmatra so far. Without Chinmatra, there is no motion, no Moksha and no goal. Brahman is known to be nothing but Chinmatra, the partless essence.

Chapter 3

I, Parabrahman am the supreme and endless bliss and of the nature of the eternal one essence and Chinmatra.

I am like the sky. I am solely Sat, Ananda, and Chit which is unconditioned and pure – enlightened.

I am ever replete with consciousness. I am ever the very consciousness; I am 'I'.

I am the great Atma. I shine by myself; I am my own Atma, my own goal, enjoy myself, play in myself, have my own spiritual effulgence, am my own greatness, and am used to play in my own Atma.

I alone am in the heart like Chidaditya (the consciousness-sun). Sachchidananda. All this is Brahman alone. There is none other than Brahman and that is 'I'.

"I am Brahman that is Sat, and bliss, and the ancient. I am of the nature of being unperceivable by the senses.

I am of Nirvanic bliss, of truth and wisdom, of Sat alone and bliss.

I am of the nature of the Real and the pure. I am of the nature of Sat.

One should cognize his own Atma.

Chapter 4

I am Chidatma. I am Para-Atma. One who will simply stay in Atma is called a Jivanmukta (liberated while living), one who stays in Chinmatra (absolute consciousness). I am certainly Brahman. "I am certainly Brahman. I am Chit."

A Jivanmukta also rests in his own Self.

He is a Videhamukta (liberated out of the body) who realises Brahmic bliss, who lives in the household of Brahmic bliss – such a man is a Videhamukta. His or her Atma is of the nature of the secondless. Enjoy your Atma yourself, be content, enjoying your own Atma, and in the end attain Videhamukti."


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