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Paeonia suffruticosa

Old Pali Sources

Dr Richard Gombrich's study and conclusions

Westerners are awakening to the great wisdom of Buddha. [cf. Rhys Davids, p. 20] Many Buddhist writings have been discovered in Buddhist centres North and North-East of India. Works in the Pali language are preserved in Sri Lanka, Thailand and Burma and getting published too. Many ancient texts, together with several of a somewhat later date, are entitled the Three Baskets of Tradition, the Tripitakas. They have been preserved, are freshly copied, commented on, and otherwise elaborated in manuscripts. It is taken that the vast collection contains thoughts of Buddha. (Rhys Davids: 11, 12] However, Dr Richard Gombrich (2002) tells something about the first sermon of Buddha that seems to apply to most other texts. It may be wise to keep some reserve in the matter:

We do not really know what the Buddha said in his first sermon . . . and it has even been convincingly demonstrated that the language of the text as we have it is in the main a set of formulae, expressions which are by no means self-explanatory but refer to already established doctrines. Nevertheless, the compilers of the Canon put in the first sermon what they knew to be the very essence of the Buddha's Enlightenment. [Gombrich 2002, p. 61.]
In the process of oral transmissions for several years, and maybe later too, during translations, There were chances of misinterpretations and changes, with additions to them. It is indeed possible that the anatta doctrine that arose in Buddhism is due to misunderstanding of what Buddha thought, says Dr Gombrich in What the Buddha Thought (2009). Simply put, he holds that the most common Buddhist doctrine today holds there is no Atman (Self, soul, spirit) is rooted in a mistranslation of this:
Things are impermanent, i.e., ever-changing, and by that token they are not satisfactory, and by that token they cannot be the atman [spirit].

Later Buddhists came to interpret the third hallmark in that old doctrine as 'not having a self or essence', but that was not its original meaning, says Gombrich. He finds upon much study that both Pali grammar and a comparison with the Vedanta show that the true meaning is 'is not atman' rather than 'does not have atman'. And comparison with the Vedanta further shows that the translation 'self' is appropriate, Dr Gombrich sums up (p. 69-70).

It seems very wise to take expert thought into account, for Gombrich is an Indologist and scholar of Sanskrit, Pali, and Buddhist Studies. "He was the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford from 1976 to 2004. He is currently Founder-President of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies. He is a past President of the Pali Text Society (1994–2002) and General Editor Emeritus of the Clay Sanskrit Library.

Also, Dr Gombrich is "one of the 20th century's important scholars of Theravada Buddhism. His recent research has focused more on Buddhist origins." He "stresses the importance of relating Buddhist texts and practices to the rest of Indian religion." (Wikipedia, "Richard Gombrich").

What Gombrich tells about Self (Atman) in Buddhism, is close to the essential teachings in Mahayana Buddhism, which is by far the largest branch of Buddhism. From the 300s AD, China began to incline to the teaching of Buddhism, and from then until the seventh century we read of scholars and pilgrims going or returning to China laden with Buddhist literature. This says the body of Buddhism is just as complex and many-sided as "Christism", and that Pali is not the only source of ancient Buddhist texts. (Rhys Davids, p. 22-23, 26]

Buddha's sayings and discourses rule

Besides the Three Baskets, the Tripitakas, the Pali literature also contains a great body of exegetical commentary. The Pali Text Society, founded by Professor Rhys Davids in 1881, has published seventy volumes of texts and translations. The Sacred Books of the East, founded by the late Max Müller, has published several translations. The Sacred Books of the Buddhists series, the Harvard Oriental Series, the German Pali-Society are publishing more. (Rhys Davids, p. 13-14]

This said, wide and general acquaintance with literature may profit us very little unless we approach Buddhism in its many variants intelligently, master its core elements and live the Buddhist life our way somehow. There are divergent, wide orientations available in Buddhism, apart from its common core elements, which revolve around Gautama Buddha and sayings of his as they are found in various old discourses (called sutras, suttas). (Cf. Rhys Davids, p. 15]

There are Buddhist discourses at Access to Insight: [◦Link], and a sutra collection at: [◦Link], and [◦Link]. It can be fine to have several translations and compare among them in some cases, for understanding of passages and phrasing of some of them in English differ in many cases.

Many forms of Buddhism share core elements and venerate Buddha and his sayings too.

