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Rigveda 10:1-50

From the Hymns of the Rigveda, based on Ralph Griffith's translation of 1889, re-edited somewhat by Tormod Kinnes.

Book 10 of 191 hymns

1 - Agni

HIGH has the Mighty risen before the dawning, and come to us with light from out the darkness.

Fair-shapen Agni with white-shining splendour has filled at birth all human habitations. [1]

You, being born, art Child of Earth and Heaven, parted among the plants in beauty, Agni!

The glooms of night you, Brilliant Babe, subduest, and art come forth, loud roaring, from your Mothers. [2]

Here, being manifested, lofty Visnu, full wise, protects his own supremest station.

When they have offered in his mouth their sweet milk, to him with one accord they sing forth praises. [3]

Thence bearing food the Mothers come to meet you, with food for you who give food its increase.

These in their altered form again you meet. You are Invoking priest in homes of mortals. [4]

priest of the holy rite, with car that glitters, refulgent Banner of each act of worship,

Sharing every God through might and glory, even Agni Guest of men I summon here. [5]

So Agni stands on earth's most central station, invested in well-decorated garments.

Born, red of hue, where men pour out libations, King, as great High priest bring the gods here. [6]

Over the earth and over heaven, Agni, you, Son, have ever spread above your Parents.

Come, Most youthful! to those who long to meet you, and here bring the gods, Mighty Victor.

2 - Agni

GLADDEN the yearning gods, you Most Youthful: bring them, Lord of Seasons, knowing seasons,

With all the priests Celestial, Agni. Best worshipper are you of all Invokers. [1]

Your is the Herald's, your the Cleanser's office, thinker are you, wealth-giver, true to Order.

Let us with Svaha offer up oblations, and Agni, worthy God, pay the gods worship. [2]

To the gods' pathway have we travelled, ready to execute what work we may accomplish.

Let Agni, for he knows, complete the worship. He is the priest: let him fix rites and seasons. [3]

When we most ignorant neglect the statutes of you, deities with whom is knowledge,

Wise Agni shall correct our faults and failings, skilled to assign each God his fitting season. [4]

When, weak in mind, of feeble understanding, mortals bethink them not of sacrificing,

Then shall the prudent and discerning Agni worship the gods, best worshipper, in season. [5]

Because the Father has produced you, Leader of all our solemn rites, their brilliant Banner:

So win by worship pleasant homes abounding in heroes, and rich food to nourish all men. [6]

You whom the Heaven and Earth, you whom the Waters, and Tvastar, maker of fair things, created,

Well knowing, all along the Fathers' pathway, shine with resplendent light, enkindled, Agni.

3 - Agni

KING, the potent and terrific envoy, kindled for strength, is manifest in beauty.

He shines, all-knowing, with his lotty splendour: chasing black Night he comes with white-rayed Morning. [1]

Having overcome the glimmering Black with beauty, and bringing forth the dame the Great Sire's Daughter,

Holding aloft the radiant light of Surya, as messenger of heaven he shines with treasures. [2]

Attendant on the Blessed Dame the Blessed has come: the Lover follows his Sister.

Agni, far-spreading with conspicuous lustre, has compassed Night with whitelyshining garments. [3]

His goings-forth kindle as it were high voices the goings of the auspicious friend of Agni.

The rays, the bright beams of the strong-jawed, mighty, adorable Steer are visible as he cometh. [4]

Whose radiant splendours flow, like sounds, about us, his who is lofty, brilliant, and effulgent,

Who reaches heaven with best and brightest lustres, sportive and piercing even to the summit. [5]

His powers, whose chariot fellies gleam and glitter have loudly roared while, as with teams, he hasted.

He, the most godlike, far-extending envoy, shines with flames ancient, resonant, whitely-shining. [6]

So bring us ample wealth: seat you as envoy of the two youthful Matrons, Earth and Heaven.

Let Agni rapid with his rapid, horses, impetuous with impetuous steeds, come here.

4 - Agni

To you will send praise and bring oblation, as you have merited lauds when we invoked you.

A fountain in the desert are you, Agni, Ancient King, to man who fain would worship, [1]

You to whom resort the gathered people, as the kine seek the warm stall, Most Youthful.

You are the messenger of gods and mortals, and goest glorious with your light between them. [2]

Making you grow as it were some noble infant, your Mother nurtures you with sweet affection.

Over the desert slopes you pass longing, and seek, like some beast set free, your fodder. [3]

Foolish are we, Wise and free from error: verily, Agni, you do know your grandeur.

There lies the form: he moves and licks, and swallows, and, as House-Lord, kisses the Youthful Maiden. [4]

He rises ever fresh in ancient fuel: smoke-bannered, gray, he makes the wood his dwelling.

No swimmer, Steer, he presses through the waters, and to his place accordant mortals bear him. [5]

Like thieves who risk their lives and haunt the forest, the twain with their ten girdles have secured him.

This is a new hymn meant for you, Agni: yoke as it were your car with parts that glitter. [6]

Homage and prayer are your, Jatavedas, and this my song shall evermore exalt you.

Agni, protect our children and descendants, and guard with ever-watcliful care our bodies.

5 - Agni

HE only is the Sea, holder of treasures: born many a time he views the hearts within us.

He hides him in the secret couple's bosom. The Bird dwells in the middle of the fountain. [1]

Inhabiting one dwelling-place in common, strong stallions and the Mares have come together.

The sages guard the seat of Holy Order, and keep the highest names concealed within them. [2]

The Holy Pair, of wondrous power, have coupled: they formed the Infant, they who bred produced him.

The central point of all that moves and moves not, the while they wove the Sage's thread with insight [3]

For tracks of Order and refreshing viands attend from ancient times the goodly Infant.

Wearing him as a mantle, Earth and Heaven grow strong by food of pleasant drink and fatness. [4]

He, calling loudly to the Seven red Sisters, has, skilled in sweet drink, brought them to be looked on.

He, born of old, in middle air has halted, and sought and found the covering robe of Pusan. [5]

Seven are the pathways which the wise have fashioned; to one of these may come the troubled mortal.

He stands in the dwelling of the Highest, a Pillar, on sure ground where paths are parted. [6]

Not Being, Being in the highest heaven, in Aditi's bosom and in Daksa's birthplace,

Is Agni, our first-born of Holy Order, the Milch-cow and the Bull in life's beginning.

6 - Agni

THIS is that Agni, he by whose protection, favour, and help. the singer is successful;

Who with the noblest flames of glowing fuel comes forth encompassed with far-spreading lustre. [1]

Agni, the Holy One, the everlasting, who shines far beaming with celestial splendours;

He who has come to his friends with friendship, like a fleet steed who never trips or stumbles. [2]

He who is Lord of all divine oblation, shared by all living men at break of morning,

Agni to whom our offerings are devoted, in whom rests he whose car, through might, is scatheless. [3]

Increasing by his strength. while lauds content him, with easy flight to the gods he travels.

Agni the cheerful priest, best Sacrificer, balms with his tongue the gods with whom he mingles. [4]

With songs and adorations bring you here Agni who stirs himself at dawn like Indra,

Whom sages laud with hymns as Jatavedas of those who wield the sacrificial ladle. [5]

In whom all goodly treasures meet together, even as steeds and riders for the booty.

Inclining here bring us help, Agni, even assistance most desired by Indra. [6]

Yea, at your birth, when you had sat in glory, you, Agni, were the aim of invocations.

The gods came near, obedient to your sunimons, and thus attained their rank as chief Protectors.

7 - Agni

AGNI, shared by all men living bring us good luck for sacrifice from earth and heaven.

With us be your intelligence, WonderWorker! Protect us, God, with your far-reaching blessings. [1]

These hymns brought forth for you, Agni, laud you for bounteous gifts, with cattle and with horses.

Good Lord, when man from you has gained enjoyment, by hymns, noblyborn, has he obtained it. [2]

Agni I deem my Kinsman and my Father, count him my Brother and my friend forever.

I honour as the face of lofty Agni in heaven the bright and holy light of Surya. [3]

Effectual, Agni, are our prayers for profit. He whom, at home you, priest forever, guardest

Is rich in food, drawn by red steeds, and holy: by day and night to him shall all be pleasant. [4]

Men with their arms have generated Agni, helpful as some kind friend, adorned with splendours,

And stablished as Invoker mid the people the ancient priest the sacrifice's lover. [5]

Worship, yourself, God, the gods in heaven: what, void of knowledge, shall the fool avail you?

As you, God, have worshipped gods by seasons, so, nobly-born! to your own self pay worship. [6]

Agni, be you our Guardian and Protector bestow on us life and vital vigour.

Accept, Mighty One, the gifts we offer, and with unceasing care protect our bodies.

8 - Agni

AGNI advances with his lofty banner: the Bull is bellowing to the earth and heavens.

He has attained the sky's supremest limits. the Steer has waxen in the lap of waters. [1]

The Bull, the youngling with the hump, has frolicked, the strong and never-ceasing Calf has bellowed.

Bringing our offerings to the god's assembly, he moves as Chief in his own dwelling-places. [2]

Him who has grasped his Parents' head, they stablished at sacrifice a wave of heavenly lustre.

In his swift flight the red Dawns borne by horses refresh their bodies in the home of Order. [3]

For, Vasu you precedest every Morning, and still have been the Twins' illuminator.

For sacrifice, seven places you retainest while for your own self you engenderest Mitra. [4]

You are the Eye and Guard of mighty Order, and Varuna when to sacrifice you come.

You are the Waters' Child Jatavedas, envoy of him whose offering you accept. [5]

You are the Leader of the rite and region, to which with your auspicious teams you teadest,

Your light-bestowing head to heaven you liftest, making your tongue the oblationbearer, Agni. [6]

Through his wise insight Trita in the cavern, seeking as ever the Chief Sire's intention,

Carefully tended in his Parents' bosom, calling the weapons kin, goes forth to combat. [7]

Well-skilled to use the weapons of his Father, Aptya, urged on by Indra, fought the battle.

Then Trita slew the foe seven-rayed, three-headed, and freed the cattle of the Son of Tvastar. [8]

Lord of the brave, Indra cleft him in pieces who sought to gain much strength and deemed him mighty.

He smote his three heads from his body, seizing the cattle of the oniniform Son of Tvastar.

9 - Waters

YOU, Waters, are beneficent: so help us to energy

That we may look on great delight. [1]

Give us a portion of the sap, the most auspicious that you have,

Like mothers in their longing love. [2]

To you we gladly come for him to whose abode you send us on;

And, Waters, give us procreant strength. [3]

The Waters. be to us for drink, Goddesses for our aid and bliss:

Let them stream to us health and strength. [4]

1 beg the Floods to give us balm, these Queens who rule over precious things,

And have supreme control of men. [5]

Within the Waters-Soma thus has told me-dwell all balms that heal,

And Agni, he who blesss all. [6]

Waters, teem with medicine to keep my body safe from harm,

So that I long may see the Sun. [7]

Whatever sin is found in me, whatever evil I have wrought,

If I have lied or falsely sworn, Waters, remove it far from me. [8]

The Waters I this day have sought, and to their moisture have we come:

Agni, rich in milk, come you, and with your splendour cover me.

