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Hymns of the Rigveda

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RESERVATIONS RIGVEDA 
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Rigveda 1:1-50

From the Hymns of the Rigveda, based on Ralph Griffith's translation of 1889, re-edited somewhat by Tormod Kinnes.

Book 1: 193 hymns

1 - Agni, Fire

I LAUD Agni, the chosen priest, god, minister of sacrifice,

The hotar, the most lavish of wealth. [1]

Worthy is Agni to be praised by living as by ancient seers.

He shall bring the gods here. [2]

Through Agni man gets wealth, yea, plenty waxing day by day,

Most rich in heroes, glorious. [3]

Agni, the perfect sacrifice which you encompass about

Goes to the gods. [4]

May god Agni, sapient-minded priest, truthful, most gloriously great,

Come here with the gods. [5]

Whatever blessing, Agni, you will grant to your worshipper,

That, Angiras, is your truth. [6]

To you, dispeller of the night, Agni, day by day with prayer

Bringing you reverence, we come [7]

Ruler of sacrifices, guard of eternal law, radiant one,

Increasing in your own abode. [8]

Be easy of approach to us, even as a father to his son:

Agni, be with us for our weal. [9]

COMMENT: The first hymn tells about Agni, the Fire-God, how he was viewed at one time. It is clear that Vedic people resorted to Fire as a means for getting and having wealth and success. Surely, wealth and success in the old times was very often aligned with proper and fit uses of fire.

Through clever internal use of this old principle, Agni, the host of heaven, people increased (gained) inside, in the heavenly area. And that was in general the meaning of doing tapas, ascetism, and many other sacrifices, which not only yogis but also ancient Jews resorted to very much too, in one way (shape, variant) or another.

2 - Vayu, Wind

BEAUTIFUL Vayu, come, for you these soma drops have been prepared:

Drink of them, listen well to our call. [1]

Knowing the days, with soma juice poured forth, the singers glorify

You, Vayu, with their hymns of praise. [2]

Vayu, your penetrating stream goes forth to the worshipper,

Far-spreading for the soma draught. [3]

These, Indra-Vayu, have been shed; come for our offered dainties' sake:

The drops are yearning for you both. [4]

Well do you mark libations, you Vayu and Indra [chief god, rain-god etc.], rich in spoil

So come swiftly towards us here. [5]

Vayu and Indra [rain-god], come to what the soma presser has prepared:

Soon, heroes, thus I make my prayer. [6]

Mitra of holy strength I call, and foe-destroying Varuna ["sky-ruler", corresponding closely to the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda],

Who make the oil-fed rite complete. [7]

Mitra and Varuna, through law, lovers and cherishers of law,

Have you obtained your mighty power [8]

Our sages, Mitra-Varuna, wide dominion, strong by birth,

Vouchsafe us strength that works well.

3 - Asvins, Twin horsemen

YOU Asvins, rich in treasure, lords of splendour, having nimble hands,

Accept the sacrificial food. [1]

You Asvins, rich in wondrous deeds, you heroes worthy of our praise,

Accept our songs with mighty thought. [2]

Nisatyas, wonder-workers, yours are these libations with clipt grass:

Come whose paths are red with flame. [3]

Indra marvellously bright, come, these libations long for you,

Thus by fine fingers purified. [4]

Urged by the holy singer, sped by song, come, Indra, to the prayers,

Of the libation-pouring priest. [5]

Approach, Indra, hasting you, lord of bay horses, to the prayers.

Take delight in our libation. [6]

You Visvedevas, who protect, reward, and cherish men, approach

Your worshipper's drink-offering. [7]

You Visvedevas, swift at work, come here quickly to the draught,

As milch-kine hasten to their stalls. [8]

The Visvedevas, changing shape like serpents, fearless, void of guile,

Bearers, accept the sacred draught [9]

Wealthy in spoil, enriched with hymns, may bright Sarsavad desire,

With eager love, our sacrifice. [10]

Inciter of all pleasant songs, inspirer of all gracious thought,

Sarasvati, accept our rite [11]

Sarasvati, the mighty flood,- she with light illuminates,

She brightens every pious thought.

4 - Indra

AS A GOOD cow to him who milks, we call the doer of fair deeds,

To our assistance day by day. [1]

Come to our libations, drink of soma; soma-drinker you!

The rich One's rapture gives kine. [2]

So may we be acquainted with your innermost benevolence:

Neglect us not, come over here. [3]

Go to the wise unconquered One, ask you of Indra, skilled in song,

Him who is better than your friends. [4]

Whether the men who mock us say, Depart to another place,

You who serve Indra and none else; [5]

Or whether, god of wondrous deeds, all our true people call us blest,

Still may we dwell in Indra's care. [6]

To the swift One bring the swift, man-cheering, grace of sacrifice,

That to the friend gives wings and joy. [7]

You, Satakratu, drank this and were the Vritras' slayer; you

Help the warrior in the fray. [8]

We strengthen you, Satakratu, yea, you the powerful in fight,

That we may win us wealth, Indra. [9]

To him the mighty stream of wealth, prompt friend of him who pours the juice,

Yea, to this Indra sing your song.

5 - Indra

COME HERE and sit down: sing your song to Indra,

Companions, bringing hymns of praise. [1]

To him the richest of the rich, the Lord of treasures excellent,

Indra, with soma juice outpoured. [2]

May he stand by us in our need and in abundance for our wealth:

May he come near to us with his strength. [3]

Whose pair of tawny horses yoked in battles foemen do not challenge:

To Indra sing your song. [4]

Come near to the soma-drinker, for his enjoyment, these pure drops,

The somas mingled with the curd. [5]

You, grown at once to perfect strength, were born to drink the soma juice,

Strong Indra, for pre-eminence. [6]

Indra, lover of the song, may these quick somas enter you:

May they bring bliss to you, the sage. [7]

Our chants of praise have strengthened you, Satakratu, and our lauds

Therefore strengthen the songs we sing. [8]

Indra, you whose succour never fails, accept these viands thousand fold,

Wherein all manly powers abide. [9]

Indra, you who love song, let no man hurt our bodies, keep

Slaughter far from us, for you can.

6 - Indra

THEY WHO stand round him as he moves harness the bright, the ruddy steed

The lights are shining in the sky. [1]

On both sides to the car they yoke the two bay coursers dear to him,

Bold, tawny, bearers of the Chief. [2]

You, making light where no light was, and form, men: where form was not,

Were born together with the Dawns. [3]

Thereafter they, as is their wont, threw off the state of' babes unborn,

Assuming sacrificial names. [4]

You, Indra, with the tempest-gods, the breakers down of what is firm,

Found the kine even in the cave. [5]

Worshipping even as they list, singers laud him who finds wealth,

The far-renowned, the mighty One. [6]

May you verily be seen coming by fearless Indra's side:

Both joyous, equal in your sheen. [7]

With Indra's well beloved hosts, the blameless, hastening to heaven,

The sacrificer cries aloud. [8]

Come from this place, Wanderer, or downward from the light of heaven:

Our songs of praise all yearn for this. [9]

Indra we seek to give us help, from here, from heaven above the earth,

Or from the spacious firmament.

7 - Indra

INDRA the singers with high praise, Indra reciters with their lauds,

Indra the choirs have glorified. [1]

Indra has ever close to him his two bay steeds and word-yoked car,

Indra the golden, thunder-armed. [2]

Indra has raised the Sun on high in heaven, that he may see afar:

He burst the mountain for the kine. [3]

Help us, Indra, in the frays, yea, frays, where thousand spoils are gained,

With awful aids, awful One. [4]

In mighty battle we invoke Indra, Indra in lesser fight,

The friend who bends his bolt at fiends. [5]

Unclose, our manly hero, you forever bounteous, yonder cloud,

For us, you irresistible. [6]

Still higher, at each strain of mine, thunder-armed Indra's praises rise:

I find no laud worthy of him. [7]

Even as the bull drives on the herds, he drives the people with his might,

The Ruler irresistible: [8]

Indra who rules with single sway men, riches, and the fivefold race

Of those who dwell upon the earth. [9]

For your sake from each side we call Indra away from other men:

Ours, and none others', may he be.

8 - Indra

INDRA, bring wealth that gives delight, the victor's ever-conquering wealth,

Most excellent, to be our aid; [1]

By means of which we may repel our foes in battle hand to hand,

By you assisted with the car. [2]

Aided by you, the thunder-armed, Indra, may we lift up the bolt,

And conquer all our foes in fight. [3]

With you, India, for ally with missile-darting heroes, may

We conquer our embattled foes. [4]

Mighty is Indra, yea supreme; greatness be his, the Thunderer:

Wide as the heaven extends his power [5]

Which aids those to win them sons, who come as heroes to the fight,

Or singers loving holy thoughts. [6]

His belly, drinking deepest draughts of soma, like an ocean swells,

Like wide streams from the cope of heaven. [7]

So also is his excellence, great, vigorous, rich in cattle, like

A ripe branch to the worshipper. [8]

For verily your mighty powers, Indra, are saving helps at once

To a worshipper like me. [9]

So are his lovely gifts; let lauds and praises be to Indra sung,

That he may drink the soma juice.