Buddhism has become a vehicle of things Buddha did not advocate too

1. In genuine Buddhism you are not asked to believe blindly, at least not stupidly. Compare, for example, "Buddha is Fully Enlightened, the Happy One, and the knower of the world. His Dharma teachings are essentially timeless and inviting investigation, leading to emancipation, to be comprehended by the wise, each for himself."

2. You are not encumbered with secret teachings. It is worth noting that Buddha says in his "Last Days Discourse" that he himself had no secret teachings and methods. "I have set forth the Dharma without making any distinction of esoteric and exoteric doctrine; nothing is held back." [2nd section] Gurus and lamas of Buddhism might say that some methods are so mighty that they require a qualified teacher to supervise and guide the practitioner. I should say the solution of such a possible dilemma lies in the guru role - the kind of guru or lama that is operating,. Besides, if methods are called mighty and great, they may still be tested scientifically, and the results published. Such investigations help. And Buddha advocates sane investigation (above).

3. Bodhisatva ideals and pledges of later Mahayana are not part of Buddha's teachings. And there is no need to promise things way over your head, beyond what you have reasonable control of either.

4. Buddha did not advocate worship of representations of himself, but see what has happened. It is far from aligned to his statements in the matter. "He honours me best who practices my teachings best," is a helpful reminder among his last words. A danger of ignoring and going against the universally helpful teachings of the founder, is the possibility of getting on thin ice. If worship of Buddha statues were helpful, he would have advocated it, it is implied in his teachings.

Several of Buddha's teachings may be termed timeless, and he is recorded to have said, there may be no great need for submitting to anybody in various lines of transmission of secret teachings, or for the Bodhisatva pledge, or for picture-and-statue worship. These things are uncalled for by Buddha, according to the Pali canon. It is not that they are not helpful to some - at least somewhat - but they may not work full well in the long run toward Liberation (Nirvana). Some additions to Buddha's teachings may counteract self-help too, to some degree, in ways that may be seen and in other more covert ways to see through. Again, Buddha says "His Dharma teachings are essentially timeless and inviting investigation, leading to emancipation, to be comprehended by the wise, each for himself."

It could help to make a stand - for example that of preserving your freedom to think, act and live all right without being dictated. Genuine Buddism both allows and advocates these things.

To help in advocating genuine Buddhism and preserve its teachings is good, tells Buddha.


On top of the page are scholarly cautions that words attributed to Buddha may have been added a long time after he lived. It may be wise to that that into account to handle old sayings well - so as to profit from their gist.

It has been pointed out that already in its first pristine forms Buddhism has much in common with other Indian traditions, most of all yoga. Buddha was trained in and teaches yoga ways. Also, it is largely permitted in Buddhism that elements of native culture are reflected in it. As "we advance in Central Asiatic research," writes Professor Pischel, "the clearer it appears that, for a great portion of the Orient, Buddhism was not less a vehicle of culture than Christianity has been for the Occident. . . . I am convinced that Buddha as a philosopher is entirely dependent on Kapila and Patanjali." The works in question are the Sankhya Aphorisms of Kapila and Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, which are a collection of aphorisms as well. In Vajrayana, Tibetan Buddhism (Mahayana) are many translated teachings of Sanskrit Indian texts. Many of them have become available over the last fifty years or so, adding what is taught in Southern Buddhism. (Rhys Davids, p. 30, 14]

Admittedly, this terrain is difficult to cope with for more than beginners. It could help to be well informed and somewhat selective. One is permitted by Buddha to sort out what really helps or helps best. It is part of such dear skilfulness that is highly advocated for Buddhist coping, all in all. It often helps to read unbiased, proficient gist to get a grip on the texts.

As for the cultural impact of Buddhism, temporary Indian thought and culture is heavily influenced and modified by it. And the influence of Buddhist religion and philosophy on the post-Buddhistic Indian literature is well marked. (Rhys Davids, p. 28]

Yet, after the 1200s or so, little genuine Buddhism survived in what once was its homeland. (Rhys Davids, p. 25]

Beginners should profit from sensible gist that is handed over gently enough to count.