10 - Yama Yami

FAIN would I win my friend to kindly friendship. So may the Sage, come through the air's wide ocean,

Remembering the earth and days to follow, obtain a son, the issue of his father. [1]

Your friend loves not the friendship which considers her who is near in kindred as stranger.

Sons of the mighty Asura, the heroes, supporters of the heavens, see far around them. [2]

Yea, this the immortals seek of you with longing, progeny of the sole existing mortal.

Then let your soul and mine be knit together, and as a loving husband take your consort. [3]

Shall we do now what we never did aforetime? we who spake righteously now talk impurely?

Gandharva in the floods, the Dame of Waters-such is our bond, such our most lofty kinship. [4]

Even in the womb God Tvastar, Vivifier, shaping all forms, Creator, made us consorts.

None violates his holy ordinances: that we are his the heavens and earth acknowledge. [5]

Who knows that earliest day whereof you speak? Who hatb beheld it? Who can here declare it?

Great is the Law of Varuna and Mitra. What, wanton! will you say to men to tempt them? [6]

I, Yami, am possessed by love of Yama, that I may rest on the same couch beside him.

I as a wife would yield me to my husband. Like car-wheels let us speed to meet each other. [7]

They stand not still, they never close their eyelids, those sentinels of gods who wander round us.

Not me-go quickly, wanton, with another, and hasten like a chariot wheel to meet him. [8]

May Surya's eye with days and nights endow him, and ever may his light spread out before him.

In heaven and earth the kindred Pair commingle. On Yam! be the unbrotherly act of Yama. [9]

Sure there will come succeeding times when brothers and sisters will do acts unmeet for kinsfolk.

Not me, fair one,-seek another husband, and make your arm a pillow for your consort. [10]

Is he a brother when nLord is left her? Is she a sister when Destruction cometh?

Forced by my love these many words I utter. Come near, and hold me in your close embraces. [11]

I will not fold mine arms about your body: they call it sin when one comes near his sister.

Not me,-prepare your pleasures with another: your brother seeks not this from you, fair one. [12]

Alas! you are indeed a weakling, Yama we find in you no trace of heart or spirit.

As round the tree the woodbine clings, another will cling albout you girt as with a girdle. [13]

Embrace another, Yami; let another, even as the woodbine rings the tree, enfold you.

Win you his heart and let him win your fancy, and he shall form with you a blest alliance.

11 - Agni

THE Bull has yielded for the Bull the milk of heaven: the Son of Aditi can never be deceived.

According to his wisdom Varuna knows all: may he, the Holy, hallow times for sacrifice. [1]

Gandharvi spake: may she, the Lady of the flood, amid the river's roaring leave my heart untouched.

May Aditi accomplish all that we desire, and may our eldest Brother tell us this as Chief. [2]

Yea, even this blessed Morning, rich in store of food, splendid, with heavenly lustre, has shone out for man,

Since they, as was the wish of yearning gods, brought forth that yearning Agni for the assembly as the priest. [3]

And the fleet Falcon brought for sacrifice from afar this flowing Drop most excellent and keen of sight,

Then when the Aryan tribes chose as Invoking priest Agni the Wonder-Worker, and the hymn rose up. [4]

Still are you kind to him who feeds you as with grass, and, skilled in sacrifice, offers you holy gifts.

When you, having received the sage's strengthening food with lauds, after long toil, cornest with many more. [5]

Urge you your Parents, as a lover ' to delight: the Lovely One desires and craves it from his heart.

The priest calls out, the sacrificer shows his skill, the Asura tries his strength, and with the hymn is stirred. [6]

Far-famed is he, the mortal man, Agni, you Son of Strength, who has obtained your favour.

He, gathering power, borne onward by his horses, makes his days lovely in his might and splendour. [7]

When, Holy Agni, the divine assembly, the sacred synod mid the gods, is gathered,

And when you, godlike One, dealest forth treasures, vouchsafe us, too, our portion of the riches. [8]

Hear us, Agni, in your common dwelling: harness your rapid car of Amrta.

Bring Heaven and Earth, the deities' Parents, here: stay with us here, nor from the gods be distant.

12 - Agni

HEAVEN and Earth, first by everlasting Order, speakers of truth, are near enough to hear us,

When the god, urging men to worship. sits as priest, assuming all his vital vigour. [1]

As God comprising gods by Law Eternal, bear, as the Chief who knows, our oblation,

Smoke-bannered with the fuel, radiant, joyous, better to praise and worship, priest for ever. [2]

When the cow's nectar wins the god completely, men here below are heaven's sustainers.

All the gods came to this your heavenly Yajus which from the motley Pair milked oil and water. [3]

1 praise your work that you may make me prosper: hear, Heaven and Earth, two Worlds that drop with fatness.

While days and nights go to the world of spirits, here let the Parents with sweet meath refresh us [4]

Has the King siezed us? How have we offended against his holy ordinance? Who knows?

For even Mitra mid the gods is angry there are both song and strength for those who come not. [5]

it is hard to understand the immortal's nature, where she who is akin becomes astranger.

Guard ceaselessly, great Agni, him who ponders Yama's name, easy to be comprehended. [6]

They in the synod where the gods rejoice them, where they are seated in Vivasvan's dwelling,

Have given the Moon his beams, the Sun his splendour-the Two unweariedly maintain their brightness. [7]

The counsel which the gods meet to consider, their secret plan,-of that we have no knowledge.

There let God Savitar, Aditi, and Mitra proclaim to Varuna that we are sinless. [8]

Hear us, Agni, in your comninn dwell ing: harness your rapid car, the car of Amrta.

Bring Heaven and Earth, the deities' Parents, here: stay with us here, nor from the gods be distant.

13 - Havirdhanas

I YOKE with prayer your ancient inspiration: may the laud rise as on the prince's pathway.

All Sons of Immortality shall hear it, all the possessors of celestial natures. [1]

When speeding you came nigh us like twin sisters, religious-hearted votaries brought you forward.

Take your place, you who know your proper station: be near, be very near to our Soma. [2]

Five paces have I risen from Earth. I follow her who has four feet with devout observance.

This by the Sacred Syllable have I measured: I purify in the central place of Order, [3]

He, for God's sake, chose death to be his portion. He chose not, for men's good, a life eternal

They sacrificed Brihaspati the Rishi. Yama delivered up his own dear body. [4]

The Seven flow to the Youth on whom the Maruts wait: the Sons to the Father brought the sacrifice.

Both these are his, as his they are the lords of both: both toil; belonging to both they prosper well.

14 - Yama

HONOUR the King with your oblations, Yama, Vivasvan's Son, who gathers men together,

Who travelled to the lofty heights above us, who searcbes out and shows the path to many. [1]

Yama first found for us a place to dwell in: this pasture never can be taken from

Us.

Men born on earth tread their own paths that lead them where our ancient Fathers have departed. [2]

Mitali prospers there with Kavyas, Yama with Angiras' sons, Brihaspati with Rkvans:

Exalters of the gods, by gods exalted, some joy in praise and some in our oblation. [3]

Come, seat you on this bed of grass, Yama, in company with Angirases and Fathers.

Let texts recited by the sages bring you King, let this oblation make you joyful. [4]

Come, Yama, with the Angirases the Holy, rejoice you here with children of Virupa.

To sit on sacred grass at this our worship, I call Vivasvan, too, your Father here. [5]

Our Fathers are Angirases, Navagvas, Atharvans, Bhrigus who deserve the soma.

May these, the Holy, look on us with favour, may we enjoy their gracious loving-kindness. [6]

Go forth, go forth on the ancient pathways whereon our sires of old have gone before us.

'Mere shall you look on both the Kings enjoying their sacred food, God Varuna and Yama. [7]

Meet Yama, meet the Fathers, meet the merit of free or ordered acts, in highest heaven.

Leave sin and evil, seek anew your dwelling, and bright with glory wear another body. [8]

Go hence, depart you, fly in all directions: this place for him the Fathers have provided.

Yama bestows on him a place to rest in adorned with days and beams of light and waters. [9]

Run and outspeed the two dogs, Sarama's offspring, brindled, four-eyed, on your happy pathway.

Draw nigh then to the gracious-minded Fathers where they rejoice in company with Yama. [10]

And those two dogs of yours, Yama, the watchers, four-eyed, who look on men and guard the pathway,

Entrust this man, King, to their protection, and with prosperity and health endow him. [11]

Dark-hued, insatiate, with distended nostrils, Yama's two envoys roam among the People;

May they restore to us a fair existence here and to-day, that we may see the sunlight. [12]

To Yama pour the soma, bring to Yama consecrated gifts:

To Yama sacrifice prepared and heralded by Agni goes. [13]

Offer to Yama holy gifts enriched with butter, and draw near:

So may he grant that we may live long days of life among the gods. [14]

Offer to Yama, to the King, oblation very rich in meath:

Bow down before the Rishis of the ancient times, who made this path in days of old. [15]

Into the six Expanses flies the Great One in Trkadrukas.

The Gayatri, the Trstup, all metres in Yama are contained.

15 - Fathers

MAY they ascend, the lowest, highest, midmost, the Fathers who deserve a share of soma.

May they who have attained the life of spirits, gentle and righteous, aid us when we call them. [1]

Now let us pay this homage to the Fathers, to those who passed of old and those who followed,

Those who have rested in the earthly region, and those who dwell among the Mighty Races. [2]

1 have attained the gracious-minded Fathers, I have gained son and progeny from Visnu.

They who enjoy pressed juices with oblation seated on sacred grass, come oftenest here. [3]

Fathers who sit on sacred grass, come, help us: these offerings have we made for you; accept them.

So come to us with most auspicious favour, and give us health and strength without a trouble. [4]

May they, the Fathers, worthy of the soma, invited to their favourite oblations.

Laid on the sacred grass, come nigh and listen: may they be gracious to us and bless us. [5]

Bowing your bended knees and seated southward, accept this sacrifice of ours with favour.

Punish us not for any sin, Fathers, which we through human frailty have committed. [6]

Lapped in the bosom of the purple Mornings, give riches to the man who brings oblations.

Grant to your sons a portion of that treasure, and, present, give them energy, you Fathers. [7]

Our ancient Fathers who deserve the soma, who came, most noble, to our Soma banquet,-

With these let Yama, yearning with the yearning, rejoicing eat our offerings at his pleasure. [8]

Come to us, Agni, with the gracioug Fathers who dwell in glowing light, the very Kavyas,

Who thirsted mid the gods, who hasten here, oblation winners, theme of singers' praises. [9]

Come, Agni, come with countless ancient Fathers, dwellers in light, primeval, God-adorers,

Eaters and drinkers of oblations, truthful, who travel with the deities and Indra. [10]

Fathers whom Agni's flames have tasted, come nigh: you kindly leaders, take you each your proper place.