9 - Indra

COME, Indra, and delight you with the juice at all the soma feasts,

Protector, mighty in your strength. [1]

To Indra pour you forth the juice, the active gladdening juice to him

the gladdening, omnific God. [2]

Lord of all men, fair of cheek, rejoice you in the gladdening lauds,

Present at these drink-offerings. [3]

Songs have outpoured themselves to you, Indra, the strong, the guardian Lord,

And raised themselves unsatisfied. [4]

Send to us bounty manifold, Indra, worthy of' our wish,

For power supreme is only your. [5]

Indra, stimulate thereto us emulously fain for wealth,

And glorious, most splendid One. [6]

Give, Indra, wide and lofty fame, wealthy in cattle and in strength,

Lasting our life-time, failing not. [7]

Grant us high fame, Indra, grant riches bestowing thousands, those

Fair fruits of earth borne home in wains. [8]

Praising with songs the praise-worthy who cometh to our aid, we call

Indra, the Treasure-Lord of wealth. [9]

To lofty Indra, dweller by each libation, the pious man

Sings forth aloud a strengthening hymn.

10 - Indra

THE chanters hymn you, they who say the word of praise magnify you.

The priests have raised you up on high, Satakratu, like a pole. [1]

As up he clomb from ridge to ridge and looked upon the toilsome task,

Indra observes this wish of his, and the Rain hastens with his troop. [2]

Harness your pair of strong bay steeds, long-maned, whose bodies fill the girths,

And, Indra, Soma-drinker, come to listen to our songs of praise. [3]

Come here, answer you the song, sing in approval, cry aloud.

Good Indra, make our prayer succeed, and prosper this our sacrifice. [4]

To Indra must a laud be said, to strengthen him who freely gives,

That Sakra may take pleasure in our friendship and drink-offerings. [5]

Him, him we seek for friendship, him for riches and heroic might.

For Indra, he is Sakra, he shall aid us while he gives us wealth. [6]

Easy to turn and drive away, Indra, is spoil bestowed by you.

Unclose the stable of the kine, and give us wealth Thunder-armed [7]

The heaven and earth contain you not, together, in your wrathful mood.

Win us the waters of the sky, and send us kine abundantly. [8]

Hear, you whose ear is quick, my call; take to you readily my songs

Indra, let this laud of mine come nearer even than your friend. [9]

We know you mightiest of all, in battles hearer of our cry.

Of you most mighty we invoke the aid that gives thousandfold. [10]

Indra, Son of Kusika, drink our libation with delight.

Prolong our life anew, and cause the seer to win a thousand gifts. [11]

Lover of song, may these our songs on every side encompass you:

Strengthening you of lengthened life, may they be dear delights to you.

11 - Indra

ALL SACRED songs have magnified Indra expansive as the sea,

The best of warriors borne on cars, the Lord, the very Lord of strength. [1]

Strong in your friendship, Indra, Lord of power and might, we have no fear.

We glorify with praises you, the never-conquered conqueror. [2]

The gifts of Indra from of' old, his saving succours, never fail,

When to the praise-singers he gives the boon of substance rich in kine. [3]

Crusher of forts, the young, the wise, of strength unmeasured, was he born

Sustainer of each sacred rite, Indra, the Thunderer, much-extolled. [4]

Lord of the thunder, you didst burst the cave of Vala rich in cows.

The gods came pressing to your side, and free from terror aided you, [5]

I, hero, through your bounties am come to the flood addressing you.

Song-lover, here the singers stand and testify to you thereof. [6]

The wily Susna, Indra! you over-threw with your wondrous powers.

The wise beheld this deed of yours: now go beyond their eulogies. [7]

Our songs of praise have glorified Indra who rules by his might,

Whose precious gifts in thousands come, yea, even more abundantly.

12 - Agni

WE choose Agni the messenger, the herald, master of all wealth,

Well skilled in this our sacrifice. [1]

With callings ever they invoke Agni, Agni, Lord of the House,

Oblation-bearer, much beloved. [2]

Bring the gods here, Agni, born for him who strews the sacred grass:

You are our herald, meet for praise. [3]

Wake up the willing gods, since you, Agni, perform embassage:

Sit on the sacred grass with gods. [4]

Agni, radiant one, to whom the holy oil is poured, bum up

Our enemies whom fiends protect. [5]

By Agni Agni is inflamed, Lord of the House, wise, young, who bears

The gift: the ladle is his mouth. [6]

Praise Agni in the sacrifice, the Sage whose ways are ever true,

The god who drives grief away. [7]

God, Agni, be his strong defence who lord of sacrificial gifts,

Worship you the messenger. [8]

Whoso with sacred gift would fain call Agni to the feast of gods,

Purifier, favour him. [9]

Such, Agni, Purifier, bright, bring here to our sacrifice,

To our oblation bring the gods. [10]

So lauded by our newest song of praise bring opulence to us,

And food, with heroes for our sons. [11]

Agni, by effulgent flame, by all invokings of the gods,

Show pleasure in this laud of ours.

13 - Agni

AGNI, well-kindled, bring the gods for him who offers holy gifts.

Worship them, Purifier, priest. [1]

Son of Thyself, present, Sage, our sacrifice to the gods today.

Sweet to the taste, that they may feast. [2]

Dear Narasamsa, sweet of tongue, the giver of oblations, I

Invoke to this our sacrifice. [3]

Agni, on your most easy car, glorified, here bring the gods:

Manu appointed you as priest. [4]

Strew, you wise, the sacred grass that drips with oil, in order due,

Where the immortal is beheld. [5]

Thrown open be the Doors Divine, unfailing, that assist the rite,

For sacrifice this day and now. [6]

I call the lovely Night and Dawn to seat them on the holy grass

At this our solemn sacrifice. [7]

The two Invokers I invite, the wise, divine and sweet of tongue,

To celebrate this our sacrifice. [8]

Ila, Sarasvati, Mahi, three Goddesses who bring delight,

Be seated, peaceful, on the grass. [9]

Tvastar I call, the earliest born, the wearer of all forms at will:

May he be ours and curs alone. [10]

God, Sovran of the Wood, present this our oblation to the gods,

And let the giver be renowned. [11]

With Svaha. pay the sacrifice to Indra in the offerer's house:

There I call the deities.

14 - Visvedevas

To drink the soma, Agni, come, to our service and our songs.

With all these gods; and worship them. [1]

The Kanvas have invoked you; they, Singer, sing you songs of praise

Agni, come here with the gods; [2]

Indra, Vayu, Brihaspati, Mitra, Agni, Pusan, Bhaga,

Adityas, and the Marut host. [3]

For you these juices are poured forth that gladden and exhilarate,

The meath-drops resting in the cup. [4]

The sons of Kanva fain for help adore you, having strewn the grass,

With offerings and all things prepared. [5]

Let the swift steeds who carry you, thought-yoked and dropping holy oil,

Bring the gods to the soma draught. [6]

Adored, the strengtheners of Law, unite them, Agni, with their Dames:

Make them drink meath, bright of tongue. [7]

Let them, Agni, who deserve worship and praise drink with your tongue

Tle meath in solemn sacrifice. [8]

Away, from the Sun's realm of light, the wise invoking priest shall bring

All gods awaking with the dawn. [9]

With all the gods, with Indra, with Vayu, and Mitra's splendours, drink,

Agni, the pleasant soma juice. [10]

Ordained by Manu as our priest, you sit, Agni, at each rite:

Hallow you this our sacrifice. [11]

Harness the Red Mares to your car, the Bays, God, the flaming ones:

With those bring hitherward the gods.

15 - Ritu

INDRA drink the soma juice with Ritu; let the cheering drops

Sink deep within, which settle there. [1]

Drink from the Purifier's cup, Maruts, with Ritu; sanctify

The rite, for you give precious gifts. [2]

Nestar, with your Dame accept our sacrifice; with Ritu drink,

For you are he who gives wealth. [3]

Bring the gods, Agni; in the three appointed places set them down:

Surround them, and with Ritu drink. [4]

Drink Soma after the Ritus, from the Brahmana's bounty: undissolved,

Indra, is your friendship's bond. [5]

Mitra, Varuna, you whose ways are firm - a Power that none deceives-,

With Ritu you have reached the rite. [6]

The soma-pressers, fain for wealth, praise the Wealth-giver in the rite,

In sacrifices praise the god. [7]

May the Wealth-giver grant to us riches that shall be far renowned.

These things we gain, among the gods. [8]

He with the Ritu fain would drink, Wealth-giver, from the Nestar's bowl.

Haste, give your offering, and depart. [9]

As we this fourth time, Wealth-giver, honour you with the Ritus, be

A Giver bountiful to us. [10]

Drink you the meath, Asvins bright with flames, whose acts are pure. who with

Ritus accept the sacrifice. [11]

With Ritu, through the house-fire, you, kind Giver, guide sacrifice:

Worship the gods for the pious man.

16 - Indra

LET your bay steeds bring you, the Strong, here to drink the soma draught-

Those, Indra, who are bright as suns. [1]

Here are the grains bedewed with oil: here let the Bay coursers bring

Indra upon his easiest car. [2]

Indra at early morn we call, Indra in course of sacrifice,

Indra to drink the soma juice. [3]

Come here, with your long-maned steeds, Indra, to- the draught we pour

We call you where the juice is shed. [4]

Come to this our song of praise, to the libation poured for you

Drink of it like a stag athirst. [5]

Here are the drops of soma juice expressed on sacred grass: thereof

Drink, Indra, to increase your might. [6]

Welcome to you be this our hymn, reaching your heart, most excellent:

Then drink the soma juice expressed. [7]

To every draught of pressed-out juice Indra, the Vritra-slayer, comes,

To drink the soma for delight. [8]

Fulfil, Satakratu, all our wish with horses and with kine:

With holy thoughts we sing your praise.

