Neat Buddhism is help for growing up, and developing as an adult too, for "The mind, when developed and cultivated, brings about happiness." [Anguttara Nikaya 1.30]
Buddhism calls for proficiency. Meditation may be good for you, and key Buddhist practices are for free. Below you may find answers to questions you have not begun to ask yet too.
Is Buddhism a Religion or a Royal Philosophy?
Buddhism can be both, but first and foremost an all right way of living. Buddhism contains teachings and yoga methods for decent and fit development. It counsels as to how to behave well in regular scenarios of living, how to be a good friend, spouse, parent, and so on. It goes for sound development of one's standing and mind. It is not heartless, and may compete well with other faiths, for it offers help with the all-round basics for self-helpers and others.
In many circumstances of daily living there is a place for a Buddhist view or two. They may serve. But even Buddhist views differ from one another, for there are very many schools of thinking in Buddhism. What matters the most is to get a hold of practical affairs in a deep enough way to profit or get afloat.
There is value in development of mind and body and related to one's surroundings. There are many facets to take hold of, as part of your main self-help or lay Buddhist practice. And very good teachings tend toward being general teachings, which suggests they can be fit for many.
There are many forms of contemplation (meditation) to enjoy. See what methods give best results for beginner and over time. There is much research to look into. Others have compared some methods. The knowledge it has brought, can be good help. Based on the current research, I suggest you take up TM, Transcendental Meditation. Thousands of Buddhists monks have done so, and many prisoners. See for yourself: [◦A comparison] [◦More on TM]
The help of balance or faith enough to test things well
Well regulated, balancing meditation can be integrated in your daily living and accommodations. The faith that is asked for, is more like one of testing out hypotheses than getting rigid and foolish from sticking to hard-headed teachings without reserve. Proper skills ride above faith in these matters of gliding into your Sound Self.
By this it is suggested that proficient TM and Buddhist practice calls for a certain kind of faith called shradda in Sanskrit and saddha in the Sanskrit-derived Pali language. The faith that Buddha calls for, is not blind faith but provisional. This suggests an amount of fair confidence on your part to try out aspects of Gautama Buddha's teachings (also called Dharma), and study whether and how far these teachings, when practiced adequately, can lead to the good, solid living and rewards you are told of. Buddha's fundamental teachings ought to be understood in a best way; it tends to be individual. [LINK]
Our saddha or trying-out of the best among the basic teachings had rather be cool – or scientific - that is, subject to on-going, critical evaluation of both the stances, teachings, and the quality of our practice and circumstances. For this we should need and develop discernment, bearing in mind that capacities are different.
Buddhistic progress teachings may in part fit an individual and psychodynamic approach. A standard counsel is to focus on what helps and fosters great development and get rid of nuisances on the way, such as really unwelcome qualities, or qualities that cannot serve goodness under the circumstances we are subjected to. They may differ, although some moral basics tend to be fixed, like roots in the soil.
Deep Insights Matter
Your path to Awakening is also your own. You help yourself as you best see how and can. Teachers help by speaking of things to do and avoid, but eventually you take responsibility and strive to adhere to the Dharma (law or teachings) teachings or the Dharma that rests deep within. Buddha's great teachings are rooted in That.
Some seem to awaken to insights. Insight is a word with several meanings and shades and degrees of meanings too:
❋ In Buddhism, shradda may be just provisional on the way to individual insights of value.
If There Is no Self, Who Gets Enlightened?
When asked about the existence of a self, Atman, Buddha often refused to answer. Yet there is room for Atman in various Mahayana schools. It is expressed by such as, "Atman is an essence . . . an intrinsic nature". Also, the Tathagatagarbha sutras declare that "atman" exists. Further, pre-Buddhist upanishads of Hinduism link atman to the feeling "I am". And the Upanishadic "Self" shares certain characteristics with nirvana. (WP, "Anatta")
You could add some thoughts of your own in the matter, if that is interesting to you. However, what would matter the most should be plumbing on, diving on, and going for a better life too, as time and conditions allow. It is part of a way of life that is rooted in one's own convictions, ideally. However, listen very carefully to what Buddha says: It is possible to get Enlightened, and many work hard for it, life after life, too. So there is Enlightenment. Moreover, Buddha lived, walked and talked for forty years after his Enlightenment (Awakening), we are told. So extinction is not the core of nirvana either.