Eat sacrificial food presented on the grass: grant riches with a multitude of hero sons. [11]

You, Agni Jatavedas, when entreated, did bear the offerings which you made fragrant,

And give them to the Fathers who did cat them with Svadha. Eat, you God, the gifts we bring you. [12]

You, Jatavedas, know well the number of Fathers who are here and who are absent,

Of Fathers whom we know and whom we know not: accept the sacrifice wellprepared with portions. [13]

They who, consumed by fire or not cremated, joy in their offering in the midst of heaven,-

Grant them, Sovran Lord, the world of spirits and their own body, as your pleasure wills it.

16 - Agni

Burn him not up, nor quite consume him, Agni: let not his body or his skin be scattered.

Jatavedas, when you have matured him, then send him on his way to the Fathers. [1]

When you have made him ready, Jatavedas, then do you give him over to the Fathers.

When he attains to the life that waits him, he shall become the deities' controller. [2]

The Sun receive your eye, tne Wind your spirit; go, as your merit is, to earth or heaven.

Go, if it be your lot, to the waters; go, make your home in plants with all your members. [3]

Your portion is the goat: with heat consume him: let your fierce flame, your glowing splendour, burn him

With your auspicious forms, o Jatavedas, bear this man to the region of the pious. [4]

Again, Agni, to the Fathers send him who, offered in you, goes with our oblations.

Wearing new life let him increase his offspring: let him rejoin a body, Jatavedas. [5]

What wound soever the dark bird has inflicted, the emmet, or the serpent, or the jackal,

May Agni who devours all things heal it and Soma who has passed into the Brahmans. [6]

Shield you with flesh against the flames of Agni, encompass you about with fat and marrow,

So will the Bold One, eager to attack you with fierce glow fail to girdle and consume you. [7]

Forbear, Agni, to upset this ladle: the gods and they who merit Soma love it.

This ladle, this which serves the gods to drink from, in this the immortal deities rejoice them. [8]

1 send afar flesh eating Agni, bearing off stains may he depart to Yama's subjects.

But let this other Jatavedas carry oblation to the gods, for he is skilful. [9]

I choose as God for Father-worship Agni, flesh-eater, who has past within your dwelling,

While looking on this other Jatavedas. Let him light flames in the supreme assembly. [10]

With offerings meet let Agni bring the Fathers who support the Law.

Let him announce oblations paid to Fathers and to deities. [11]

Right gladly would we set you down, right gladly make you burn and glow.

Gladly bring yearning Fathers nigh to cat the food of sacrifice. [12]

Cool, Agni, and again refresh the spot which you have scorched and burnt.

Here let the water-lily grow, and tender grass and leafy herb. [13]

full of coolness, you cool Plant, full of fresh moisture, freshening Herb,

Come here with the female frog: fill with delight this Agni here.

17 - Various deities

TVASTAR prepares the bridal of his Daughter: all the world hears the tidings and assembles.

But Yama's Mother, Spouse of great Vivasvan, vanished as she was carried to her dwelling. [1]

From mortal men they hid the immortal Lady, made one like her and gave her to Vivasvan.

Saranyu brought to him the Asvin brothers, and then deserted both twinned pairs of children. [2]

Guard of the world, whose cattle never are injured, may Pusan bear you hence, for he has knowledge.

May he consign you to these Fathers' keeping, and to the gracious gods let Agni give you. [3]

May Ayu, giver of all life, protect you, and bear you forward on the distant pathway.

There let Savitar the god transport you, where dwell the pious who have passed-before you. [4]

Pusan knows all these realms: may he conduct us by ways that are most free from fear and danger.

Giver of blessings, glowing, all-heroic, may he, thewise and watchful, go before us. [5]

Pusan was born to move on distant pathways, on the road far from earth and far from heaven.

To both most wonted places of assembly he travels and returns with perfect knowledge. [6]

The pious call Sarasvati, they worship Sarasvati while sacrifice proceedeth.

The pious called Sarasvati aforetime. Sarasvati send bliss to him who gives. [7]

Sarasvati, who camest with the Fathers, with them rejoicing you in our oblations,

Seated on this sacred grass be joyful, and give us strengthening food that brings no sickness. [8]

You, called on as Sarasvati by Fathers who come right forward to our solemn service,

Give food and wealth to present sacrificers, a portion, worth a thousand, of refreshment. [9]

The Mother Floods shall make us bright and shining, cleansers of holy oil, with oil shall cleanse us:

For, Goddesses, they bear off all defilement: I, rise up from them purified and brightened. [10]

Through days of earliest date the Drop descended on this place and on that which was before it.

I offer up, throughout the seven oblations, the Drop which still to one same place is moving. [11]

The Drop that falls, your stalk which arms have shaken, which from the bosom of the press has fallen,

Or from the Adhvaryu's purifying filter, I offer you with heart and cry of Vasat! [12]

That fallen Drop of yours, the stalk which from the ladle fell away,

This present God Brihaspati shall pour it forth to make us rich. [13]

The plants of earth are rich in milk, and rich in milk is this my speech;

And rich in milk the essence of the Waters: make me pure therewith.

18 - Various deities

Go hence, Death, pursue your special pathway apart from that which gods are wont to travel.

To you I say it who have eyes and hear: Touch not our offspring, injure not our heroes. [1]

As you have come effacing Mrtyu's footstep, to further times prolonging your existence,

May you be rich in children and possessions. cleansed, purified, and meet for sacrificing. [2]

Divided from the dead are these, the living: now be our calling on the gods successful.

We have gone forth for dancing and for laughter, tofurther times prolonging our existence. [3]

Here I erect this rampart for the living; let none of these, none other, reach this limit.

May they survive a hundred lengthened autumns, and may they bury Death beneath this mountain. [4]

As the days follow days in close succession, as with the seasons duly come the seasons,

As each successor fails not his foregoer, so form the lives of these, great Ordainer. [5]

Live your full lives ap! find old age delightful, all of you striving one behind the other.

May Tvastar, maker of fair things, be gracious and lengthen out the days of your existence. [6]

Let these unwidowed dames with noble husbands adorn themselves with fragrant balm and unguent.

Decked with fair jewels, tearless, free from sorrow, first let the dames go up to where he lieth. [7]

Rise, come to the world of life, woman: come, he is lifeless by whose side you liest.

Wifehood with this your husband was your portion, who took your hand and wooed you as a lover. [8]

From his dead hand I take the bow be carried, that it may be our power and might and glory.

There are you, there; and here with noble heroes may we overcome all hosts that fight against us. [9]

Betake you to the Iap of Earth the Mother, of Earth far-spreading, very kind and gracious.

Young Dame, wool-soft to the guerdongiver, may she preserve tbee from Destruction's bosom. [10]

Heave yourself, Earth, nor press you downward heavily: afford him easy access, gently tending him.

Cover him, as a mother wraps her skirt about her child, Earth. [11]

Now let the heaving earth be free from motion: yea, let a thousand clods remain above him.

Be they to him a home distilling fatness, here let them ever be his place of refuge. [12]

I stay the earth from you, while over you I place this piece of earth. May I be free from injury.

Here let the Fathers keep this pillar firm for you, and there let Yama make you an abiding- place. [13]

Even as an arrow's feathers, they have set me on a fitting day.

The fit word have I caught and held as it were a courser with the rein.

19 - Waters or cows

TURN, go not farther on your way: visit us, you Wealthy Ones.

Agni and Soma, you who bring riches again, secure us wealth. [1]

Make these return to us again, bring them beside us once again.

May. Indra give them back to us, and Agni drive them here-ward. [2]

Let them return to us again: under this herdsman let them feed.

Do you, Agni, keep them here, and let the wealth we have remain. [3]

1 call on their herdsman, him who knows well their coming nigh,

Their parting and their home-return, and watchs their approach and rest. [4]

Yea, let the herdsman, too, return, who marks well their driving-forth;

Marks their wandering away, their turning back and coming home. [5]

Home-leader, lead them home to us; Indra, restore to us our kine:

We will rejoice in them alive. [6]

1 offer you on every side butter and milk and strengthening food.

May all the Holy deities pour down on us a flood of wealth. [7]

you Home-leader, lead them home, restore them you who bringest home.

Four are the quarters of the earth; from these bring back to us our kine,

20 - Agni

SEND to us a good and happy mind. [1]

1 worship Agni, Most youthful of gods, resistless, friend of laws;

Under whose guard and heavenly light the Spotted seek the Mother's breast: [2]

Whom with their mouth they magnify, bannered with flame and homed in light.

He glitters with his row of teeth. [3]

Kind, Furtherer of men, he comes, when he has reached the ends of heaven,

Sage, giving splendour to the clouds. [4]

To taste man's offerings, he, the Strong, has risen erect at sacrifice:

Fixing his dwelling he proceeds. [5]

Here are oblation, worship, rest: rapidly comes his furtherance.

To sword-armed Agni come the gods. [6]

With service for chief bliss I seek the Lord of Sacrifice, Agni, whom

They call the Living, Son of Cloud. [7]

Blest evermore be all the men who come from us, who magnify

Agni with sacrificial gifts. [8]

The path he treads is black and white and red, and striped, and brown, crimson, and glorious.

His sire begat him bright with hues of gold. [9]

Thus with his thoughts, Son of Strength, Agni, has Vimada, accordant with the immortals,

Offered you hymns, soliciting your favour. You have brought all food, strength, a prosperous dwelling.

21 - Agni

WITH offerings of our own we choose you, Agni, as Invoking priest,

For sacrifice with trimmed grass,-at your glad carouse-piercing and brightly shining. You are waxing great. [1]

The wealthy ones adorn you, they who bring us horses as their gift:

The sprinkling ladle, Agni,-at your glad carouse -and glowing offering taste you. You are waxing great. [2]

The holy statutes rest by you, as it were with ladles that overflow.

Black and white-gleaming colours,-at your glad carouse-all glories you assurnest. You are waxing great. [3]

Agni, what you deemest wealth, Victorious and immortal One!

Bring you to give us vigour,-at your glad carouse -splendid at sacrifices. You are waxing great. [4]

Skilled in all lore is Agni, he whom erst Atharvan brought to life.

He was Vivasvan's envoy, at your glad carouse-the weIl-loved friend of Yama, You are waxing great. [5]

At sacrifices they adore you, Agni, when the rite proceeds.

All fair and lovely treasures-at your glad carouse-you give him who offers. You are waxing great. [6]

Men, Agni, have established you as welcome priest at holy rites,

You whose face shines with butter,-at your glad carouse-bright, with eyes most observant. You are waxing great. [7]

Wide and aloft you spreadest you, Agni, with tby brilliant flame.

A Bull are you when bellowing,-at your glad carouse-you do impregn the Sisters. You are waxing great.