17 - Indra-Varuna

I CRAVE help from the Imperial lords, from Indra-Varuna; may they

Both favour one of us like me. [1]

Guardians of men, you ever come with ready succour at the call

Of every singer such as I. [2]

Sate you, according to your wish, Indra-Varuna, with wealth:

Fain would we have you nearest us. [3]

May we be sharers of the powers, sharers of the benevolence

Of you who give strength bounteously. [4]

Indra and Varuna, among givers of thousands, meet for praise,

Are Powers who merit highest laud. [5]

Through their protection may we gain great store of wealth, and heap it up

Enough and still to spare, be ours. [6]

Indra-Varuna, on you for wealth in many a form I call:

Still keep us victorious. [7]

Indra-Varuna, - through our songs that seek to win you to ourselves,

Give us at once your sheltering help. [8]

Indra-Varuna, to you may fair praise which I offer come,

joint eulogy which you dignify.

18 - Brahmanaspati

BRAHMANAPSATI, make him who presses Soma glorious,

Even Kaksivan Ausija. [1]

The rich, the healer of disease, who gives wealth, increases store,

The prompt,-may he be with us still. [2]

Let not the foeman's curse, let not a mortal's onslaught fall on us

Preserve us, Brahmanaspati. [3]

Never is the mortal hero harmed whom Indra, Brahmanaspati,

And Soma graciously inspire. [4]

Do, you, Brahmanaspati, and Indra, Soma, Daksina,

Preserve that mortal from distress. [5]

To the Assembly's wondrous Lord, to Indra's lovely friend who gives

Wisdom, have I drawn near in prayer. [6]

He without whom no sacrifice, even of the wise man, prospers; he

Stirs up the series of thoughts. [7]

He makes the oblation prosper, he promotes the course of sacrifice:

Our voice of praise goes to the gods. [8]

I have seen Narasamsa, him most resolute, most widely famed,

As it were the Household priest of heaven.

19 - Agni, Maruts

To this fair sacrifice to drink the milky draught you are invoked:

Agni, with the Maruts come. [1]

No mortal man, no God exceeds your mental power, Mighty one -

Agni, with the Maruts come [2]

All gods devoid of guile, who know the mighty region of mid-air:

Agni, with those Maruts come. [3]

The terrible, who sing their song, not to be overcome by might:

Agni, with those Maruts come. [4]

Brilliant, and awful in their form, mighty, devourers of their foes':

Agni, with those Maruts come. [5]

Who sit as deities in heaven, above the sky-vault's luminous sphere:

Agni, with those Maruts come. [6]

Who scatter clouds about the sky, away over the billowy sea:

Agni, with those Maruts come. [7]

Who with their bright beams spread them forth over the ocean in their might

Agni, with those Maruts come. [8]

For you, to be your early draught, I pour the soma-mingled meath:

Agni, with the Maruts come.

20 - Rbhus

FOR the Celestial Race this song of praise which gives wealth lavishly

Was made by singers with their lips. [1]

They who for Indra, with their mind, formed horses harnessed by a word,

Attained by works to sacrifice. [2]

They for the two Nasatyas wrought a light car moving every way:

They formed a nectar-yielding cow. [3]

The Rbhus with effectual prayers, honest, with constant labour, made

Their Sire and Mother young again. [4]

Together came your gladdening drops with Indra by the Maruts girt,

With the Adityas, with the Kings. [5]

The sacrificial ladle, wrought newly by the god Tvastar's hand-

Four ladles have you made thereof. [6]

Vouchsafe us wealth, to him who pours thrice seven libations, yea, to each

Give wealth, pleased with our eulogies. [7]

As ministering priests they held, by pious acts they won themselves,

A share in sacrifice with gods.

21 - Indra-Agni

INDRA and Agni I invoke fain are we for their song of praise

Chief Soma-drinkers are they both. [1]

Praise you, men, and glorify Indra-Agni in the holy rites:

Sing praise to them in sacred songs. [2]

Indra and Agni we invite, the soma-drinkers, for the fame

Of Mitra, to the soma-draught. [3]

Strong gods, we bid them come to this libation that stands ready here:

Indra and Agni, come to us. [4]

Indra and Agni, mighty lords of our assembly, crush the fiends:

Childless be the devouring ones. [5]

Watch you, through this your truthfulness, there in the place of spacious view

Indra and Agni, send us bliss.

22 - Asvins and Others

WAKEN the Asvin Pair who yoke their car at early morn: may they

Approach to drink this soma juice. [1]

We call the Asvins two, the gods borne in a noble car, the best

Of charioteers, who reach the heavens. [2]

Dropping with honey is your whip, Asvins, and full of pleasantness

Sprinkle therewith the sacrifice. [3]

As you go there in your car, not far, Asvins, is the home

Of him who offers soma juice. [4]

For my protection I invoke the golden-handed Savitar.

He knows, as a God, the place. [5]

That he may send us succour, praise the Waters' Offspring Savitar:

Fain are we for his holy ways. [6]

We call on him, distributer of wondrous bounty and of wealth,

On Savitar who looks on men. [7]

Come here, friends, and seat yourselves Savitar, to be praised by us,

Giving good gifts, is beautiful. [8]

Agni, here bring to us the willing Spouses of the gods,

And Tvastar, to the soma draught. [9]

Most youthful Agni, here bring their Spouses, Hotra, Bharati,

Varutri, Dhisana, for aid. [10]

Spouses of heroes, Goddesses, with whole wings may they come to us

With great protection and with aid. [11]

Indrani, Varunani, and Agnayi here I invite,

For weal, to drink the soma juice. [12]

May Heaven and Earth, the Mighty Pair, bedew for us our sacrifice,

And feed us full with nourishments. [13]

Their water rich with fatness, there in the Gandharva's steadfast place,

The singers taste through sacred songs. [14]

Thornless be you, Earth, spread wide before us for a dwelling-place:

Vouchsafe us shelter broad and sure. [15]

The gods be gracious to us even from the place whence Visnu strode

Through the seven regions of the earth! [16]

Through all this world strode Visnu; thrice his foot he planted, and the whole

Was gathered in his footstep's dust. [17]

Visnu, the Guardian, he whom none deceives, made three steps; thenceforth

Establishing his high decrees. [18]

Look you on Visnu's works, by which the friend of Indra, close-allied,

Has let his holy ways be seen. [19]

The princes evermore behold that loftiest place where Visnu is,

Laid as it were an eye in heaven. [20]

This, Vishnu's station most sublime, the singers, ever vigilant,

Lovers of holy song, light up.

23 - Vayu and Others

STRONG are the somas; come nigh; these juices have been mixt with milk:

Drink, Vayu, the presented draughts. [1]

Both deities who touch the heaven, Indra and Vayu we invoke

To drink of this our soma juice. [2]

The singers' for their aid, invoke Indra and Vayu, swift as mind,

The thousand-eyed, the lords of thought. [3]

Mitra and Varupa, renowned as gods of consecrated might,

We call to drink the soma juice. [4]

Those who by Law uphold the Law, lords of the shining light of Law,

Mitra I call, and Varuna. [5]

Let Varuna be our chief defence, let Mitra guard us with all aids

Both make us rich exceedingly. [6]

Indra, by Maruts girt, we call to drink the soma juice: may he

Sate him in union with his troop. [7]

gods, Marut hosts whom Indra leads, distributers of Pusan's gifts,

Listen well you all to my cry. [8]

With conquering Indra for ally, strike Vritra down, you bounteous gods

Let not the wicked master us. [9]

We call the Universal gods, and Maruts to the soma draught,

For passing strong are Prsni's Sons. [10]

Fierce comes the Maruts' thundering voice, like that of conquerors, when you go

Forward to victory, Men. [11]

Born of the laughing lightning. may the Maruts guard us everywhere

May they be gracious to Us. [12]

Like some lost animal, drive to us, bright Pusan, him who bears up heaven,

Resting on many-coloured grass. [13]

Pusan the Bright has found the King, concealed and bidden in a cave,

Who rests on grass of many hues. [14]

And may he. duly bring to me the six bound closely, through these drops,

As one who ploughs with steers brings corn. [15]

Along their paths the Mothers go, Sisters of priestly ministrants,

Mingling their sweetness with the milk. [16]

May Waters gathered near the Sun, and those wherewith the Sun is joined,

Speed forth this sacrifice of ours. [17]

I call the Waters, Goddesses, wherein our cattle quench their thirst;

Oblations to the Streams be given. [18]

Amrit is in the Waters in the Waters there is healing balm

Be swift, you gods, to give them praise. [19]

Within the Waters-Soma thus has told me-dwell all balms that heal,

And Agni, he who blesses all. The Waters hold all medicines. [20]

Waters, teem with medicine to keep my body safe from harm,

So that I long may see the Sun. [21]

Whatever sin is found in me, whatever evil I have wrought.

If I have lied or falsely sworn, Waters, remove it far from me. [22]

The Waters I this day have sought, and to their moisture have we come:

Agni, rich in milk, come you, and with your splendour cover me. [23]

Fill me with splendour, Agni; give offspring and length of days; the gods

Shall know me even as I am, and Indra with the Rishis, know.