Suffering is not Welcome

Buddism in a nutshell: Either you eliminate the sources of stress and other forms of suffering (dukkha), or you favour your stress resistance, or both. And it is also possible to transcend dukkha in deepening meditation. All of these approaches may be combined, aiming for health and sound pleasure, guarding your native happiness and favourable all-round conditions, and avoiding extremes. The teachings of Buddha advocate skilled, decent self-help along such lines, and still others. Belief is not called for; just proficient, inherently productive applying of teachings as formulated in Buddha's Gentle Middle Way.

An initial broad scope may help some. While some sufferings serve insight and changes of heart, many stressful events in a life seem completely unneeded, and may waste the opportunities for growth and progress. Therefore it is fit to guard oneself against great sufferings by such as forestalling, to learn from the errors of others too, and be on your way. You can get to insights anyway.

There is no need to get joyless in life. Protect and preserve your happiness very well, says Buddha. In the art of living to a happy, old age, it helps to maximise benefits and good sides to life, and minimize dangers and harms. To filter life elements in such a light offers a good clue, as does "Prevention is better than cure," "Safety first", "Better safe than sorry," and similar helpful information. One has to know how to do it, bearing well in mind that bulwarking against sad and dreadful happenings may work better than preventing them at close range, and curing them, if that is possible at all. The sage Lao-tzu says along such a vein that the sage does not solve big problems, for he handled them well when they were small.

No matter how well you do your part, stress and suffering, dukkha, may come your way anyway. The word dukkha is central in Buddhism. It means more than just "suffering", it is a wide-ranging term that also applies to stresses, pains, ills and unhappiness. Philosophically it is analogous to disquietude, as in being disturbed. The term is also related to anxiety, frustration, misery, affliction, dissatisfaction, discomfort, and sorrow, among others. Among the possible origins of the word dukkha are "uneasy" "unsteady", and "disquieted". [Wikipedia, sv. "Dukkha"]

The so-called Four Noble Truths as formulated by Buddha, aim at getting rid of dukkha. In the sutra Buddha talks of three kinds of dukkha: (a) obvious and normally not fully controllable ones, such as pain, illness, old age, dealth and bereavement; (b) from changes, such as violated expectations; and (c) subtle ones in the human mind etc.

Buddha's "cure" for suffering may remind of the humorous saying "The patient died, but the fever left him". Some think he advocates extinguishing oneself to get rid of dukkha! However, he actually talks for getting to Nirvana-land, which is happiness itself, grossly stated - and worth going for, he also says. As I see it, after he woke up (was Awakened), he was not destroyed, for he taught for forty years afterwards; he was not nobody. It seems reasonable enough to think that core parts of Buddha's accomplishments gainsay that he was extinguished in Nirvana. Also, the idea that Nirvana is a complete nulling out, stems from copious mistranslations, according to modern scholars. A Norwegian translator of Buddhist texts, Kåre Lie informs that nibbana (Nirvana) could be translated as extinction, blotting-out,

but from how the word is used, that is a little satisfactory solution, because it opens up to deep-going delusions, as when Europeans gradually learnt to know Buddhism in the 1800s. They thought it was a nihilistic longing for death, a longing to slake the "thirst for living". Closer acquantance with Buddhism shows that to be a very misleading and wrong way of presenting it. [Lie 2005:9-10]

Lie goes on to discuss the various places in the Pali canon where Buddha speaks of Nirvana (nibbana, in the Pali language). Pali texts offer many example of persons who have reached the pinnacle of Buddhism, Nirvana and Paranirvana, and were alive. [Lie 2005:10-12]

It stands to reason to try to prevent illness, such dukkha, to bulwark and be prepared for future sufferings and strains, by preventive, advance measures, and so on. In such way you gain the most from living, and may remain happy and contented longer, if you get old and sensible enough for it. It is not too easy, but there are many ways to lessen sufferings and prevent a lot of them, such as by living up to "Safety first". In the long run precautions serve survival. So you can increase your odds for making a success in life, if you so care. That is the point. (Rhys Davids, p. 157]


By avoiding . . . extremes, the Tathagata [Awakened One] has gained knowledge of the middle path which is vision-making, knowledge-making, which makes for calm, for insight, for enlightenment, for Nibbana. [Samyutta-Nikaya, v. 420 L {178]

Speculations as to the afterlife may be dispensed with, as you steadily focus on your real self in the here and now instead. Done in a fit way it may help you.

Why has the Exalted One not declared whether the Tathagata exists after death? Because, brother, this is a matter that does not make for things needful to salvation, nor for that which concerns the holy life, nor for calm, nor for insight, nor for enlightenment, nor for Nibbana.