22 - Indra

WHERE is famed Indra heard of? With what folk is he renowned to-day as Mitra is,-

Who in the home of Rishis and in secret is extolled with song? [1]

Even here is Indra famed, and among us this day the glorious Thunderer is praised,

He who like Mitra mid the folk has won complete and full renown. [2]

He who is Sovran Lord of great and perfect strength, exerter of heroic might,

Who bears the fearless thunder as a father bears his darling son. [3]

Harnessing to your car, as God, two blustering steeds Of the Wind-God, Thunderer,

That speed along the shining path, you making ways art glorified. [4]

Even to these dark steeds of Wind you of yourself have come to ride,

Of which no driver may be found, none, be he god or mortal man. [5]

When you approach, men ask you, you and Usana: Why come to our dwelling-place?

Why are you come to mortal man from distant realms of eapth and heaven? [6]

Indra, you shall speak us fair: our holy prayer is offered up.

We pray to you for help as you did strike the monster Susna dead. [7]

Around us is the Dasyu, riteless, void of sense, inhuman, keeping alien laws.

Baffle, you Slayer of the foe, the weapon which this Dasa wields. [8]

Hero with heroes, you are ours: yea, strong are they whom you do help.

In many a place are your full gifts, and men, like vassals, sing your praise. [9]

Urge you these heroes on to slay the enemy, brave Thunderer! in the fight with swords.

Even when hid among the tribes of Sages numerous as stars. [10]

Swift come those gifts of yours whose hand is prompt to rend and burn, hero Thunder- armed:

As you with your Companions did destroy the whole of SuSnia's brood. [11]

Let not your excellent assistance come to us, HerIndra, profitless.

May we, may we enjoy the bliss of these your favours, Thunderer! [12]

May those soft impulses of yours, Indra, be fruitful and innocent to us.

May we know these whose treasures are like those of milch-kine, Thunderer! [13]

That Earth, through power of knowing things that may be known, handless and footless yet might thrive,

You slew, turning to the right, gu;na for every living man. [14]

Drink, drink the soma, HerIndra; be not withheld as you are good, Treasure-giver.

Preserve the singers and our liberal princes, and make us wealthy with abundant riches.

23 - Indra

INDRA, whose right hand wields the bolt, we worship, driver of bay steeds seeking sundered courses.

Shaking his beard with might he has arisen, casting his weapons forth and dealing bounties. [1]

The treasure which his bay steeds found at sacrifice,-this wealth made opulent Indra slayer of the foe.

Rbhu, Rbhuksan, Vaja-he is Lord of Might. The Dasa's very name I utterly destroy. [2]

When, with the Princes, Maghavari, famed of old, comes nigh the thunderbolt of gold, and the Controller's car

Which his two Tawny coursers draw, then Indra is the Sovran Lord of power whose glory spreads afar. [3]

With him too is this rain of his that comes like herds: Indra throws drops of moisture on his yellow beard.

When the sweet juice is shed he seeks the pleasant place, and stirs the worshipper as wind disturbs the wood. [4]

We laud and praise his several deeds of valour who, fatherlike, with power has made us stronger;

Who with his voice slew many thousand wicked ones who spake in varied manners with contemptuous cries. [5]

Indra, the Vimadas have formed for you a laud, copious, unparalleled, for you Most Bountiful.

We know the good we gain from him the Mighty One when we attract him as a herdsman calls the kine. [6]

Never may this bond of friendship be dissevered, the Rishi Vimada's and your, Indra.

We know you carest for us as a brother with us, God, be your auspicious friendship.

24 - Indra. Asvins

INDRA, drink this Soma, pressed out in the mortar, full of sweets.

Send down to us great riches,-at your glad carouse-in thousands, Most healthy. You are waxing great. [1]

To you with sacrifices, with oblations, and with lauds we come.

Lord of all strength and power, grant-at your glad carouse-the best choiceworthy treasure. You are waxing great. [2]

You who are Lord of precious boons, inciter even of the churl.

Guardian of singers, Indra,-at your glad carouse-save us from woe and hatred. You are waxing great. [3]

Strong, lords of Magic power, you two churned the united worlds apart,

When you, implored by Vimada, Nasatyas, forced apart the pair. [4]

When the united pair were rent asunder all the gods complained.

The gods to the Nasatyas cried, Bring these together once again. [5]

Sweet be my going forth, and rich in sweets be my approach to home.

So, through your deity, both gods, enrich us with all pleasantness.

25 - Soma

SEND us a good and happy mind, send energy and mental power.

Then-at your glad carouse-let men joy in your love, Sweet juice! as kine in pasture. You. art waxing great. [1]

rn all your forms, Soma, rest your powers that influence the heart.

So also these my longings-at your glad carouse-spread themselves seeking riches. You are waxing great. [2]

Even if, Soma, I neglect your laws through my simplicity,

Be gracious-at your glad carouse-as sire to son. Preserve us even from slaughter. T'hou. art waxing great. [3]

Our songs in concert go to you as streams of water to the wells.

Soma, that we may live, grant-at your glad carouse-full powers of mind, like beakers. You are waxing great. [4]

Soma, through your might who are skilful and strong, these longing men,

These sages, have thrown open-at your glad carouse-the stall of kine and horses. You are waxing great [5]

Our herds you guardest, Soma, and the moving world spread far and wide.

You fittest them for living,-at your glad carouse-looking on all beings. You are waxing great. [6]

On all sides, Soma, be to us a Guardian never to be deceived.

King, drive away our foemen-at your glad carouse:-let not the wicked rule us. You are waxing great. [7]

Be watchful, Soma, passing wise, to give us store of vital strength.

More skilled than man to guide us,-at your glad carouse-save us from harm and sorrow. You are waxing great. [8]

Chief slayer of our foemen, you, Indu, art Indra's gracious friend,

When warriors invoke him-at your glad carouse -in fight, to win them offspring. You are waxing great. [9]

Victorious is this gladdening drink: tIndra dear it grows in strength.

This-at your glad carouse -enhanced the mighty hymn of the great sage Kaksivan. You are waxing great. [10]

This to the sage who offers gifts brings power that comes from wealth in kine.

This, better than the seven, has-at your glad carouse-furthered the blind, the cripple. You are waxing great.

26 - Pusan

FORWARD on their way proceed the ready teams, the lovely songs.

Further them glorious Pusan with yoked chariot, and the Mighty two! [1]

With sacred hymns let this man here, this singer, win the god to whom

Belong this majesty and might. He has observed our eulogies. [2]

Pusan the Strong has knowledge of sweet praises even as Indu has.

He dews our corn with moisture, he bedews the pasture of our kine. [3]

We will bethink ourselves of you, Pusan, you God, as One.

Who brings fulfilment of our hymns, and stirs the singer and the sage. [4]

joint-sharer of each sacrifice, the driver of the chariot steeds;

The Rishi who is good to man, the singer's friend and faithful Guard. [5]

One who is Lord of Suca, Lord of Suca caring for herself:

Weaving the raiment of the sheep and making raiment beautiful. [6]

The mighty Lord of spoil and wealth, Strong friend of all prosperity;

He with light movement shakes his beard, lovely and never to be deceived. [7]

Pusan, may those goats of yours turn hereward your chariot-pole.

Friend of all suppliants; are you, born in old time, and arm and sure. [8]

May the majestic Pusan speed our chariot with his power and might.

May he increase our store of wealth and listen to this call of ours.

27 - Indra

THIS, singer, is my firm determination, to aid the worshipper who pours the soma.

I slay the man who brings no milkoblation, unrighteous, powerful, the truth's perverter. [1]

Then Will I, when I lead my friends to battle against the radiant persons of the godless,

Prepare for you at home a vigorous bullock, and pour for you the fifteen-fold strong juices. [2]

I know not him who says and declars that he has slain the godless in the battle.

Soon as they see the furious combat raging, men speak forth praises of my vigorous horses. [3]

While yet my deeds of might were unrecorded, all passed for Maghavans though I existed.

The potent one who dwelt in peace I conquered, grasped by the foot and slew him on the mountain. [4]

None hinder me in mine heroic exploits, no, not the mountains when I will and purpose.

Even the deaf will tremble at my roaring, and every day will dust be agitated. [5]

To see the Indraless oblation-drinkers, mean offerers, overtaken by destruction!

Then shall the fellies of my car pass over those who have blamed my joyous friend and scorned him. [6]

You were, you grewest to full vital vigour: an earlier saw, a later one shall see you.

Two canopies, as it were, are round about him who reachs to the limit of this region. [7]

The freed kine eat the barley of the pious. 1 saw them as they wandered with the herdsman.

The calling of the pious rang around them. What portion will these kine afford their owner? [8]

When we who cat the grass of men are gathered I am with barley-eaters in the corn- land.

There shall the captor yoke the yokeless bullock, and he who has been yoked seek one to loose him. [9]

There will you hold as true my spoken purpose, to bring together quadrupeds. and bipeds.

I will divide, without a fight, his riches who warrs here, against the Bull, with women. [10]

When a man's daughter has been ever eyeless, who, knowing, will be wroth with her for blindness?

Which of the two will loose on him his anger-the man who leads her home or he who woos her? [11]

How many a maid is pleasing to the suitor who fain would marry for her splendid riches?

If the girl be both good and fair of feature, she finds, herself, a friend among the people. [12]

His feet have grasped: he eats the man who meets him. Around his head he sets the head for shelter.

Sitting anear and right above he smites us, and follows earth that lies spread out beneath him. [13]

High, leafless, shadowless, and swift is Heaven: the Mother stands, the Youngling, loosed, is feeding.

Loud has she lowed, licking Another's offspring. In what world has the Cow laid down her udder? [14]

Seven heroes from the nether part ascended, and from the upper part came eight together.

Nine from behind came armed with winnowing-baskets: ten from the front pressed over the rock's high ridges. [15]

One of the ten, the tawny, shared in common, they send to execute their final purpose.

The Mother carries on her breast the Infant of noble form and soothes it while it knows not. [16]

The heroes dressed with fire the fatted wether: the dice were thrown by way of sport and gaming.

Two reach the plain amid the heavenly waters, hallowing and with means of purifying. [17]

Crying aloud they ran in all directions: One half of them will cook, and not the other.

To me has Savitar, this God, declared it: He will perform, whose food is wood and butter. [18]

I saw a troop advancing from the distance moved, not by wheels but their own God-like nature.

The friendly One seeks human generations, destroying, still new bands of evil beings. [19]

These my two Bulls, even Pramara's, are harnessed: drive them not far; here let them often linger.

The waters even shall aid him to his object, and the all-cleansing Sun who is above us. [20]

This is the thunderbolt which often whirls down from the lofty misty realm of Surya.

Beyond this realm there is another glory so through old age they pass and feel no sorrow. [21]

Bound fast to,every tree the cow is lowing, and thence the man-consuming birds are flying,

Then all this world, though pressing juice for Indra and strengthening the Rishi, is affrighted. [22]

In the gods' mansion stood the first-created, and from their separation came the later.