24 - Varuna and Others

WHnow is he, what God among immortals, of whose auspicious name we may bethink us?

Who shall to mighty Aditi restore us, that I may see my Father and my Mother? [1]

Agni the god the first among the immortals, - of his auspicious name let us bethink us.

He shall to mighty Aditi restore us, that I may see my Father and my Mother. [2]

To you, Savitar, the Lord of precious things, who help us

Continually, for our share we come- [3]

Wealth, highly lauded ere reproach has fallen on it, which is laid,

Free from all hatred, in your hands [4]

Through your protection may we come to even the height of affluence

Which Bhaga has dealt out to us. [5]

Never have those birds that fly through air attained to your high dominion or your might or spirit;

Nor these the waters that flow on forever, nor hills, abaters of the wind's wild fury. [6]

Varuna, King, of hallowed might, sustains erect the Tree's stem in the baseless region.

Its rays, whose root is high above, stream downward. Deep may they sink within us, and be hidden. [7]

King Varuna has made a spacious pathway, a pathway for the Sun wherein to travel.

Where no way was he made him set his footstep, and warned afar whatever afflicts the spirit. [8]

A hundred balms are your, King, a thousand; deep and wide-reaching also be your favours.

Far from us, far away drive you Destruction. Put from us even the sin we have committed. [9]

Where by day depart the constellations that shine at night, set high in heaven above us?

Varuna's holy laws remain unweakened, and through the night the Moon moves on in splendor [10]

I ask this of you with my prayer adoring; your worshipper craves this with his oblation.

Varuna, stay you here and be not angry; steal not our life from us, you Wide-Ruler. [11]

Nightly and daily this one thing they tell me, this too the thought of mine own heart repeateth.

May he to whom prayed fettered Sunahsepa, may he the Sovran Varuna release us. [12]

Bound to three pillars captured Sunahsepa thus to the Aditya made his supplication.

Him may the Sovran Varuna deliver, wise, never deccived, loosen the bonds that bind him. [13]

With bending down, oblations, sacrifices, Varuna, we deprecate your anger:

Wise Asura, you King of wide dominion, loosen the bonds of sins by us committed. [14]

Loosen the bonds, Varuna, that hold me, loosen the bonds above, between, and under.

So in your holy law may we made sinless belong to Aditi, you Aditya.

25 - Varuna

WHATEVER law of yours, God, Varurna, as we are men,

Day after day we violate. [1]

give us not as a prey to death, to be destroyed by you in wrath,

To your fierce anger when displeased. [2]

To gain your mercy, Varuna, with hymns we bind your heart, as binds

The charioteer his tethered horse. [3]

They flee from me dispirited, bent only on obtaining wealths

As to their nests the birds of air. [4]

When shall we bring, to be appeased, the hero, Lord of warrior might,

Him, the far-seeing Varuna? [5]

This, this with joy they both accept in common: never do they fail

The ever-faithful worshipper. [6]

He knows the path of birds that fly through heaven, and, Sovran of the sea,

He knows the ships that are thereon. [7]

True to his holy law, he knows the twelve moons with their progeny:

He knows the moon of later birth. [8]

He knows the pathway of the wind, the spreading, high, and mighty wind

He knows the gods who dwell above. [9]

Varuna, true to holy law, sits down among his people; he,

Most wise, sits there to govern. all. [10]

From thence percerving he beholds all wondrous things, both what has been,

And what hereafter will be done. [11]

May that Aditya, very -wise, make fair paths for us all our days:

May lie prolong our lives for us. [12]

Varuna, wearing golden mail, has clad him in a shining robe.

His spies are seated found about. [13]

The god whom enemies threaten not, nor those who tyrannize over men,

Nor those whose minds are bent on wrong. [14]

He who gives glory to mankind, not glory that is incomplete,

To our own bodies giving it. [15]

Yearning for the wide-seeing One, my thoughts move onward to him,

As kine to their pastures move. [16]

Once more together let us speak, because my meath is brought: priest-like

You eatest what is dear to you. [17]

Now saw I him whom all may see, I saw his car above the earth:

He has accepted these my songs. [18]

Varuna, hear this call of mine: be gracious to us this day

Longing for help I cried to you. [19]

You, wise God, art Lord of all, you are the King of earth and heaven

Hear, as you go on your way. [20]

Release us from the upper bond, untie the bond between, and loose

The bonds below, that I may live.

26 - Agni

WORTHY of oblation, Lord of prospering powers, assume your robes,

And offer this our sacrifice. [1]

Sit ever to be chosen, as our priest., most youthful, through our hymns,

Agni, through our heavenly word. [2]

For here a Father for his son, Kinsman for kinsman worship,

And friend, choice-worthy, for his friend. [3]

Fiere let the foe-destroyers sit, Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman,

Like men, upon our sacred grass. [4]

ancient Herald, be you glad in this our rite and fellowship:

Listen you well to these our songs. [5]

Whatever in this perpetual course we sacrifice to God and God,

That gift is offered up in you [6]

May he be our dear household Lord, priest, pleasant and, choice-worthy may

We, with bright fires, be dear to him. [7]

The gods, adored with brilliant fires. have granted precious wealth to us

So, with bright fires, we pray to you. [8]

And, immortal One, so may the eulogies of mortal men

Belong to us and you alike. [9]

With all your fires, Agni, find pleasure in this our sacrifice,

And this our speech, Son of Strength.

27 - Agni

WITH worship will I glorify you, Agni, like a long-tailed steed,

Imperial Lord of sacred rites. [1]

May the far-striding Son of Strength, bringer of great felicity,

Who pours his gifts like rain, be ours. [2]

Lord of all life, from near; from far, do you, Agni evermore

Protect us from the sinful man. [3]

Agni, graciously announce this our oblation to the gods,

And this our newest song of praise. [4]

Give us a share of strength most high, a share of strength that is below,

A share of strength that is between. [5]

You dealest gifts, resplendent One; nigh, as with waves of Sindhu, you

Swift streamest to the worshipper. [6]

That man is lord of endless strength whom you protectest in the fight,

Agni, or urgest to the fray. [7]

Him, whosoever he may be, no man may vanquish, mighty One:

Nay, very glorious power is his. [8]

May he who dwells with all mankind bear us with war-steeds through the fight,

And with the singers win the spoil. [9]

Help, you who know lauds, this work, this eulogy to Rudra ["Howler" and Archer], him

Adorable in every house. [10]

May this our God, great, limitless, smoke-bannered excellently bright,

Urge us to strength and holy thought. [11]

Like some rich Lord of men may he, Agni the banner of the gods,

Refulgent, hear us through our lauds. [12]

Glory to gods, the mighty and the lesser glory to gods the younger and the elder!

Let us, if we have power, pay the god worship: no better prayer than this, you gods, acknowledge.

28 - Indra, etc

THERE where the broad-based stone raised on high to press the juices out,

Indra, drink with eager thirst the droppings which the mortar sheds. [1]

Where, like broad hips, to hold the juice the platters of the press are laid,

Indra, drink with eager thirst the droppings which the mortar sheds. [2]

There where the woman marks and leans the pestle's constant rise and fall,

Indra, drink with eager thirst the droppings which the mortar sheds. [3]

Where, as with reins to guide a horse, they bind the churning-staff with cords,

Indra, drink with eager thirst the droppings which the mortar sheds. [4]

If of a truth in every house, Mortar you are set for work,

Here give you forth your clearest sound, loud as the drum of conquerors. [5]

Sovran of the Forest, as the wind blows soft in front of you,

Mortar, for Indra press you forth the soma juice that he may drink. [6]

Best strength-givers, you stretch wide jaws, Sacrificial Implements,

Like two bay horses champing herbs. [7]

You Sovrans of the Forest, both swift, with swift pressers press to-day

Sweet soma juice for Indra's drink. [8]

Take up in beakers what remains: the soma on the filter pour,

and on the ox-hide set the dregs.

29 - Indra

SOMA DRINKER, ever true, utterly hopeless though we be,

Do you, Indra, give us hope of beauteous horses and of kine,

In thousands, most wealthy One. [1]

Lord of Strength, whose jaws are strong, great deeds are your, the powerful:

Do you, Indra, give us hope of beauteous horses and of kine,

In thousands, most wealthy One. [2]

Lull you asleep, to wake no more, the pair who on each other look

Do you, Indra, give us, help of beauteous horses and of kine,

In thousands, most wealthy One. [3]

Hero, let hostile spirits sleep, and every gentler genius wake:

Do you, Indra,. give us hope of beauteous horses and of kine,

In thousands, most wealthy One. [4]

Destroy this ass, Indra, who in tones discordant brays to you:

Do you, Indra, give us hope of beauteous horses and of kine,

In thousands, most wealthy One. [5]

Far distant on the forest fall the tempest in a circling course!

Do you, Indra, give us hope of beauteous horses and of kine,

In thousands, most wealthy One. [6]

Slay each reviler, and destroy him who in secret injures us:

Do you, Indra, give us hope of beauteous horses and of kine

In thousands, most wealthy One.