Who gets Enlightened in such a scenario? And what is Enlightenment supposed to mean? You get enlightened in time: Enlightenment is the great Awakening, the understanding or inward experiencing of much that can be like a closed book to an unenlightened mind.
❋ Who gets wet?
The ancient Buddhist texts tell that the very first to hear a Buddha sermon after Buddha was enlightened, was Creator-God. That is what one old text says.
Sitting under a tree, during the night Siddhartha [Buddha-to-be] entered into progressively deeper meditative states. Thus he came to understand - By dawn next morning he had completely awakened and is from now on called "Buddha", which means the Awakened One.
❋ God Creator, Brahma, made Buddhism flourish, the ancient text says
Pudgala reckoned with as early as the 200s BCE
Now, unknown to many in our times, for twelve hundred years in the long history of Buddhism in its homeland India, perhaps one third of the Buddhists believed there really is a pudgala, a Person Inside somehow. Two blending Buddhist schools of thinking are known for this outlook, they are the ancient Sammatiya and Vatsiputriya schools.
The Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang described the Sammatiya school somewhere in the 600s CE as one of the four main Buddhist takes of that time. Further, reports of Chinese Buddhist pilgrims in the 600s CE tell there were a lot of followers along the Ganges valley. The school also flourished in Gujarat, in eastern India, and in Champa, which is central Vietnam in our times. A Tibetan account from the 1500s states that it still flourished up to the end of the 1000s CE.
The root of the teaching of the Inward Person, pudgala, is a saying where Buddha speaks of a "bundle" (components of a being) and of one "who carries the bundle". That is the textual foundation of the very old pudgala teachings, where the pudgala is is a conscious someone who exists and wanders from life to life while other parts of life do not. Thus your Inward "Soul" or spirit is said to transmigrate and live in intermediary realms between death and rebirth too. Still, you are free to believe as you wish in such doctrinal matters, as the Kalama Sutra explains: [Link]
The Buddhist who adheres to the belief on an Inward Person, can hold on to the practical everyday notion that he is someone. Other Buddhist, who think differently, can have problems with justifying themselves and their thinking, and that is a serious matter. Leaving that issue for now, those Buddhists who believe there is Person within, have traditionally been called Pudgalavadins ("Teachers of the Pudgala"), or Vatsiputriyas. Pudgala teachings of Buddhism appear already in the 200s BCE.
The ancient Sammatiya and Vatsiputriya schools were widely spread, and with several subschools. Sammatiya Buddhism holds that the enduring Person (pudgala) within is distinct from both the conditioned and the unconditioned. One may regard it as close to an individual who hosts a personality during a life. Such an Inward Person is said to be greater than the sum of the parts that make up the organism. This view resembles the theory of Atman in Brahmanistic Hinduism, that is, of an ultimate Self. Sammatiyas maintained that a person (pudgala) is basically an Essence.
The faith that an inmost Essence transmigrates is surely easier to accommodate one's thinking to than the stale "there is no Self, but reincarnation is a fact, and many are headed for Enlightenment." Hence there can be room for God in Buddhist thinking too. [EB, "Sammatiya"; "Buddhism"]
Some Buddhists today are not aware of the Deep Person teachings in Buddhism (see below for more).
❋ The Person within is called Pudgala and basically an Essence.
Teachings of Padma Sambhava (Guru Rinpoche)
The One cannot really be well described [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:225]
There is no need to fall under the sway of Ignorance [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:224]. (4)
One-pointedness is a mental concept. "Existence and non-existence" are also concepts of the mind [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:234]. (5)
The Quintessential Deep Mind is at-one with all deep minds [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:212]. (6)
One mind embraces the whole Sangsara and Nirvana eternally, ever clear, radiant and not visible [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:203]. (7)
Teachings of Walter Y. Evans-Wentz
By attention turned on itself, the mind may eventually be retained within the Hridaya [the central source, "inner heart"] [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:230n]
Enlightened mind consists of homogenous Sangsara in the present [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:222n].