What then has the Exalted One declared?

The path leading to the cessation of dukkha! [Samyutta-Nikaya, ii. 223, and many similar passages] {179]

It is good to keep that in mind, and put that spin on basic terms of Buddhism as well.

Nibbana, for example, is is "no place" [Milinda, ii. 182] {232], rather a state of mind excellence. If we make do with focusing on its most glorious aspects here, Nibbana is made a synonym for the acquisition or realization of Truth and mindful Gladness. Buddha likens it to a border town too, thereby illustrating that the roads to truth and insight are not one but many,

having walls and towns and gates, with a wise and prudent gatekeeper keeping out strangers, welcoming friends. . . . Now have I made you a parable . . . and this is the meaning. The town is this body; the gates are the senses, the gate-keeper is conscience; the messengers are calm and insight; the lord is mind; the message of truth is Nibbana. [Samyutla-Nikaya, iv. 195]

This is the supreme Ariyan insight, even knowledge how to destroy all dukkha. Liberty, founded on truth, is firm and sure. That which is genuine is true, even Nibbana . . . That which is genuine, is even Nibbana. [Majjhima-Nikaya, iii, 245]

There is nothing joyless or hopeless about death and after, for all sincerely good Buddhists. (Rhys Davids, p. 182]

This said, there is no uniformity in either the way of their attainment, or in the specific shape which the goal, end, or ideal assumes in different forms of Buddhism. We have to take that into account too. (Cf. Rhys Davids, p. 183]

And note that the end of sensible Buddhist training includes deep mental emancipation and seeing things as they truly are. Then there is the emancipation of the heart or mind through love. Similarly there is emancipation of heart through both love and attainable sublime moods. (Rhys Davids, p. 224, 229]

There were many modifications or elaborations of basic Buddhism in antiquity already. Some are permissible, tells Buddha [cf. Vilama Sutta]. Not every aspect of it from ancient times suits a modern fare full well.

Teachings on how to get rid of sufferings, should not give us deep sufferings and misconstrued ideas.


There are many dilemmas in a life, and at least some should be dissolved or solved. There are many ways of approach.

There is no attack worth mentioning made by Buddhism on the notion of Brahman as life and order. Still, in ancient India there was a prolonged controversy between Atman adherents and those who opposed the idea of an inner Self. Within Buddhism too, there were opposing parties in the matter. Pudgalavadin Buddhist, once amounting to one third of the Buddhists in India, held the view there was and is a Person, one who "bears the bundle [of so-called aggregates]", and so on.

Most Buddhists today take the groping stand there is no God. You do not have to believe that, on the word of Buddha. [Kamala Sutta]

You can let the issue remain unsettled too, if you want to. In such a way you do not succumb to a faith, and may be able to maintain freedom of thought also.

What is more, it may also be said that Buddha launched a concept that is similar to the Self, in other terms: Atman-Brahman: Nirvana (nibbana) is gladness, it is something, not nothing, that it is non-decaying, worth going for in deep meditation. It corresponds to some of the key characteristics of Atman or Self thus.

The general belief in an in-dwelling, or pervading soul or spirit or ego - permanent unchanging, unsuffering and so on - does not have to be abandoned. Far from it. Belief is not needed is to practice gentle self-help Buddhism with its ways and means and tenets and reap just benefits. Just some provisional faith, or a working hypothesis, that you are willing to try out things to your ability and note changes too. There are perhaps as many fall-traps in that approach as in general research, so learn to tread carefully. But we do not have to believe anything - as Buddha says it in the Kalama Sutta -as we approach life methodically and well so as to benefit and avoid harm. In Buddhism we are generally allowed - by Buddha himself - the benefit of doubting and trying out Buddha's fundamental teachings. In that perspective it does not matter too much what is exactly taught by great-sounding dogmas. They are of inferior value to the freedom of enquiry.]

Opposed to this, rigid ones or dogmatists may want to be bosses and lord it over others. It very often shows up after time. That is a problem that pops up in many other fields too.

Dogmas may give rise to dilemmas that both the ego instance and the deep soul admit - and also finds it fit to get rid of, after all.

Who says there is no God, and where is the evidence?