30 - Indra

WE seeking strength with Soma-drops fill full your Indra like a well,

Most liberal, Lord of Hundred Powers, [1]

Who lets a hundred of the pure, a thousand of the milk-blent draughts

Flow, even as down a depth, to him; [2]

When for the strong, the rapturous joy he in this manner has made room

Within his belly, like the sea. [3]

This is your own. You drawest near, as turns a pigeon to his mate:

You carest too for this our prayer. [4]

Hero, Lord of Bounties, praised in hymns, may power and joyfulness

Be his who sings the laud to you. [5]

Lord of a Hundred Powers, stand up to lend us succour in this fight

In others too let us agree. [6]

In every need, in every fray we call as friends to succour us

Indra the mightiest of all. [7]

If he will hear us let him come with succour of a thousand kinds,

And all that strengthens, to our call. [8]

I call him mighty to resist, the hero of our ancient home,

You whom my sire invoked of old. [9]

We pray to you, much-invoked, rich in all prccious gifts, friend,

Kind God to those who sing your praise. [10]

Soma-drinker, Thunder-armed, friend of our lovely-featured dames

And of our Soma-drinking friends. [11]

Thus, Soma-drinker, may it be; thus, friend, who wieldest thunder, act

To aid each wish as we desire. [12]

With Indra splendid feasts be ours, rich in all strengthening things wherewith,

Wealthy in food, we may rejoice. [13]

Like you, thyself, the singers' friend, you movest, as it were, besought,

Bold One, the axle of the car. [14]

That, Satakratu, you to grace and please your praisers, as it were,

Stirrest the axle with your strength. [15]

With champing, neighing loudly-snorting horses Indra has ever won himself great treasures

A car of gold has he whose deeds are wondrous received from us, and let us too receive it. [16]

Come, Asvins, with enduring strength wealthy in horses and in kine,

And gold, you of wondrous deeds. [17]

Your chariot yoked for both alike, immortal, you of mighty acts,

Travels, Aivins, in the sea. [18]

High on the forehead of the Bull one chariot wheel you ever keep,

The other round the sky revolves. [19]

What mortal, immortal Dawn, enjoyeth you? Where love you?

To whom, radiant, dost you go? [20]

For we have had you in our thoughts whether anear or far away,

Red-hued and like a dappled mare. [21]

Here, Daughter of the Sky, come with these your strengthenings,

And send you riches down to us.

31 - Agni

You, Agni, were the earliest Angiras, a Seer; you were, a God thyself, the gods' auspicious friend.

After your holy ordinance the Maruts, sage, active through wisdom, -with their glittering spears, were born. [1]

Agni, you, the best and earliest Angiras, fulfillest as a Sage the holy law of gods.

Sprung from two mothers, wise, through all existence spread, resting in many a place for sake of living man. [2]

To Matarisvan first you, Agni, were disclosed, and to Vivasvan through your noble inward power.

Heaven and Earth, Vasu! shook at the choosing of the priest: the burthen you didst bear, didst worship mighty gods. [3]

Agni you madest heaven to thunder for mankind; you, yet more pious, for pious Pururavas.

When you are rapidly freed from your parents, first eastward they bear you round, and, after, to the west. [4]

You, Agni, art a Bull who makes our store increase, to be invoked by him who lifts the ladle up.

Well knowing the oblation with the hallowing word, uniting all who live, you lightenest first our folk [5]

Agni, you savest in the synod when pursued even him, farseeing One! who walks in evil ways.

You, when the heroes fight for spoil which men rush, round, slayest in war the many by the hands of few. [6]

For glory, Agni, day by day, you liftest up the mortal man to highest immortality,

Even you who yearning for both races givest them great bliss, and to the prince grantest abundant food. [7]

Agni, highly lauded, make our singer famous that he may win us store of riches:

May we improve the rite with new performance. Earth and Heaven, with all the gods, protect us. [8]

blameless Agni lying in your Parents' lap, a God among the gods, be watchful for our good.

Former of bodies, be the singer's Providence: all good things have you sown for him, auspicious One! [9]

Agni, you are our Providence, our Father you - we are your brethren and you are our spring of life. in you, rich in good heroes, guard of high decrees, meet hundred, thousand treasures, infallible! [10]

You, Agni, have the gods made the first living One for living man, Lord of the house of Nahusa.

Ila they made the teacher of the sons of men, what time a Son was born to the father of my race. [11]

Worthy to be revered, Agni, God, preserve our wealthy patrons with your succours, and ourselves.

Guard of our seed are you, aiding our cows to bear, incessantly protecting in your holy way. [12]

Agni, you are a guard close to the pious man; kindled are you, four-eyed! for him who is unarmcd.

With fond heare you accept even the poor man's prayer, when he has brought his gift to gain security. [13]

You, Agni gainest for the loudly-praising priest the highest wealth, the object of a man's desire.

You are called Father, caring even for the weak, and wisest, to the simple one you teachest lore. [14]

Agni, the man who gives guerdon to the priests, like well-sewn armour you guardest on every side.

He who with grateful food shows kindness in his house, an offerer to the living, is the type of heaven. [15]

Pardon, we pray, this sin of ours, Agni, -- the path which we have trodden, widely straying,

Dear friend and Father, caring for the pious, who speedest nigh and who inspirest mortals. [16]

As erst to Manus, to Yayiti, Angiras, so Angiras! pure Agni! come to our hall

Bring here the celestial host and seat them here upon the sacred grass, and offer what they love. [17]

By this our prayer be you, Agni, strengthened, prayer made by us after our power and knowledge.

Lead us, therefore, to increasing riches; endow us with your strength-bestowing favour.

32 - Indra

I WILL declare the manly deeds of Indra, the first that he achieved, the Thunder- wielder.

He slew the Dragon, then disclosed the waters, and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents. [1]

He slew the Dragon lying on the mountain: his heavenly bolt of thunder Tvastar fashioned.

Like lowing kine in rapid flow descending the waters glided downward to the ocean. [2]

Impetuous as a bull, he chose the soma and in three sacred beakers drank the juices.

Maghavan grasped the thunder for his weapon, and smote to death this firstborn of the dragons. [3]

When, Indra, you had slain the dragon's firstborn, and overcome the charms of the enchanters,

Then, giving life to Sun and Dawn and Heaven, you found not one foe to stand against you. [4]

Indra with his own great and deadly thunder smote into pieces Vritra, worst of Vritras.

As trunks of trees, what time the axe has felled them, low on the earth so lies the prostrate Dragon. [5]

He, like a mad weak warrior, challenged Indra, the great impetuous many-slaying hero.

He. brooking not the clashing of the weapons, crushed-Indra's foe-the shattered forts in falling. [6]

Footless and handless still he challenged Indra, who smote him with his bolt between the shoulders.

Emasculate yet claiming manly vigour, thus Vritra lay with scattered limbs dissevered. [7]

There as he lies like a bank-bursting river, the waters taking courage flow above him.

The Dragon lies beneath the feet of torrents which Vritra with his greatness had encompassed. [8]

Then humbled was the strength of Vritra's mother: Indra has cast his deadly bolt against her.

The mother was above, the son was under and like a cow beside her calf lay Danu. [9]

Rolled in the midst of never-ceasing currents flowing without a rest forever onward.

The waters bear off Vritra's nameless body: the foe of Indra sank to during darkness. [10]

Guarded by Ahi stood the thralls of Dasas, the waters stayed like kine held by the robber.

But he, when he had smitten Vritra, opened the cave wherein the floods had been imprisoned. [11]

A horse's tail were you when he, Indra, smote on your bolt; you, God without a second,

You have won back the kine, have won the soma; you have let loose to flow the Seven Rivers. [12]

Nothing availed him lightning, nothing thunder, hailstorm or mist which had spread around him:

When Indra and the Dragon strove in battle, Maghavan gained the victory forever. [13]

Whom saw you to avenge the Dragon, Indra, that fear possessed your heart when you had slain him;

That, like a hawk affrighted through the regions, you crossed nine-and-ninety flowing rivers? [14]

Indra is King of all that moves and moves not, of creatures tame and horned, the Thunder- wielder.

Over all living men he rules as Sovran, containing all as spokes within the felly.

33 - Indra

Come, fain for booty let us seek to Indra: yet more shall he increase his care that guides us.

Will not the Indestructible endow us with perfect knowledge of this wealth, of cattle? [1]

I fly to him invisible Wealth-giver as flies the falcon to his cherished eyrie,

With fairest hymns of praise adoring Indra, whom those who laud him must invoke in battle. [2]

Mid all his host, he binds on the quiver he drives cattle from what foe he pleases:

Gathering up great store of riches, Indra. be you no trafficker with us, most mighty. [3]

You slew with your bolt the wealthy Dasyu, alone, yet going with your helpers, Indra!

Far from the floor of heaven in all directions, the ancient riteless ones fled to destruction. [4]

Fighting with pious worshippers, the riteless turned and fled, Indra! with averted faces.

When you, fierce Lord of the Bay steeds, the Stayer, blew from earth and heaven and sky the godless. [5]

They met in fight the army of the blameless. then the Navagvas put forth all their power.

They, like emasculates with men contending, fled, conscious, by steep paths from Indra, scattered. [6]

Whether they weep or laugh, you have overthrown them, Indra, on the sky's most extreme limit.

The Dasyu you have burned from heaven, and welcomed the prayer of him who pours the juice and lauds you. [7]

Adorned with their array of gold and jewels, they over the earth a covering veil extended.

Although they hastened, they overcame not Indra: their spies he compassed with the Sun of morning. [8]

As you enjoy heaven and earth, Indra, on every side surrounded with your greatness,

So you with priests have blown away the Dasyu, and those who worship not with those who worship. [9]

They who pervaded earth's most extreme limit subdued not with their charms the Wealth- bestower:

Indra, the Bull, made his ally the thunder, and with its light milked cows from out the darkness. [10]

The waters flowed according to their nature; he raid the navigable streams waxed mighty.