One is to attain right understanding of mind by stilling of the mundane mind [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:214n].
The Great Universe symbolizes Brahman [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:230n].
"Mind-chains", "mind-associations", meaning "association of ideas", can change world-conceptions [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:231, 231n]. ¤
Unsound beliefs and practices result in increased bondage - W. Y. E.-W. [Evans-Wentz 1968:205-6n]
What Plato has called the realm of Ideas, Mahayanists call the One Mind, the homogeneous at-one-ment [also called the Primordial Essence]. - W. Y. E.-W. [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:216n]. (6)
Normally, the body has to be disciplined for Thatness [Primordial Essence] to be attained or realised - through transcending much and common thinking [cf. Evans-Wentz 1968:236n]. (7)
Hence, one can "turn homogenous" against many unverified, current beliefs around.
The subtle art of meditation is the core of handy Buddhism
You are not required to spend thoughts on subtle things and concepts of nirvana and the hidden depth of the world. Yet, some ideas make far more sense than others, and in Buddhism too there are or have been competing ideas at times - and many shared ideas as well. If you live under the sway of not knowing anything about them, you might try out the gist of Mahayana teachings instead of speculating. That is, adhere to good, solid teachings that can make you proficient in living your own life, as you manage. You can probably live with some uncertainty. Besides, thoughts are hardly able to describe what is beyond ordinary thinking. Bad ideas can mar a life though, so the value of proficient thinking - up to some levels - is great too. But within some limits. And little good may come out of doctrinal dispute.
Watch out for what can develop the mind and health and assist in good conditions for you too. Hence, "Dogen teaches us that Buddhism is just to practice Zazen, and to practice Zazen is Buddhism," says Reverend Gudo Nishijima of Dogen's line. Zazen is Zen sitting, that is sitting, or lying and walking in alert contemplation. Sitting may be preferrable to the alternatives, but allow for alternatives as may be fit. [More]
The Dogen quotation can be seen in the light of something Adi Shankara wrote: "Study of the scriptures is fruitless as long as Brahman [God] has not been experienced. And when Brahman has been experienced, it is useless to read the scriptures." Useless, but perhaps not always completely unwelcome, one may add. At times fun, at times entertaining and enlightening in a way too. And the results may at times assist others on the Way. [Link]
Consider a statement by Shankaracharya Brahmananda too: "Spiritual teachings . . . cannot throw light on the inner Self, for the Self is Light." [More]
❋ To assist good and decent conditions for the inner Self's non-brutal thriving is fair and seldom all useless.
To know "the inward Void", Sunyata, you must see it at least, and if you are there and experience it somehow, it is not empty, as your awareness is there. If you get aware of a void, then your awareness is there too, so the void is not completely void after all.
Your inner awareness is the experiencer. Those who claim the Void within is empty, seem to forget experiencers of the Void. Further, to talk about a thing meaningfully, you have to be someone as well.
To read a little for upliftment may be done guardedly in this light. Dogen holds that as good too. But it is easy to get confused: Buddhism encompasses many schools and sects. Their understanding of central terms and conceps differ, and their profiling is somewhat different too. For example, in the influential Buddhist work The Heart Sutra, the pivoting term sunyata is commonly translated as 'emptiness'. But it does not have to be that way. In fact, it is not the only understanding of the term "void" in Buddhism:
"Many people are afraid to empty their minds lest they should plunge into the Void. They do not know that their own mind [contains] the Void." [With Huang-po]
Also, according to Daizetz T. Suzuki (1870-1966), the total self-identity of "I am I" is the state of non-time and is equivalent to the emptiness of Buddhist philosophy. Reverend Gudo Nishijima of Dogen's Soto Zen line informs that Eihei Dogen [1200-53] says things similar to it:
He denies that sunyata (emptiness), is "nothingness, non-existence, or non-reality." "Sunyata is not non-existence." In Master Dogen's teaching sunyata is not the denial of real existence - it expresses the absence of anything other than real existence." [See Nishijima and Cross 1996, Chapter "Bussho"] [More]
Major texts of Mahayana Buddhism, such as the Mahaparinirvana Sutra or Lankavatara Sutra, teach that the Void (sunyata) is not really void. The Lankavatara Sutra repeats with variations, "Avoid the erroneous reasonings of the philosophers and seek this self-realisation of Noble Wisdom", and "Erroneous teachings do not recognise that the world-mind-system also includes the mind itself. Deep Mind is as real as anything and anyone."