To someone who said, "There is no God," I once answered, "What if he is sitting in some underground cave on one of the moons of Jupiter. That is theoretically possible - just as there is a possibility of life in more than one place in this wide universe. But how can you dismiss the possible just because you have not "been there" and inspected fairly and squarely?"

Those who have not inspected every nook of the universe, including their own core substance, are not really fit to decree of God, after all. If they still do, disregarding such a memento, they show wile stupidity, as a matter of fact.

Another interesting side to it is that maybe you have met God or Self without recognising it. "It takes one to know one," is a saying to consider in this.

The finest idea is that it helps to be set up in life in great correspondence with the characteristics of God - in that way your fare is attuned to the Divine Ground whether you believe in any extraneous God or not. Stay attuned to the great marks of God from the most reliable sources (well over a hundred self-contradictions of the Bible are not), and you should be much better off, by "life assonance", as we may call it. You do not have to believe things or enter a cult to reap benefits. Buddha teaches that too. He does not deal in secret teachings.

I have set forth the Dharma without making any distinction of esoteric and exoteric doctrine; nothing is held back. Who has arrived wholly into Truth (a Tathagatha) does not operate with any secret teaching. Who has entered and got established in Truth [Truthland], has no wish to lead the sangha (community) either [Lie 2005:92, my translation, TK].

Those statements are from his final teachings, the majestic Maha-parinibbana Sutta, part 2, verse 32 [1]. It is the longest text of the Pali canon. It describes events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and final release (parinibbana) of Buddha, and contains a wealth of his fundamental teachings, including his final instructions. They define how Buddhism would be lived and practiced to this day. And besides, you are entitled to doubt and test out, and work your way on your own. So much stands out very clearly in the ancient Pali writings attributed to him.

Let those sensible ones who know, tell how things are, and let those who are marked by faith, give thanks for it.

Severe Traps

The subject of karma is deep, and explicated in both Hinduism and Buddhism. "As you sow you shall reap" is of the Bible. Many overlook that if you sow the wind, you may reap the whirlwind. It suggests that some repercussions may escalate. One grain of corn may yield a hundred more. The severe consequences of one single bad deed may grow with time, and that is karma too. The repay may not be a one-to-one thing, in other words, but a one-to-five-thousand thing, in grave cases. Just be alerted to it and drop vile conduct as soon as you can and as best as you can. That is golden ore to get to in this.

Teachings on karma yoga are found in Hinduism. Parts of those teachings seem to be traps, as they talk of renouncing fruits of work - but often those fruits are what helps. And some gurus hope to get you under their sway by teaching others to dedicate their lives and resources to God through serving the guru, the cult, and so on. Nice-looking teachings may not be nice all the way anyway, and nice teachings may be distorted and abused. It often happens. It generally helps to take care and be forewarned about what to look for, why, and how to deal with things also.

Naive or gullible ones are influenced to forgo human rights. They think they "serve God" while they in fact give up and weaken their positions and influence in life. karma yoga is for giving up anything for such an idea that others profit from. You are heartily advised to shun such people, and study the words of Buddha instead. He says no one else in the wide universes deserves your love and affection more than yourself, and the Gentle Middle Way consists in part of getting skilled and going for wealth to support a family and form a beneficial life fare. There are many sides to that, as Buddha goes into in many great suttas for lay followers. Buddhism and Hinduism alike teach that wealth, artha righteously attained and had, is very valuable, and among the main life goals. It is a basis for very much else among the good sides to life. Have it on your side then, by wielding unfaltering control over your means, advocates Buddha.

With wealth acquired this way [righteously],
a layman fit for household life,
divides his wealth in four portions:
thus will he win friendship. [Buddha]

One portion he uses for his wants,
two portions he spends on his business,
the fourth he keeps for times of need. [Buddha] [MORE]

The fruits of your labours, hold on to them, no matter what Hindu karma teachings tell to the contrary. That is the safest way to deal with it. Man should acquire lots of good karma, tells Buddha

Fit detachment in prolonged meditation

The above does not mean there is no place for detachment in life. You have to discern to find the right field and track for it. And just as important, if not more, you need to be in control and to that end gather wealth and other benefits. Then you can accomplish more. What you give up you lose control over and probably contact with too as time goes by. ]

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi says while commenting on a thought from the Bhagavad Gita 3:9: "Engage in action free from attachment." In a nutshell he says, "Here is a method that helps development, a way of living which propels development. As you get subtler inside, you subsequently need to drop material attachments and ideas from coarser spheres. In the end you will get to the state of Being." (Yogi 1969:193-96, extracts)

What is more, what you focus on, affirm and visualise in such subtler, more inward states, can materialise to your benefit, and more quickly, by a threefold process called sanyama. That is the essence of much of what developed parts of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras [3:4 ff] are about. The principle is taught by Maharishi's TM too. In other words, you are encouraged to benefit from TM and Buddhism combined, if you feel for it.