Then Indra, with his spirit concentrated, smote him forever with his strongest weapon. [11]

Indra broke through Ilibisa's strong castles, and Suspa with his horn he cut to pieces:

You, Maghavan, for all his might and swiftness, slew your fighting foeman with your thunder [12]

Fierce on his enemies fell Indra's weapon: with. his sharp bull he rent their forts in pieces.

He with his thunderbolt dealt blows on Vritra; and conquered, executing all his purpose. [13]

Indra, you help Kutsa whom you loved, and guarded brave Dagadyu when he battled,

The dust of trampling horses rose to heaven, and Svitri's son stood up again for conquest. [14]

Svitra's mild steer, Maghavan you help in combat for the land, mid Tugra's houses.

Long stood they there before the task was ended: you were the master of the foemen's treasure.

34 - Asvins

You who observe this day be with us even thrice: far-stretching is you bounty, Asvins and your course.

To you, as to a cloak in winter, we cleave close: you are to be drawn nigh to us by the wise. [1]

Three are the fellies in your honey-bearing car, that travels after Soma's loved one, as all know.

Three are the pillars set upon it for support: thrice journey you by night, Asvins, thrice by day. [2]

Thrice in the self-same day, you gods who banish want, sprinkle you thrice to-day our sacrifice with meath;

And thrice vouchsafe us store of food with plenteous strength, at evening, you Asvins, and at break of day. [3]

Thrice come to our home, thrice to the righteous folk, thrice triply aid the man who well deserves your help.

Thrice, you Asvins, bring us what shall make us glad; thrice send us store of food as nevermore to fail. [4]

Thrice, you Asvins, bring to us abundant wealth: thrice in the gods' assembly, thrice assist our thoughts.

Thrice, grant us prosperity, thrice grant us fame; for the Sun's daughter has mounted your three-wheeled car. [5]

Thrice, Asvins, grant to us the heavenly medicines, thrice those of earth and thrice those that the waters hold,

Favour and health and strength bestow upon my son; triple protection, lords of Splendour, grant to him. [6]

Thrice are you to be worshipped day by day by us: thrice, you Asvins, you travel around the earth.

Car-borne from far away, you Nasatyas, come, like vital air to bodies, come to the three. [7]

Thrice, you Asvins, with the Seven Mother Streams; three are the jars, the triple offering is prepared.

Three are the worlds, and moving on above the sky you guard the firm-set vault of heaven through days and nights. [8]

Where are the three wheels of your triple chariot, where are the three seats thereto firmly fastened?

When will you yoke the mighty ass that draws it, to bring you to our sacrifice. Nasatyas? [9]

Nasatyas, come: the sacred gift is offered up; drink the sweet juice with lips that know the sweetness well.

Savitar sends, before the dawn of day, your car, fraught with oil, various-coloured, to our sacrifice. [10]

Come, Nasatyas, with the thrice-eleven gods; come, you Asvins, to the drinking of the meath.

Make long our days of life, and wipe out all our sins: ward off our enemies; be with us evermore. [11]

Borne in your triple car, Asvins, bring us present prosperity with noble offspring.

I cry to you who hear me for protection be you our helpers where men win the booty.

35 - Savitar

AGNI I first invoke for our prosperity; I call on Mitra, Varuna, to aid us here.

I call on Night who gives rest to all moving life; I call on Savitar the god to lend us help. [1]

Throughout the dusky firmament advancing, laying to rest the immortal and the mortal,

Borne in his golden chariot he cometh, Savitar, God who looks on every creature. [2]

The god moves by the upward path, the downward; with two bright Bays, adorable, he journeys.

Savitar comes, the god from the far distance, and chases from us all distress and sorrow. [3]

His chariot decked with pearl, of various colours, lofty, with golden pole, the god has mounted,

The many-rayed One, Savitar the holy, bound, bearing power and might, for darksome regions. [4]

Drawing the gold-yoked car his Bays, white-footed, have manifested light to all the peoples.

Held in the lap of Savitar, divine One, all men, all beings have their place forever. [5]

Three heavens there are; two Savitar's, adjacent: in Yama's world is one, the home of heroes,

As on a linch-pin, firm, rest things immortal: he who has known it let him here declare it. [6]

He, strong of wing, has lightened up the regions, deep-quivering Asura, the gentle Leader.

Where now is Surya, where is one to tell us to what celestial sphere his ray has wandered? [7]

The earth's eight points his brightness has illumined, three desert regions and the Seven Rivers.

God Savitar the gold-eyed has come here, giving choice treasures to him who worships. [8]

The golden-handed Savitar, far-seeing, goes on his way between the earth and heaven,

Drives away sickness, bids the Sun approach us, and spreads the bright sky through the darksome region. [9]

May he, gold-handed Asura, kind Leader, come here to us with his help and favour.

Driving off Raksasas and Yatudhanas, the god is present, praised in hymns at evening. [10]

Savitar, your ancient dustless pathways are well established in the air's mid-region:

God, come by those paths so fair to travel, preserve us from harm this day, and bless us.

36 - Agni

WITH words sent forth in holy hymns, Agni we supplicate, the Lord

Of many families who duly serve the gods, yea, him whom others also praise. [1]

Men have won Agni, him who makes their strength abound: we, with oblations, worship you.

Our gracious-minded helper in our deeds of might, be you, Excellent, this day. [2]

You for our messenger we choose, you, the Omniscient, for our priest.

The flames of you the mighty are spread wide around: your splendour reaches to the sky. [3]

The gods enkindle you their ancient messenger, - Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman.

That mortal man, Agni, gains through you all wealth, who has poured offerings to you. [4]

You, Agni, art a cheering priest, Lord of the House, men's messenger:

All constant high decrees established by the gods, gathered together, meet in you. [5]

In you, the auspicious One, Agni, most youthful, each sacred gift is offered up:

This day, and after, gracious, worship you our gods, that we may have heroic sons. [6]

To him in his own splendour bright draw near in worship the devout.

Men kindle Agni with their sacrificial gifts, victorious over the enemies. [7]

Vritra they smote and slew, and made the earth and heaven and firmament a wide abode.

The glorious Bull, invoked, has stood at Kanva's side: loud neighed the steed in frays for kine. [8]

Seat you, for you are mighty; shine, best entertainer of the gods.

Worthy of sacred food, praised Agni! loose the smoke, ruddy and beautiful to see. [9]

Bearer of offerings, whom, best sacrificing priest, the gods for Manu's sake ordained;

Whom Kanva, whom Medhyatithi made the source of wealth, and Vrsan and Upastuta. [10]

Him, Agni, whom Medhyatithi, whom Kanva kindled for his rite,

Him these our songs of praise, him, Agni, we extol: his powers shine out preeminent. [11]

Make our wealth perfect you, Agni, Lord divine: for you have kinship with the gods.

You rule as a King over widely-famous strength: be good to us, for you are great. [12]

Stand up erect to lend us aid, stand up like Savitar the god:

Erect as strength-bestower we call aloud, with unguents and with priests, on you. [13]

Erect, preserve us from sore trouble; with your flame burn you each ravening demon dead.

Raise us up that we may walk and live. so you shall find our worship mid the gods. [14]

Preserve us, Agni, from the fiend, preserve us from malicious wrong.

Save us from him who fain would injure us or slay, Most Youthful, you with lofty light. [15]

Smite down as with a club, you who have fire for teeth, smite you the wicked, right and left.

Let not the man who plots against us in the night, nor any foe prevail over us. [16]

Agni has given heroic might to Kainva, and felicity:

Agni has helped our friends, has helped Medhyitithi, has helped Upastuta to win. [17]

We call on Ugradeva, Yadu, Turvasa, by means of Agni, from afar;

Agni, bring Navavastva and Brhadratba, Turviti, to subdue the foe. [18]

Manu has stablished you a light, Agni, for all the race of men:

Sprung from the Law, oil-fed, for Kanva have you blazed, you whom the people reverence. [19]

The flames of Agni full of splendour and of might are fearful, not to be approached.

Consume forever all demons and sorcerers, consume you each devouring fiend.

37 - Maruts

SING forth, Kanvas, to your band of Maruts unassailable,

Sporting, resplendent on their car [1]

They who, self-luminous, were born together, with the spotted deer,

Spears, swords, and glittering ornaments. [2]

One hears, as though it were close at hand, the cracking of the whips they hold

They gather glory on their way. [3]

Now sing you forth the god-given hymn to your exultant Marut host,

The fiercely-vigorous, the strong. [4]

Praise you the Bull among the cows; for it is the Maruts' sportive band:

It strengthened as it drank the rain. [5]

Who is your mightiest, heroes, when, shakers of the earth and heaven,

You shake them like a garment's hem? [6]

At your approach man holds him down before the fury of your wrath:

The rugged-jointed mountain yields. [7]

They at whose racings forth the earth, like an age-weakened lord of men,

Trembles in terror on their ways. [8]

Strong is their birth: vigour have they to issue from their Mother; strength,

Yea, even twice enough, is theirs. [9]

And these, the Sons, the Singers, in their racings have enlarged the bounds,

So that the kine must walk knee-deep. [10]

Before them, on the ways they go, they drop this offspring of the cloud,

Long, broad, and inexhaustible. [11]

Maruts, as your strength is great, so have you cast men down on earth,

So have you made the mountains fall. [12]

The while the Maruts pass along, they talk together on the way:

Doth any hear them as they speak? [13]

Come quick with swift steeds, for you have worshippers among Kanva's sons

May you rejoice among them well. [14]

All is prepared for your delight. We are their servants evermore,

To live as long as life may last.