Three warm the Earth while holding stores of water, and Two of these convey the murmuring moisture. [23]

This is your life: and do you mark and know it. As such, hide not yourself in time of battle.

He manifests the light and hides the vapour: his foot is never free from robes that veil it.

28 - Indra. Vasukra

Now all my other friends are here assembled: my Sire-in-law alone has not come here.

So might he eat the grain and drink the soma, and, satisfied, return to; his dwelling. [1]

Loud bellows the Bull whose horns are sharpened: on the height above earth's breadth he standeth.

That man I guard and save in all his troubles who fills my flanks when he has shed the soma. [2]

Men with the stone press out for you, Indra, strong, gladdening Soma, and thereof you drinkest.

Bulls they dress for you, and of these you eatest when, Maghavan, with food you are invited. [3]

Resolve for me, singer, this my riddle: The rivers send their swelling water backward:

The fox steals up to the approaching lion: the jackal drives the wild-boar from the brushwood. [4]

How shall I solve this riddle, I, the simple, declare the thought of you the Wise and Mighty?

Tell us, well knowing, as befits the season: Whereward is your prosperous car advancing? [5]

Thus do they magnify me, me the mighty higher than even high heaven is my car-pole.

I all at once demolish many thousands: my Sire begot me with no foe to match me. [6]

Yea, and the gods have known me also, Indra, as mighty, fierce and strong in every exploit.

Exulting with the bolt I slaughtered Vritra, and for the offerer oped with might the cow-stall. [7]

The deities approached, they carried axes; splitting the wood they came with their attendants.

They laid good timber in the fire-receivers, and burnt the grass up where they found it growing. [8]

The hare has swallowed up the opposing razor: I sundered with a clod the distant mountain.

The great will I make subject to the little: the calf shall wax in strength and cat the bullock. [9]

There has the strong-winged eagle left his talon, as a snared lion leaves the trap that caught him.

Even the wild steer in his thirst is captured: the leather strap still holds his foot entangled. [10]

So may the leather strap their foot entangle who fatten on the viands of the Brahman.

They all devour the bulls set free to wander, while they themselves destroy their bodies' vigour. [11]

They were well occupied with holy duties who sped in person with their lauds to Soma.

Speaking like man, mete to us wealth and booty: in heaven you have the name and fame of hero.

29 - Indra

As sits the young bird on the tree rejoicing, you, swift Pair, have been roused by clear laudation,

Whose Herald-priest through many days is Indra, earth's Guardian, friend of men, the best of heroes. [1]

May we, when this Dawn and the next dance here, be your best servants, most heroic hero!

Let the victorious car with triple splendour bring hereward the hundred chiefs with Kutsa. [2]

What was the gladdening draught that pleased you, Indra? Speed through our doors to songs, for you are mighty.

Why come you to me, what gift attracts you? Fain would I bring you food most meet to offer. [3]

Indra, what fame has one like you mid heroes? With what plan will you act? Why have you sought us?

As a true friend, Wide-Strider! to sustain us, since food absorbs the thought of each among us. [4]

Speed happily those, as Surya ends his journey, who meet his wish as bridegrooms meet their spouses;

Men who present, Indra strong by nature, with food the many songs that tell your praises. [5]

Your are two measures, Indra, wide-wellmeted, heaven for your majesty, earth for your wisdom.

Here for your choice are Somas mixed with butter: may the sweet meath be pleasant for your drinking. [6]

They have poured out a bowl to him, tIndra, full of sweet juice, for faithful is his bounty.

Over earth's expanse has he grown great by wisdom, the friend of man, and by heroic exploits. [7]

Indra has conquered in his wars, the Mighty: men strive in multitudes to win his friendship.

Ascend your chariot as it were in battle, which you shall drive to us with gracious favour.

30 - Waters

As it were with swift exertion of the spirit, let the priest speed to the celestial Waters,

The glorious food of Varuna and Mitra. To him who spreads far this laud I offer. [1]

Adhvaryus, he you ready with oblations,, and come with longing to the longing Waters,

Down on which looks the. purple-tinted Eagle. Pour you that flowing wave this day, deft- handed. [2]

Go to the reservoir, you Adhvaryus worship the Waters' Child with your oblations.

A consecrated wave he now will give you, so press for him the soma rich in sweetness. [3]

He who shines bright in floods, unfed with fuel, whom sages worship at their sacrifices:

Give waters rich in sweets, Child of the Waters, even those which gave heroic might tIndra: [4]

Those in which Soma joys and is delighted, as a young man with fair and pleasant damsels.

Go you to those Waters, Adhvaryu, and purify with herbs what you infusest. [5]

So maidens bow before the youthful gallant who comes with love to them who yearn to meet him.

In heart accordant and in wish one-minded are the Adhvaryus and the heavenly Waters. [6]

He who made room for you when fast imprisoned, who freed you from the mighty imprecation,-

Even to that Indra send the meath-rich current, the wave that gratifies the gods, Waters. [7]

Send forth to him the meath-rich wave, Rivers, which is your offspring and a well of sweetness,

Oil-balmed, to be implored at sacrifices. You wealthy Waters, hear mine invocation. [8]

Send forth the rapture-giving wave, Rivers, which Indra drinks, which sets the two in motion;

The well that springs from the clouds, desirous, that wanders triple-formed, distilling transport. [9]

These winding Streams which with their double current, like cattle-raiders, seek the lower pastures,

Waters which dwell together, thrive together, Queens, Mothers of the world, these, Rishi, honour. [10]

Send forth our sacrifice with holy worship send forth the hymn and prayer for gain of riches.

For need of sacrifice disclose the udder. Give gracious hearing to our call, Waters. [11]

For, wealthy Waters, you control all treasures: you bring auspicious intellect and Amrta.

You are the Queens of independent riches Sarasvati give full life to the singer! [12]

When I behold the Waters coming here, carrying with them milk and mcath and butter,

Bearing the well-pressed soma juice tIndra, they harmonize in spirit with Adhvaryus. [13]

Rich, they are come with wealth for living beings, friends, Adhvaryus, seat them in their places.

Seat them on holy grass, you Soma-bringers in harmony with the Offspring of the Waters. [14]

Now to this grass are come the longing Waters: the Pious Ones are seated at our worship.

Adbvaryus, press the soma juice for Indra so will the service of the gods be easy.

31 - Visvedevas

MAY benediction of the gods approach us, holy, to aid us with all rapid succours.

Therewith may we be happily befriended, and pass triumphant over all our troubles. [1]

A man should think on wealth and strive to win it by adoration on the path of Order,

Counsel himself with his own mental insight, and grasp still nobler vigour with his spirit. [2]

The hymn is formed, poured are the allotted portions: as to a ford friends come to the Wondrous.

We have obtained the power of case and comfort, we haVe become acquainted, with immortals. [3]

Pleased be the Eternal Lord who loves the household with this man whom God Savitar created.

May Bhaga Aryaman grace him with cattle: may he appear to him, and be, delightful. [4]

Like the Dawns' dwelling-place be this assembly, where in their might men rich in food have gathered.

Striving to share the praises of this singer. To us come strengthening and effectual riches! [5]

This Bull's most gracious far-extended favour existed first of all in full abundance.

By his support they are maintained in common who in the Asura's mansion dwell together. [6]

What was the tree, what wood, in sooth, produced it, from which they fashioned forth the Earth and Heaven?

These two stand fast and wax not old forever: these have sung praise to many a day and morning. [7]

Not only here is this: more is beyond us. He is the Bull, the Heaven's and Earth's supporter.

With power divine he makes his skin a filter, when the bay coursers bear him on as Surya. [8]

He passes over the broad earth like a Stega: he penetrates the world as Wind the mist- cloud.

He, balmed with oil, near Varuna and Mitra, like Agni in the wood, has shot forth splendour. [9]

When suddenly called the cow that erst was barren, she, self-protected, ended all her troubles.

Earth, when the first son sprang from sire and mother, cast up the gami, that which men were seeking. [10]

To Nrsad's son they gave the name of Kainva, and he the brown-hued courser won the treasure.

For him dark-coloured streamed the shining udder: none made it swell for him. Thus Order willed it.

32 - Indra

FORTH speed the Pair to bring the meditating God, benevolent with boons sent in return for boons.

May Indra graciously accept both gifts from us, when he has knowledge of the flowing soma juice. [1]

You wanderest far, Indra, through the spheres of light and realms of earth, the region, you whom many praise!

Let those who often bring their solemn rites conquer the noisy babblers who present no gifts. [2]

More beautiful than beauty must this seem to me, when the son duly cars for his parents' line.

The wife attracts the husband: with a shout of joy the man's auspicious marriage is performed aright. [3]

This beauteous place of meeting have I looked on, where, like milch-cows, the kine order the marriage train;

Where the Herd's Mother counts as first and best of all, and round her are the seven-toned people of the choir. [4]

The Pious One has reached your place before the rest: One only moves victorious with the Rudras' band.

To these your helpers pour our meath, immortal gods, with whom your song of praise has power to win their gifts. [5]

He who maintains the Laws of God informed me that you were lying hidden in the waters.

Indra, who knows well, beheld and showed you. By him instructed am I come, Agni. [6]

The stranger asks the way of him who knows it: taught by the skilful guide he travels onward.

This is, in truth, the blessing of instruction: he finds the path that leads directly forward. [7]

Even now he breathed: these days has he remembered. Concealed, he sucked the bosom of his Mother.

Yet in his youth old age has come on him: he has grown gracious, good, and free from anger. [8]

Kalasa, all these blessings will we bring them, Kurusravana, who give rich presents.

May he, wealthy princes, and this Soma which I am bearing in my heart, reward you.

33 - Various deities

THE urgings of the people have impelled me, and by,the nearest way I bring you Pusan.

The Universal gods have brought me safely. The cry was heard, Behold, Dubsasu cometh! [1]

The ribs that compass me give pain and trouble me like rival wives.

Indigence, nakedness, exhaustion press me sore: my mind is fluttering like a bird's. [2]

As rats eat weavers' threads, cares are consuming me, your singer, gatakratu, me.

Have mercy on us once, Indra, Bounteous Lord: be you a Father to us. [3]

I the priests' Rishi chose as prince most liberal Kurusravana,

The son of Trasadasyu's son, [4]

Whose three bays harnessed to the car bear me straight onward: I will laud

The giver of a thousand meeds, [5]

The sire of Upamasravas, even him whose words were passing sweet,

As a fair field is to its lord. [6]

Mark, Upamasravas, his son, mark, grandson of Mitratithi:

I am your father's eulogist. [7]

If I controlled immortal gods, yea, even were I Lord of men,

My liberal prince were living still. [8]

None lives, even had he hundred lives, beyond the statute of the gods

So am I parted from my friend.

34 - Dice, etc

SPRUNG from tall trees on windy heights, these rollers transport me as they turn on the table.