But in bad Hindu karma yoga you are taught not to go for benefits but yield the fruits of your works to someone else or something else. You may be in for losing control correspondingly, and good control is needed. Buddha teaches that we had better go for proper wealth and proper adjustments to life, to win the time and other conditions needed for deep meditation and favourable developments.

Thus, there is a time for detaching oneself from all and sundry, including ideas. That happens in transcendental states, or deep meditation. Equally important: There is a time for gaining good fruits of one's work on an ongoing basis, by regulating one's field of life carefully. You can see that these two aspects of the good life are central in Buddha's eightfold path too, his Middle Way.

Also, do not fall into being a mere seeker, be instead more contained, even a finder. How? By not striving very much by awkward means, but by letting jolly good and decent methods be on your side. And drop attachments to all ideas from grosser fields as you dive within by deep contemplation and the like. You do well if you focus on doing the diving method well, in the end to fertilise your days also. That is the great approach Maharishi teaches. It may be tallied to great Buddhist living when you see how the Eightfold Path of Buddha can be lived that way.

A seeker can live well, depending on his or her surroundings, conditions, and the teachings that are firmly believed in there.


You could learn about TM (Transcendental Meditation) and improve your life and yourself through it. The present pope, Benedictus XVI, when he was Cardinal Ratzinger, signed a newsletter in 1990 where TM, along with other eastern meditations, was described as helpful . . . to attain peace "even amidst turbulence". At that time Ratzinger's job was to oversee the doctrine of the Catholic Faith. [◦Link]

The Buddhist leader Bhikkhu Sanghasena himself practices Trancendental Meditation, and has decided to introduce TM in his schools and monastery in Ladakh, Kashmir in Himalayan India. People from all over the world formerly came to his international meditation center to learn his buddhistic meditation techniques. Sangashena has expressed great appreciation of Maharishi and his teachings, which he will implement in Ladakh. [Ibid]

During the last few years, Rev. Koji Oshima, a Japanese Buddhist monk, a TM-Sidha, who practices TM since 9 years, has inspired Buddhist monks in Thailand and Sri Lanka to learn TM. Today over 3100 such monks have learned TM. [Ibid]

Back to detachment and sensible all-round skilfulness

Deep meditation such as TM may assist men and women of many kinds of faith. You do not have to be estranged through it.

Buddha teaches disinterestedness and control too, along with a straight scientific approach to so many things, and also that there is great value in being skilful and handy and build up a good life. [67, 71]

Careful approaches can be mastered. You are also allowed to have faith in Buddha, but he says that those who honour him the most, live as he teaches - which amounts to the same. [cf. 79]

In other words, take a positive stand: That what is good for you is good for the universe, as you form a part of it. If you can afford it, do many benefits to others too, preferably deserving others, just as Buddha tells. He said man should go for building lots of good karma, but not trust in that alone. Skills are fit to develop too, along with spiritual development through decent meditation and such means.

Bottom line: In genuine Buddhism we are permitted to help ourselves and do it well. [108]

To help yourself, know there is a time for proper detachment and a time for going ahead, and a time for holding on to things, and much else too.


Better Buddhism, LITERATURE  

Gombrich, Richard F. Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. London: Routledge, 1988, repr. 2002.

Gombrich, Richard F. What the Buddha Thought. London: Equinox, 2009.

Lie, Kåre A, oms. Buddhas samtaler: De lange tekstene. Digha Nikaya. Bind 2. Det store bindet: Mahavagga. Oslo: Solum Forlag, 2005.

Rhys Davids, Caroline A. F. Buddhism: A Study of the Buddhist Norm. Home University Library of Modern Knowledge. London: Williams and Norgate, nd.

Yogi, Maharishi Mahesh. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation and Commentary with Sanskrit Text. Chapters 1 to 6. Reprint ed. London: Arkana, 1990 (1967).

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