38 - Maruts

WHAT now? When will you take us by both hands, as a dear sire his son,

gods, for whom sacred grass is clipped? [1]

Now where? To what goal of yours go you in heaven, and not on earth?

Where do your cows disport themselves? [2]

Where are your newest favours shown? Where, Maruts, your prosperity?

Where all your high felicities? [3]

If, you Maruts, you the Sons whom Prishni bore, were mortal, and

immortal he who sings your praise. [4]

Then never were your praiser loathed like a wild beast in pasture-land,

Nor should he go on Yama's path. [5]

Let not destructive plague on plague hard to be conquered, strike its down:

Let each, with drought, depart from us. [6]

Truly, they the fierce and mighty Sons of Rudra send their windless

Rain even on the desert places. [7]

Like a cow the lightning lows and follows, mother-like, her youngling,

When their rain-flood has been loosened. [8]

When they inundate the earth they spread forth darkness even in day time,

With the water-laden rain-cloud. [9]

Maruts, at your voice's sound this earthly habitation shakes,

And each man reels who dwells therein. [10]

Maruts, with your strong-hoofed steeds, unhindered in their courses, haste

Along the bright embanked streams. [11]

Firm be the fellies of your wheels, steady your horses and your cars,

And may your reins be fashioned well. [12]

Invite you here with this song, for praise, Agni the Lord of Prayer,

Him who is fair as Mitra is. [13]

Form in your mouth the hymn of praise expand you like, a rainy cloud

Sing forth the measured eulogy. [14]

Sing glory to the Marut host, praiseworthy, tuneful, vigorous:

Here let the Strong Ones dwell with us.

39 - Maruts

WHEN thus, like flame, from far away, Maruts, you cast your measure forth,

To whom go You, to whom, shakers of the earth, moved by whose wisdom, whose design? [1]

Strong let your weapons be to drive away your foes, firm for resistance let them be.

Yea, passing glorious must be your warrior might, not as a guileful mortal's strength. [2]

When what is strong you overthrow, and whirl about each ponderous thing,

Heroes, your course is through the forest trees of earth, and through the fissures of the rocks. [3]

Consumers of your foes, no enemy of yours is found in heaven or on the earth:

You Rudras [storm gods, also called Maruts], may the strength, held in this bond, be yours, to bid defiance even now. [4]

They make the mountains rock and reel, they rend the forest-kings apart.

onward, you Maruts, drive, like creatures drunk with wine, you, gods with all your company. [5]

You to your chariot have yoked the spotted deer: a red deer, as a leader, draws.

Even the Earth herself listened as you came near, and men were sorely terrified. [6]

Rudras, quickly we desire your succour for this work of ours.

Come to us with your aid as in the days of old, so now for frightened Kanva's sake. [7]

Should any monstrous foe, Maruts, sent by you or sent by mortals threaten us,

Tear you him from us with your power and with your might, and with the succours that are yours. [8]

For you, the worshipful and wise, have guarded Kanva perfectly.

Maruts, come to us with full protecting help, as lightning flashes seek the rain. [9]

Whole strength have you, Bounteous Ones; perfect, earth-shakers, is your might.

Maruts, against the poet's wrathful enemy send you an enemy like a dart.

40 - Brahmanaspati

BRAMANASPATI, stand up: God-serving men we pray to you.

May they who give good gifts, the Maruts, come to us. Indra, most swift, be you with them. [1]

Son of Strength, each mortal calls to you for aid when spoil of battle waits for him.

Maruts, may this man who loves you well obtain wealth of good steeds and hero might. [2]

May Brahmanaspati draw nigh, may Sunrita the goddess come,

And gods bring to this rite which gives the five-fold gift the hero, lover of mankind. [3]

He who bestows a noble guerdon on the priest wins fame that never shall decay.

For him we offer sacred hero-giving food, peerless and conquering easily. [4]

Now Brahmanaspati speaks forth aloud the solemn hymn of praise,

Wherein Indra and Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, the gods, have made their dwelling place. [5]

May we in holy synods, gods! recite that hymn, peerless, that brings felicity.

If you, heroes, graciously accept this word, may it obtain all bliss from you. [6]

Who shall approach the pious? who the man whose sacred grass is trimmed?

The offerer with his folk advances more and more: he fills his house with precious things. [7]

He amplifies his lordly might, with kings he slays: even mid alarms he dwells secure

In great or lesser fight none checks him, none subdues,-the wielder of the thunderbolt.

41 - Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman

NEVER is he injured whom the gods Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman,

The excellently wise, protect. [1]

He prospers ever, free from scathe, whom they, as with full hands, enrich,

Whom they preserve from every foe. [2]

The Kings drive far away from him his troubles and his enemies,

And lead him safely over distress. [3]

Thornless, Adityas, is the path, easy for him who seeks the Law:

With him is naught to anger you. [4]

What sacrifice, Adityas, you heroes guide by the path direct,-

May that come nigh to your thought. [5]

That mortal, ever unsubdued, gains wealth and every precious thing,

And children also of his own. [6]

How, my friends, shall we prepare Aryaman's and Mitra's laud,

Glorious food of Varuna? [7]

I point not out to you a man who strikes the pious, or reviles:

Only with hymns I call you nigh. [8]

Let him not love to speak ill words: but fear the One who holds all four

Within his hand, until they fall.

42 - Pusan

SHORTEN our ways, Pusan, move aside obstruction in the path:

Go close before us, cloud-born God. [1]

Drive, Pusan, from our road the wolf, the wicked inauspicious wolf,

Who lies in Wait to injure us. [2]

Who lurks about the path we take, the robber with a guileful heart:

Far from the road chase him away. [3]

Tread with your foot and trample out the firebrand of the wicked one,

The double-tongued, whoever he be. [4]

Wise Pusan, Wonder-Worker, we claim of you now the aid wherewith

You furthered our sires of old. [5]

So, Lord of all prosperity, best wielder of the golden sword,

Make riches easy to be won. [6]

Past all pursuers lead us, make pleasant our path and fair to tread:

Pusan, find you power for this. [7]

Lead us to meadows rich in grass: send on our way no early heat:

Pusan, find you power for this. [8]

Be gracious to us, fill us full, give, feed us, and invigorate:

Pusan, find you power for this. [9]

No blame have we for Pusan; him we magnify with songs of praise:

We seek the Mighty One for wealth.

43 - Rudra

WHAT shall we sing to Rudra, strong, most bounteous, excellently wise,

That shall be dearest to his heart? [1]

That Aditi may grant the grace of Rudra to our folk, our kine,

Our cattle and our progeny; [2]

That Mitra and that Varuna, that Rudra may remember us,

Yea, all the gods with one accord. [3]

To Rudra Lord of sacrifice, of hymns and balmy medicines,

We pray for joy and health and strength. [4]

He shines in splendour like the Sun, refulgent as bright gold is he,

The good, the best among the gods. [5]

May he grant health into our steeds, wellbeing to our rams and ewes,

To men, to women, and to kine. [6]

Soma, set you upon us the glory of a hundred men,

The great renown of mighty chiefs. [7]

Let not malignities, nor those who trouble Soma, hinder us.

Indu, give us a share of strength. [8]

Soma! head, central point, love these; Soma! know these as serving you,

Children of you immortal, at the highest place of holy law.

44 - Agni

IMMORTAL Jatavedas, you many-hued fulgent gift of Dawn,

Agni, this day to him who pays oblations bring the gods who waken with the morn. [1]

For you are offering-bearer and loved messenger, the charioteer of sacrifice:

Accordant with the Asvins and with Dawn grant us heroic strength and lofty fame. [2]

As messenger we choose to-day Agni the good whom many love,

Smoke-bannered spreader of the light, at break of day glory of sacrificial rites. [3]

Him noblest and most youthful, richly worshipped guest, dear to the men who offer gifts,

Him, Agni Jatavedas, I beseech at dawn that he may bring the gods to us. [4]

You, Agni, will I glorify, deathless nourisher of the world,

immortal, offering-bearer, meet for sacred food, preserver, best at sacrifice. [5]

Tell good things to your praiser, most youthful God, as richly worshipped, honey- tongued,

And, granting to Praskanva lengthened days of life, show honour to the Heavenly Host. [6]

For the men, Agni, kindle you as all possessor and as priest;

So Agni, much-invoked, bring here with all speed the gods, the excellently wise, [7]

At dawn of day, at night, Ushas and Savitar, the Asvins, Bhaga, Agni's self:

Skilled in fair rites, with Soma poured, the Kanvas light you, the oblation-wafting God. [8]

For, Agni, Lord of sacrifice and messenger of men are you:

Bring you the gods who wake at dawn who see the light, this day to drink the soma juice. [9]

You shone forth, Agni, after former dawns, all visible, rich in light.