Dearer to me the die that never slumbers than the deep draught of Mujavan's own Soma. [1]

She never vexed me nor was angry with me, but to my friends and me was ever gracious.

For the die's sake, whose single point is final, mine own devoted wife I alienated. [2]

My wife holds me aloof, her mother hates me: the wretched man finds none to give him comfort.

As of a costly horse grown old and feeble, I find not any profit of the gamester. [3]

Others caress the wife of him whose riches the die has coveted, that rapid courser:

Of him speak father, mother, brothers saying, We know him not: bind him and take him with you. [4]

When I resolve to play with these no longer, my friends depart from me and leave me lonely.

When the brown dice, thrown on the board, have rattled, like a fond girl I seek the place of meeting. [5]

The gamester seeks the gambling-house, and wonders, his body all afire, Shall I be lucky?

Still do the dice extend his eager longing, staking his gains against his adversary. [6]

Dice, verily, are armed with goads and driving-hooks, deceiving and tormenting, causing grievous woe.

They give frail gifts and then destroy the man who wins, thickly anointed with the player's fairest good. [7]

Merrily sports their troop, the three-and-fifty, like Savitar the god whose ways are faithful.

They bend not even to the mighty's anger: the King himself pays homage and reveres them. [8]

Downward they roll, and then spring quickly upward, and, handless, force the man with hands to serve them.

Cast on the board, like lumps of magic charcoal, though cold themselves they bum the heart to ashes. [9]

The gambler's wife is left forlorn and wretched: the mother mourns the son who wanders homeless.

In constant fear, in debt, and seeking riches, he goes by night to the home of others. [10]

Sad is the gambler when he sees a matron, another's wife, and his well-ordered dwelling.

He yokes the brown steeds in the early morning, and when the fire is cold sinks down an outcast. [11]

To the great captain of your mighty army, who has become the host's imperial leader,

To him I show my ten extended fingers: I speak the truth. No wealth am I withholding. [12]

Play not with dice: no, cultivate your corn-land. Enjoy the gain, and deem that wealth sufficient.

There are your cattle there your wife, gambler. So this good Savitar himself has told me. [13]

Make me your friend: show us some little mercy. Assail us not with your terrific fierceness.

Appeased be your malignity and anger, and let the brown dice snare some other captive.

35 - Visvedevas

THESE fires associate with Indra are awake, bringing their light when first the Dawn begins to shine.

May Heaven and Earth, great Pair, observe our holy work. We claim for us this day the favour of the gods. [1]

Yea, for ourselves we claim the grace of Heaven and Earth, of Saryanavan, of the Hills and Mother Streams.

For innocence we pray to Surya and to Dawn. So may the flowing Soma bring us bliss to- day. [2]

May the great two, the Mothers, Heaven and Earth, this day preserve us free from sin for peace and happiness.

May Morning sending forth her light drive sin afar. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [3]

May this first Dawn bring us the host of gracious gods: rich, may it richly shine for us who strive for wealth.

The wrath of the malignant may we keep afar. We pray to kindled Agni for feilicity. [4]

Dawns, who come forward with the bright beams of the Sun, and at your earliest flushing bring to us the light,

Shine you on us to-day auspicious, for renown. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [5]

Free from all sickness may the Mornings come to us, and let our fires mount upward with a lofty blaze.

The Asvin Pair have harnessed their swift-moving car. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [6]

Send us to-day a portion choice and excellent, Savitar, for you are he who deals wealth.

I cry to Dhisana, Mother of opulence. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [7]

Further me this declaring of Eternal Law, the Law of gods, as we mortals acknowledge it!

The Sun goes up beholding all the rays of morn. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [8]

This day we pray with innocence in strewing grass, adjusting pressing-stones, and perfecting the hymn.

You in the Adityas' keeping movest restlessly. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [9]

To our great holy grass I bid the gods at morn to banquet, and will seat them as the seven priests,

Varuna, Indra, Mitra, Bhaga for our gain. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [10]

Come here, Adityas, for our perfect weal: accordant help our sacrifice that we may thrive.

Pusan, Brihaspati, Bhaga, both Asvins, and enkindled Agni we implore for happiness. [11]

Adityas, gods, vouchsafe that this our home may be praise-worthy, prosperous, our heroes' sure defence,

For cattle, for our sons, for progeny, for life. We pray to kindled Agni for felicity. [12]

This day may all the Maruts, all he near us with aid: may all our fires be well enkindled.

May all gods come to us with gracious favour. May spoil and wealth he ours, and all possessions. [13]

He whom you aid, deities, in battle, whom you protect and rescue from affliction,

Who fears no danger at your milk-libation, -such may we be to feast the gods, you Mighty.

36 - Visvedevas

THERE are the Dawn and Night, the grand and beauteous Pair, Earth, Heaven, and Varuna, Mitra, and Aryaman.

Indra I call, the Maruts, Mountains, and the Floods, Adityas, Heaven and Earth, the Waters, and the Sky. [1]

May Dyaus and Prthivi, wise, true to Holy Law, keep us in safety from distress and injury.

Let not malignant Nirrti rule over us. We crave to-day this gracious favour of the gods. [2]

Mother of Mitra and of opulent Varuna, may Aditi preserve us safe from all distress.

May we obtain the light of heaven without a foe. We crave this gracious favour of the gods to-day. [3]

May ringing press-stones keep the Raksasas afar, ill dream, and Nirrti, and each voracious fiend.

May the Adityas and the Maruts shelter us. We crave this gracious favour of the gods to-day. [4]

Full flow libations; on our grass let Indra sit; Brihaspati the singer laud with Sama hymns!

Wise be our hearts' imaginings that we may live. We crave this gracious favour of the gods to-day. [5]

You Asvins, make our sacrifice ascend to heaven, and animate the rite that it may send us bliss,

Offered with holy oil, with forward-speeding rein. We crave the gracious favour of the gods to- day. [6]

Here I call the band of Maruts, swift to hear, great, purifying, bringing bliss, to he our friends.

May we increase our wealth to glorify our name. We crave this graciousfavour of the gods to-day. [7]

We bring the Stay of Life, who makes the waters swell, swift-hearing, friend of gods, who waits on sacrifice.

May we control that Power, Soma whose rays are bright. We crave this gracious favour of the gods to-day. [8]

Alive ourselves, with living sons, devoid of guilt, may we win this with winners by fair means to win.

Let the prayer-haters bear our sin to every side. We crave this gracious favour of the gods to- day. [9]

Hear us, you who claim the worship of mankind, and give us, you gods, the gift for which we pray,

Victorious wisdom, fame with heroes and with wealth. We crave to-day this gracious favour of the gods. [10]

We crave the gracious favour of the gods to-day, great favour of great gods, sublime and free from foes,

That we may gain rich treasure sprung from hero sons. We crave this gracious favour of the gods to-day. [11]

In great enkindled Agni's keeping, and, for bliss, free from all sin before Mitra and Varuna.

May we share Savitar's best animating help. We crave this gracious favour of the gods to- day. [12]

All you, the gods whom Savitar the Father of truth, and Varuna and Mitra govern,

Give us prosperity with hero children, and opulence in kine and various treasure. [13]

Savitar, Savitar from cast and westward, Savitar, Savitar from north and southward,

Savitar send us perfect health and comfort, Savitar let our days of life be lengthened!

37 - Surya

Do homage to Varuna's and Mitra's Eye: offer this solemn worship to the Mighty God,

Who ses far away, the Ensign, born of gods. Sing praises to Surya, to the Son of Dyaus. [1]

May this my truthful speech guard me on every side wherever heaven and earth and days are spread abroad.

All else that is in motion finds a place of rest: the waters ever flow and ever mounts the Sun. [2]

No godless man from time remotest draws you down when you are driving forth with winged dappled steeds.

One lustre waits on you moving to the cast, and, Surya, you arisest with a different light. [3]

Surya, with the light by which you scatterest gloom, and with your ray impellest every moving thing,

Keep far from us all feeble, worthless sacrifice, and drive away disease and every evil dream. [4]

Sent forth you guardest well the Universe's law, and in your wonted way arisest free from wrath.

When Surya, we address our prayers to you to-day, may the gods favour this our purpose and desire. [5]

This invocation, these our words may Heaven and Earth, and Indra and the Waters and the Maruts hear.

Never may we suffer want in presence of the Sun, and, living happy lives, may we attain old age. [6]

Cheerful in spirit, evermore, and keen of sight, with store of children, free from sickness and from sin,

Long-living, may we look, Surya, on you uprising day by day, you great as Mitra is! [7]

Surya, may we live long and look on you still, you, Far-seeing One, bringing the glorious light,

The radiant God, the spring of joy to every eye, as you are mounting up over the high shining flood. [8]

You by whose lustre all the world of life comes forth, and by your beams again returns to its rest,

Surya with the golden hair, ascend for us day after day, still bringing purer innocence. [9]

Bless us with shine, bless us with perfect daylight, bless us with cold, with fervent heat and lustre.

Bestow on us, Surya, varied riches, to bless us in our home and when we travel. [10]

gods, to our living creatures of both kinds vouchsafe protection, both to bipeds and to quadrupeds,

That they may drink and eat invigorating food. So grant us health and strength and perfect innocence. [11]

If by some grievous sin we have provoked the gods, deities, with the tongue or thoughtlessness of heart,

That guilt, Vasus, lay on the Evil One, on him who ever leads us into deep distress.

38 - Indra

INDRA, in this battle great and glorious, in this loud din of war help us to victory,

Where in the strife for kine among bold ring-decked men arrows fly all around and heroes are subdued. [1]

At home disclose to us opulence rich in food, streaming with milk, Indra, meet to be renowned.

Sakra, may we be your, the friendly Conqueror's: even as we desire, Vasu, so do you. [2]

The godless man, much-lauded Indra, whether he be Dasa or be Arya, who would war with us,-

Easy to conquer he for you, with us, these foes: with you may we subdue them in the clash of fight. [3]

Him who must be invoked by many and by few, who stands nigh with comfort in the war of men,

Indra, famed hero, winner in the deadly strife, let us bring hereward to-day to favour us. [4]

For, Indra, I have heard you called Self. capturer, One, Steer! who never yields, who urges even the churl.

Release yourself from Kutsa and come here. How shall one like you sit still bound that he may not move?

39 - Asvins

As it were the name of father, easy to invoke, we all assembled here invoke this Car of yours,

Asvins, your swiftly-rolling circumambient Car which he who worships must invoke at eve and dawn. [1]

Awake all pleasant strains and let the hymns flow forth: raise up abundant fulness: this is our desire.

Asvins, bestow on us a glorious heritage, and give our princes treasure fair as Soma is. [2]

You are the bliss of her who grows old at home, and helpers of the slow although he linger last.

Men call you too, Nasatyas, healers of the blind, the thin and feeble, and the man with broken bones. [3]

You made Cyavana, weak and worn with length of days, young again, like a car, that he had power to move.