You are our help in battle-strife, the friend of man, the great high priest in sacrifice. [10]

Like Manu, we will stablish you, Agni, performer of the rite,

Invoker, ministering priest, exceeding wise, the swift immortal messenger. [11]

When as the gods' High priest, by many loved, you dost their mission as their nearest friend,

Then, like the far-resounding billows of the flood, your flames, Agni, roar aloud. [12]

Heat-, Agni, who have ears to hear, with all your train of escort gods;

Let Mitra, Aryaman,- seeking betimes our rite, seat them upon the sacred grass. [13]

Let those who strengthen Law, who bountifully give, the life-tongued Maruts, hear our praise.

May Law-supporting Varuna with the Asvins twain and Ushas, drink the soma juice.

45 - Agni

WORSHIP the Vasus, Agni! here, the Rudras, the Adityas, all

Who spring from Manu, those who know fair rites, who pour their blessings down. [1]

Agni, the gods who understand give ear to the worshipper:

Lord of Red steeds, who love song, bring you those thirty-three gods. [2]

Jatavedas, great in act, listen to Praskanva's call,

As Priyamedha first was heard, Atri, Virupa, Angiras. [3]

The sons of Priyamedha skilled in lofty praise have called for help

On Agni who with fulgent flame is ruler of all holy rites. [4]

Hear you, invoked with holy oil, bountiful giver of rewards,

These eulogies, by which the sons of Kanva call you to their aid. [5]

Agni, loved by many, you of fame most wondrous, in their homes

Men call on you whose hair is flame, to be the bearer of their gifts. [6]

You, Agni, best to find out wealth, most widely famous, quick to hear,

Singers have stablished in their rites Herald and ministering priest. [7]

Singers with Soma pressed have made you, Agni, hasten to the feast,

Great light to mortal worshipper, what time they bring the sacred gift. [8]

Good, bounteous, Son of Strength, this day seat here on sacred grass the gods

Who come at early morn, the host of heaven, to drink the soma juice [9]

Bring with joint invocations you, Agni, the celestial host:

Here stands the soma, bounteous gods drink this expressed ere yesterday.

46 - Asvins

Now Morning with her earliest light shines forth, dear Daughter of the Sky:

High, Asvins, I extol your praise, [1]

Sons of the Sea, mighty to save discoverers of riches, you

gods with deep thought who find out wealth. [2]

Your giant coursers hasten on over the region all in flames, -

When your car flies with winged steeds. [3]

He, liberal, lover of the flood, Lord of the House, the vigilant,

Chiefs! with oblations feeds you full. [4]

You have regard to our hymns, Nasatyas, thinking of our words:

Drink boldly of the soma juice. [5]

Vouchsafe to us, Asvin Pair, such strength as, with attendant light,

May through the darkness carry us. [6]

Come in the ship of these our hymns to bear you to the here shore

Asvins, harness you the car. [7]

The heaven's wide vessel is your own on the flood's shore your chariot waits

Drops, with the hymn, have been prepared. [8]

Kanvas, the drops are in the heaven; the wealth is at the waters' place:

Where will you manifest your form? [9]

Light came to lighten up the branch, the Sun appeared as it were gold:

And with its-tongue shone forth the dark. [10]

The path of sacrifice was made to travel to the farther goal:

The road of heaven was manifest. [11]

The singer of their praise awaits whatever grace the Asvins give,

who save when Soma gladdens them. [12]

You dwellers with Vivasvan come, auspicious, as to Manu erst;

come to the soma and our praise. [13]

circumambient Asvins, Dawn follows the brightness of your way:

Approve with beams our solemn rites. [14]

Drink you of our libations, grant protection, you Asvins two,

With aids which none may interrupt.

47 - Asvins

ASVINS, for you who strengthen Law this sweetest Soma has been shed.

Drink this expressed ere yesterday and give riches to him who offers it. [1]

Come, you Asvins, mounted on your triple car three-seated, beautiful of form

To you at sacrifice the Kanvas send the prayer: graciously listen to their call. [2]

Asvins, you who strengthen Law, drink you this sweetest soma juice.

Borne on your wealth-fraught car come this day to him who offers, you of wondrous deeds. [3]

Omniscient Asvins, on the thrice-heaped grass bedew with the sweet juice the sacrifice.

The sons of Kanva, striving heavenward, call on you with draughts of soma juice out- poured. [4]

Asvins, with those aids wherewith you guarded Kanva carefully,

Keep us, hords of Splendour: drink the soma juice, you strengtheners of holy law. [5]

Mighty Ones, you gave Sudas abundant food, brought on your treasure-laden car;

So now vouchsafe to us the wealth which many crave, either from heaven or from the sea. [6]

Nasatyas, whether you be far away or close to Turvasa,

Borne on your lightly-rolling chariot come to us, together with the sunbeams come. [7]

So let your coursers, ornaments of sacrifice, bring you to our libations here.

Bestowing food on him who acts and gives aright, sit, Chiefs, upon the sacred grass. [8]

Come, Nasatyas, on your car decked with a sun-bright canopy,

Whereon you ever bring wealth to the worshipper, to drink the soma's pleasant juice. [9]

With lauds and songs of praise we call them down to us, that they, most rich, may succour us;

For you have ever in the Kanvas' well-loved house, Asvins, drunk the soma juice.

48 - Dawn

DAWN on us with prosperity, Ushas, Daughter of the Sky,

Dawn with great glory, Goddess, Lady of the Light, dawn you with riches, Bounteous One. [1]

They, bringing steeds and kine, boon-givers of all wealth, have oft sped forth to lighten us.

Ushas, waken up for me the sounds of joy: send us the riches of the great. [2]

Ushas has dawned, and now shall dawn, the goddess, driver forth of cars

Which, as she cometh nigh, have fixed their thought on her, like glory-seekers on the flood. [3]

Here Kanva, chief of Kanva's race, sings forth aloud the glories of the heroes' names,-

The. princes who, Ushas, as you come near, direct their thoughts to liberal gifts. [4]

Like a good matron Ushas comes carefully tending everything:

Rousing all life she stirs all creatures that have feet, and makes the birds of air fly up. [5]

She sends the busy forth, each man to his pursuit: delay she knows not as she springs.

rich in opulence, after your dawning birds that have flown forth no longer rest. [6]

This Dawn has yoked her steeds afar, beyond the rising of the Sun:

Borne on a hundred chariots she, auspicious Dawn, advances on her way to Men. [7]

To meet her glance all living creatures bend them down: Excellent One, she makes the light.

Ushas, the Daughter of the Sky, the opulent, shines foes and enmities away. [8]

Shine on us with your radiant light, Ushas, Daughter of the Sky,

Bringing to us great store of high felicity, and beaming on our solemn rites. [9]

For in you is each living creature's breath and life, when, Excellent! you dawn forth.

Borne on your lofty car, Lady of the Light, hear, you of wondrous wealth, our call. [10]

Ushas, win thyself the strength which among men is wonderful.

Bring you thereby the pious to holy rites, those who as priests sing praise to you. [11]

Bring from the firmament, Ushas, all the gods, that they may drink our soma juice,

And, being what you are, vouchsafe us kine and steeds, strength meet for priest and hero might. [12]

May Ushas whose auspicious rays are seen resplendent round about,

Grant us great riches, fair in form, of all good things, wealth which light labour may attain. [13]

Mighty One, whom the Rishis of old time invoked for their protection and their help,

Ushas, graciously answer our songs of praise with bounty and with brilliant

light. [14]

Ushas, as you with light today have opened the twin doors of heaven,

So grant us a dwelling wide and free from foes. Goddess, give us food with kine. [15]

Bring us to wealth abundant, sent in every shape, to plentiful refreshing food,

To all-subduing splendour, Ushas, Mighty One, to strength, you rich in spoil and wealth.

49 - Dawn

EVEN from above the sky's bright realm come, Ushas, by auspicious ways:

Let red steeds bear you to the house of him who pours the soma, juice. [1]

The chariot which you mount, fair of shape, Ushas light to move,-

Therewith, Daughter of the Sky, aid men of noble fame today. [2]

Bright Ushas, when your times return, all quadrupeds and bipeds stir,

And round about flock winged birds from all the boundaries of heaven. [3]

You dawning with your beams of light illumine all the radiant realm.

You, as you are, the Kanvas, fain for wealth, have called with sacred songs.

50 - Surya

HIS bright rays bear him up aloft, the god who knows all that lives,

Surya, that all may look on him. [1]

The constellations pass away, like thieves, together with their beams,

Before the all-beholding Sun [2]

His herald rays are seen afar refulgent over the world of men,

Like flames of fire that burn and blaze. [3]

Swift and all beautiful are you, Surya, maker of the light,

Illuming all the radiant realm. [4]

You go to the hosts of gods, you come here to mankind,

Here all light to be beheld. [5]

With that same eye of yours wherewith you look brilliant Varuna,

On the busy race of men, [6]

Traversing sky and wide mid-air, you mete with your beams our days,

Sun, seeing all things that have birth. [7]

Seven Bay steeds harnessed to your car bear you, farseeing One,

God, Surya, with the radiant hair. [8]

Surya has yoked the pure bright Seven, the daughters of the car; with these,

His own dear team, he goes forth. [9]

Looking on the loftier light above the darkness we have come

To Surya, God among the gods, the light that is most excellent. [10]

Rising this day, rich in friends, ascending to the loftier heaven,

Surya remove my heart's disease, take from me this my yellow hue. [11]

To parrots and to starlings let us give away my yellowness,

Or this my yellowness let us transfer to Haritala trees. [12]

With all his conquering vigour this Aditya has gone up on high,

Giving my foe into my hand: let me not be my foeman's prey.

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