You lifted up the son of Tugra from the floods. At our libations must all these your acts be praised. [4]

We will declare among the folk your ancient deeds heroic; yea, you were Physicians bringing health.

You, you who must be lauded, will we bring for aid, so that this foe of ours, Asvins, may believe. [5]

Listen to me, Asvins; I have cried to you. Give me-your aid as sire and mother aid their son.

Poor, without kin or friend or ties of blood am I. Save me before it be too late, from this my curse. [6]

You, mounted on your chariot brought to Vimada the comely maid of Purumitra as a bride.

You, came to the calling of the weakling's dame, and granted noble offspring to the happy wife. [7]

You gave a ain the vigour of his youthful life to tge sage Kali when old age was coming nigh.

You rescued Vandana and raised him from the pit, and in a moment gave Vispala power to move. [8]

You Asvins two, endowed with manly strength, brought forth Reblia when hidden in the cave and well-nigh dead,

Freed Saptavadliri, and for Atri caused the pit heated with fire to be a pleasant resting-place. [9]

On Pedu you bestowed, Asvins, a courser white, mighty with nine-and-ninety varied gifts of strength,

A horse to be renowned, who bore his friend at speed, joy-giving, Bhaga-like to be invoked of men. [10]

From no side, you Two Kings whom none may check or stay, doth grief, distress, or danger come u on the man

Whom, Asvins swift to hear, borne on your glowing path, you with your Consort make the foremost in the race. [11]

Come on that Chariot which the Rbhus wrought for you, the Chariot, Asvins, that is speedier than thought,

At harnessing whereof Heaven's Daughter springs to birth, and from Vivasvan come auspicious Night and Day. [12]

Come, Conquerors of the sundered mountain, to our home, Asvins who made the cow stream milk for Sayu's sake,

You who delivered even from the wolf's deep throat and set again at liberty the swallowed quail. [13]

We have prepared this laud for you, Asvins, and, like the Bhrigus, as a car have framed it,

Have decked it as a maid to meet the bridegroom, and brought it as a son, our stay for ever.

40 - Asvins

YOUR radiant Chariot-where goes it on its way?-who decks it for you, heroes, for its happy course,

Starting at daybreak, visiting each morning every house, borne hereward through prayer to the sacrifice? [1]

Where are you, Asvins, in the evening, where at morn? Where is your haltingplace, where rest you for the night?

Who brings you homeward, as the widow bedward draws her husband's brother, as the bride attracts the groom? [2]

Early you sing forth praise as with a herald's voice, and, meet for worship, go each morning to the house.

Whom do you ever bring to ruin? To whose libations come you, heroes, like two Sons of Kings? [3]

Even as hunters follow two wild elephants, we with oblations call you down at morn and eve.

To folk who pay you offierings at appointed times, Chiefs, lords of splendour, you bring food to strengthen them. [4]

To you, Asvins, came the daughter of a King, Ghosa, and said, heroes, this I beg of you:

Be near me in the day, he near me in the night: help me to gain a car-borne chieftain rich in steeds. [5]

Asvins, you are wise: as Kutsa comes to men, bring your car nigh the folk of him who sings your praise.

The bee, Asvins, bears your honey in her mouth, as the maid carries it purified in her hand. [6]

To Bhujyu and to Vasa you come near with help, Asvins, to Sinjara and to Usana.

Your worshipper secures your friendship for himself. Through your protection I desire felicity. [7]

Krsa and Sayu you protect, you Asvins two: you Two assist the widow and the worshipper;

And you throw open, Asvins, to those who win the cattle-stall that thunders with its serenfold mouth. [8]

The Woman has brought forth, the Infant has appeared, the plants of wondrous beauty straightway have sprung up.

To him the rivers run as down a deep descent, and he this day becomes their master and their lord. [9]

They mourn the living, cry aloud, at sacrifice: the men have set their thoughts on a distant cast.

A lovely thing for fathers who have gathered here,-a joy to husbands,-are the wives their arms shall clasp [10]

Of this we have no knowledge. Tall it forth to us, now the youth rests within the chambers of the bride.

Fain would we reach the dwelling of the vigorous Steer who loves the kine, Asvins: this is our desire. [11]

Your favouring grace has come, you lords of ample wealth: Asvins, our longings are stored up within your hearts.

You, lords of splendour, have become our twofold guard: may we as welcome friends reach Aryaman's abode. [12]

Even so, rejoicing in the dwelling-place of man, give hero sons and riches to the eloquent.

Make a ford, lords of splendour, where men well may drink: remove the spiteful tree-stump standing in the path. [13]

Asvins, Wonder-Workers, lords of lustre, where and with what folk do you delight yourselves to-day?

Who has detained them with him? Where are they gone? To what sage's or what worshipper's abode?

41 - Asvins

THAT general Car of yours, invoked by many a man, that comes to our libations, three- wheeled, meet for lauds,

That circumambient Car, worthy of sacrifice, we call with our pure hymns at earliest flush of dawn. [1]

You, Nasatyas, mount that early-harnessed Car, that travels early, laden with its freight of balm,

Wherewith you, heroes, visit clans who sacrifice, even the poor man's worship where the priest attends. [2]

If to the deft Adhvaryu with the meath in hand, or to the Kindler firm in strength, the household friend,

Or to the sage's poured libations you approach, come thence, Asvins, now to drink the offered meath.

42 - Indra

EVEN as an archer shoots afar his arrow, offer the laud to him with meet adornment.

Quell with your voice the wicked's voice, sages. Singer, make Indra rest beside the soma. [1]

Draw your friend to you like a cow at milking: Singer, wake up Indra as a lover.

Make you the hero haste to give us riches even as a vessel filled brimful with treasure. [2]

Why, Maghavan, do they call you Bounteous; Giver? Quicken me: you, I hear, art he who quickens.

Sakra, let my intelligence be active, and bring us luck that finds great wealth, Indra. [3]

Standing, in battle for their rights, together, the people, Indra, in the fray invoke you.

Him who brings gifts the hero makes his comrade: with him who pours no juice he seeks not friendship. [4]

Whoso with plenteous food for him expresses strong Somas as much quickly-coming treasure,

For him he overthrows in early morning his swift well-weaponed foes, and slays the tyrant. [5]

He to whom we offer praises, Indra, Maghavan, who has joined to ours his wishes,

Before him even afar the foe must tremble: low before him must bow all human glories. [6]

With your fierce bolt, God invoked of many, drive to a distance from afar the foeman.

Indra, give us wealth in corn and cattle, and make your singer's prayer gain strength and riches. [7]

Indra, the swallower of strong libations rich in the boons they bring, the potent Somas,

He, Maghavan, will not restrict his bounty he brings much wealth to the soma-presser. [8]

Yea, by superior play he wins advantage, when he, a gambler, piles his gains in season.

Celestial-natured, he overwhelms with riches the devotee who keeps not back his treasure. [9]

Much-invoked, may we subdue all famine and evil want with store of grain and cattle.

May we allied, as first in rank, with princes obtain possessions by our own exertion. [10]

Brihaspati protect us from the rearward, and from above, and from below, from sinners!

May Indra from the front, and from the centre, as friend to friends, vouchsafe us room and freedom.

43 - Indra

IN perfect unison all yearning hymns of mine that find the light of heaven have sung forth Indra's praise.

As wives embrace their lord, the comely bridegroom, so they compass Maghavan about that he may help. [1]

Directed to you my spirit never strays, for I have set my hopes on you, Much-invoked!

Sit, Wonderful! as King on the sacred grass, and let your drinking-place be by the soma juice. [2]

From indigence and hunger Indra turns away: Maghavan has dominion over precious wealth.

These the Seven Rivers flowing on their downward path increase the vital vigour of the potent Steer. [3]

As on the fair-leafed tree rest birds, tIndra flow the gladdening soma juices that the bowls contain.

Their face that glows with splendour through their mighty power has found the shine of heaven for man, the Aryas' light. [4]

As in the game a gambler piles his winnings, so Maghavan, sweeping all together, gained the Sun

This mighty deed of yours none other could achieve, none, Maghavan, before you, none in recent time. [5]

Maghavan came by turns to all the tribes of men: the Steer took notice of the people's songs of praise.

The man in whose libations Sakra has delight by means of potent Somas vanquishs his foes. [6]

When Soma streams together untIndra flow like waters to the river, rivulets to the lake,

In place of sacrifice sages exalt his might, as the rain swells the corn by moisture sent from heaven. [7]

He rushes through the region like a furious Bull, he who has made these floods the dames of worthy lords.

This Maghavan has found light for the man who brings oblation, sheds the juice, and promptly pours his gifts. [8]

Let the keen axe come forth together with the light: here be,.as erst, the teeming cow of sacrifice.

Let the Red God shine bright with his refulgent ray, and let the Lord of heroes glow like heaven's clear sheen. [9]

Much-invoked, may we subdue all famine and evil want with store of grain and cattle.

May we allied, as first in rank, with princes obtain possessions by our own exertion. [10]

Brihaspati protect us from the rearward, and from above, and from below, from sinners.

May Indra from the front, and from the centre, as friend to friends, vouchsafe us room and freedom.

44 - Indra

MAY Sovran Indra come to the carousal, he who by Holy Law is strong and active,

The overcomer of all conquering forces with his great steer-like power that has no limit. [1]

Firm-seated is your car, your steeds are docile; your hand, King, holds, firmly grasped, the thunder.

On your fair path, Lord of men, come quickly: we will increase your powers when you have drunken. [2]

Let strong and mighty steeds who bear this Mighty Indra, the Lord of men, whose arm wields thunder,

Bring to us, as sharers of our banquet, the Steer of conquering might, of real vigour. [3]

So like a Bull you rush to the Lord who loves the trough, the Sage, the prop of vigour, in the vat,

Prepare your energies, collect them in yourself: be for our profit as the Master of the wise. [4]

May precious treasures come to us-so will I pray. Come to the votary's gift offered with beauteous laud.

You are the Lord, as such sit on this holy grass: your vessels are inviolate as Law commands. [5]

Far went our earlist invocation of the gods, and won us glories that can never be surpassed.

They who could not ascend the ship of sacrifice, sink down in desolation, trembling with alarm. [6]

So be the others, evil-hearted, far away, whose horses, difficult to harness, have been yoked.

Here in advance men stand anear to offer gifts, by whom full many a work that brings reward is done. [7]

He firmly fixed the plains and mountains as they shook. Dyaus thundered forth and made the air's mid-region quake.

He stays apart the two confronting bowls; he sings lauds in the potent Soma's joy when he has drunk. [8]

I bear this deftly-fashioned goad of yours, wherewith you, Maghavan, shall break the strikers with the hoof.

At this libation may you be well satisfied. Partake the juice, partake the worship, Maghavan. [9]

Much-invoked, may we subdue all famine and evil want with store of grain and cattle.

May we allied, as first in rank, with princes obtain possessions by our own exertion. [10]

Brihaspati protect us from the rearward, and from above, and from below, from sinners.

May Indra from the front and from the centre, as friend to friends, vouchsafe us room and freedom.

45 - Agni

FIRST Agni sprang to life from out of Heaven: the second time from us came Jatavedas.

Thirdly the Manly-souled was in the waters. The pious lauds and kindles him the Eternal. [1]

Agni, we know your three powers in three stations, we know your forms in many a place divided.

We know what name supreme you have in secret: we know the source from which you have proceeded. [2]

The Manly-souled lit you in sea and waters, man's Viewer lit you in the breast of heaven,

There as you stoodest in the third high region the Steers increased you in the water's bosom. [3]

Agni roared out, like Dyaus what time he thunders: he licked the ground about the plants he flickered.

At once, when born, he looked around enkindled, and lightened heaven and earth within with splendour. [4]

The spring of glories and support of riches, rouser of thoughts and guardian of the soma,

Good Son of Strength, a King amid the waters, in forefront of the Dawns he shines enkindled. [5]

Germ of the world, ensign of all creation, be sprang to life and filled the earth and heavens.

Even the firm rock he cleft when passing over, when the Five Tribes brought sacrifice to Agni. [6]

So among mortals was immortal Agni stablished as holy wise and willing envoy.

He waves the red smoke that he lifts above him, striving to reach the heavens with radiant lustre. [7]

Like gold to look on, far he shone refulgent, beaming imperishable life for glory,

Agni by vital powers became immortal when his prolific Father Dyaus begat him. [8]

Whoso this day, God whose flames are lovely, prepares a cake, Agni, mixt with butter,

Lead you and further him to higher fortune, to bliss bestowed by gods, you Most Youthful. [9]

Endow him, Agni, with a share of glory, at every song of praise sung forth enrich him.

Dear let him be to Surya, dear to Agni, preeminent with son and children's children. [10]

While, Agni, day by day men pay you worship they win themselves all treasures worth the wishing.

Allied with you, eager and craving riches, they have disclosed the stable filled with cattle. [11]

Agni, the friend of men, the soma's keeper, Vaisvanara, has been lauded by the Rishis.

We will invoke benignant Earth and Heaven: you deities, give us wealth with hero children.

46 - Agni

STABLISHED for you, to lend you vital forces, Giver of wealth, Guard of his servant's body.

The Great priest, born, who knows the clouds, Abider with men, is seated in the lap of waters. [1]

Worshipping, seeking him with adoration like some lost creature followed by its footprints,

Wise Bhrigus, yearning in their hearts, pursued him, and found him lurking where the floods are gathered. [2]

On the Cow's forehead, with laborious searching, Trita, the offspring of Vibhiavas, found him.

Born in our houses, Youthful, joy-bestower, he now becomes the central point of brightness. [3]

Yearning, with homage, they have set and made him blithe priest among mankind, oblation- bearer,

Leader of rites and Purifier, envoy of men, as sacrifice that still advances. [4]

The foolish brought the never-bewildered forward, great, Victor, Song-inspirer, Fort- destroyer.

Leading the Youth gold-bearded, like a courser gleaming with wealth, they turned their hymn to profit. [5]

Holding his station firmly in the houses, Trita sat down within his home surrounded

Thence, as Law bids, departs the Tribes' Companion having collected men with no compulsion. [6]

His are the fires, eternal, purifying, that make the houses move, whose smoke is shining,

White, waxing in their strength, forever stirring, and sitting in the wood; like winds are Somas. [7]

The tongue of Agni bears away the praisesong, and, through his care for Earth, her operations.

Him, bright and radiant, living men have stablished as their blithe priest, the Chief of Sacrificers. [8]

That Agni, him whom Heaven and Earth engendered, the Waters. Tvastar, and with might, the Bhrigus,

Him Matarisvan and the gods have fashioned holy for man and first to be entreated. [9]

Agni, whom gods have made oblationbearer, and much-desiring men regard as holy,

Give life to him who lauds you when he worships, and then shall glorious men in troops adore you.

47 - Indra Vaikuntha

YOUR right hand have we grasped in ours, Indra, longing for treasure, Treasure-Lord of treasures!

Because we know you, hero, Lord of cattle: vouchsafe us mighty and resplendent riches. [1]

Wealth, fully armed, good guard and kind protector, sprung from four seas, the prop and stay of treasures,

Fraught with great bounties, meet for praise and glory; vouchsafe us mighty and resplendent riches. [2]

Wealth, with good Brahmans, Indra! God-attended, high, wide, and deep, arid based on broad foundations,

Strong, with famed Rishis, conquering our foemen: vouchsafe us mighty and resplendent riches. [3]

Victorious, winning strength, with hero sages, confirmed in power, most useful, wealth- attracting,

True, Indra! crushing forts and slaying Dasyus: vouchsafe us mighty and resplendent riches. [4]

Wealthy in heroes and in cars and horses, strength hundredfold and thousandfold, Indra,

With manly sages, happy troops, Iight-winning: vouchsafe us mighty and resplentdent riches. [5]

To Saptagu the sage, the holy-minded, to him, Brihaspati, the song approaches,

Angiras' Son who must be met with homage: vouchsafe us mighty and reslendent riches. [6]

My lauds, like envoys, craving loving-kindness, go forth tIndra with their strong entreaty,

Moving his heart and uttered by my spirit: vouchsafe us mighty and resplendent riches. [7]

Grant us the boon for which I pray, Indra, a spacious home unmatched among the people.

To this may Heaven and Earth accord approval: vouchsafe us mighty and resplendent riches.

48 - Indra Vaikuntha

I WAS the first possessor of all precious gear: the wealth of every man I win and gather up.

On me as on a Father living creatures call; I deal enjoyment to tho. man who offers gifts. [1]

I, Indra, am Atharvan's stay and firm support: I brought forth kine to Trita from the Dragon's grasp.

I stripped the Dasyus of their manly might, and gave the cattle-stalls to Matarigvan and Dadhyac. [2]

For me has Tvastar forged the iron thunderbolt: in me the gods have centred intellectual power.

My sheen is like the Sun's insufferably bright: men honour me as Lord for past and future deeds. [3]

I won myself these herdi of cattle, steeds and kine, and gold in ample store, with my destructive bolt.

I give full many a thousand to the worshipper, what time the somas and the lauds have made me glad. [4]

Indra am I none ever wins my wealth from me never at any time am I a thrall to death.

Pressing the soma, ask riches from me alone: you, Purus, in my friendship shall not suffer harm. [5]

These, breathing loud in fury, two and two, who caused Indra to bring his bolt of thunder to the fray,

The challengers, I struck with deadly weapon down: firm stand what words the god speaks to his worshippers.

This One by stronger might I conquered singly; yea, also two: shall three prevail against me?

Like many sheaves on the floor I thrash them. How can my foes, the Indraless, revile me? [7]

Against the Gungus I made Atithigva strong, and kept him mid the folk like Vritra- conquering strength,

When I won glory in the great foe-slaying fight, in battle where Karanja fell, and Parnaya. [8]

With food for mine enjoyment Sapya Nami came: he joined me as a friend of old in search of kine.

As I bestowed on him an arrow for the fight I made him worthy of the song apd hymn of praise. [9]

One of the two has Soma, seen within it; the Herdsman with the bone shows forth the other.

He, fain to fight the Bull whose horns were sharpened, stood fettered in the demon's ample region. [10]

I, as a God, never violate the statutes of gods, of Vasus, Rudriyas, Adityas.

These gods have formed me for auspicious vigour, unconquered and invincible forever.

49 - Indra Vaikuntha

I HAVE enriched the singer with surpassing wealth; I have allowed the holy hymn to strengthen me.

I, furtherer of him who offers sacrifice, have conquered in each fight the men who worship not. [1]

The People of the heavens, the waters, and the earth have stablished me among the gods with Indra's name.

I took to myself the two swift vigorous Bays that speed on divers paths, and the fierce bolt for strength. [2]

With deadly blows I smote Atka for Kavi's sake; I guarded Kutsa well with these saving helps.

As Susna's slayer I brandished the dart of death: I gave not up the Aryan name to Dasyu foes. [3]

Smadibha, Tugra, and the Vetasus I gave as prey to Kutsa, father-like, to succour him.

I was a worthy King to rule the worshipper, when I gave Tuji dear inviolable gifts. [4]

I gave up Mrgaya to Srutarvan as his prey because he ever followed me and kept my laws.

For Ayu's sake I caused Veta to bend and bow, and into Savya's hand delivered Padgrbhi. [5]

1, I crushed Navavastva of the lofty car, the Dasa, as the Vritra-slayer kills the fiends;

When straightway on the region's farthest edge I brought the god who makes the lights to broaden and increase. [6]

I travel round about borne onward in my might by the fleet-footed dappled horses of the Sun.

When man's libation calls me to the robe of state I soon repel the powerful Dasyu with my blows. [7]

Stronger am I than Nabus, I who slew the seven: I glorified with might Yadu and Turvaga.

I brought another low, with strength I bent his strength: I let the mighty nine-and-ninety wax in power. [8]

Bull over all the streams that flow along the earth, I took the Seven Rivers as mine own domain.

I, gifted with great wisdom, spread the floods abroad: by war I found for man the way to high success. [9]

I set within these cows the white milk which no God, not even Tvastar's self, had there deposited,

Much-longed-for, in the breasts, the udders of the kine, the savoury sweets of meath, the milk and soma juice. [10]

Even thus has Indra Maghavan, truly bounteous, sped gods and men with mighty operation.

The pious glorify all these your exploits, Lord of bay coursers, Strong, and Selfresplendent.

50 - Indra Vaikuntha

I LAUD your Mighty One who joys in the juice, him who is shared by all men, who created all;

Indra, whose conquering strength is powerful in war, whose fame and manly vigour Heaven and Earth revere. [1]

He with his friend is active, lauded, good to man, Indra who must be glorified by one like me.

Hero, Lord of the brave, all cars are your delight, warring with Vritra, or for waters, or for spoil. [2]

Who are the men whom you will further, Indra, who strive to win your bliss allied with riches?

Who urged you forward to exert your power divine, to valour, in the war for waters on their fields? [3]

You, Indra, through the holy prayer art mighty, worthy of sacrifice at all libations.

In every fight you castest heroes on the ground: you are the noblest song, Lord of all the folk. [4]

Help now, as Highest, those who toil at sacrifice: well do the people know your great protecting might.

You shall be Everlasing, Giver of success yea, on all these libations you bestowest strength. [5]

All these libations you makest effectual, of which you are yourself supporter, Son of Power.

Therefore your vessel is to be esteemed the best, sacrifice, holy text, prayer, and exalted speech. [6]

They who with flowing Soma pray to you, Sage, to pour on them your gifts of opulence and wealth,

May they come forward, through their spirit, on the path of bliss, in the wild joy of soma juice effused.

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