There needs to be someone to experience or perceive a void to manage totalk of it later too. Bearing in mind the Gothamites who counted themselves and got the wrong number each time because those who counted always forgot themselves, we should not overlook the obvious in this essential matter.
Milarepa's deep teachings include: "Deep words of initiation serve as fetters for those who are not initiated." "I have forgot all creeds and dogma and all definitions." "Now I have done away with all distinctions of black or white." "Carry the teachings into practice in your everyday life."
❋ Little good may come out of philosophy, compared with TM or other helps for progressively improving living - called "setting the wheel of Dharma in motion", which probably counts ta lot.
Other things than Enlightenment are possible in your way
"Pure" is taken to mean this and that, depending on contexts (settings). One should not be mislead about it. What is needed is to be yourself, and become a good yourself. Further, a monk's and nun's lifestyle is not needed for enlightenment, tells Buddha.
To practice essential meditation and very helpful, set-up ways of living, no one has to become a Buddhist for it. The main thing is a fit method and correct (enough) practice in the long run that should be the main focus and effort.
Vajrayana Buddhism, also called Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and at times Mahayana Buddhism too, recognises yab-yum. In Buddhist art of India, Nepal, and Tibet, Yam-yum (Tibetan: "father-mother") shows the male deity in sexual embrace with his female consort, showing a fusion of method or force (female) and wisdom (maleness).'
Guard your privacy well, as well as you are up to at any rate. There are probably times when beeing taciturn may be good for you, quite as the British proverb says: "One should keep silent when necessary (Fergusson 1983:217)." It is possible to have yogic sex too. And you can possibly do what is beneficial to yourself and many others without great and alarming ruins in its wake.
In Mahayana Buddhism it became possible to present supreme buddhahood as the union of a male and female pair. Sexual union as a symbol of mystical union evolved from Indian Tantra, and may not be for general use, and may depend on adequate instruction.
There are many Tantric treatises. One of them puts a manifestation of the Buddha Akshobhya in the centre of the universe; he is embracing his consort Visvamatri (Mother of All, Mother of the Universe). Buddhist Tantras are traced to the 600s or earlier, says Encyclopaedia Britannica. [EB "Tantra", "yab-yum" etc].
Adapting to many things beforehand without knowing a fig about them, can be very, very wise. It shows up in time.
Deep rest is doubly needed when work-life is awfully hard, and preferably before the burn-out - And deep rest helps solve many problems; the koan above too. You may enter the stream of that koan by taking a peek into several major sides to life according to refrains like "Don't be silly; adjust if you can cope and whern there is time, preferably in advance of what is to come," "Forewarned can be forearmed," and "We live in troubled times, although some might not prefer that you understand who benefit from it."
As was highlighted above, beneath the section heading, "Adapting to many things beforehand without knowing a fig about them, can be very, very wise." There are many hazards involved in modern living, and great system changes may not be feasible without complete or partial breakdowns, also of monetary systems and balances.
How to adapt to possible and likely future goings or disasters ahead? Mind that some day you have to say farewell to dog and cat and many others that depended on you anyway. What happens next depends on your amassed karma, teaches Buddha. There is good reason to insist: Don't be part of the problem. Try to be part of a good solution, rather. So Buddha counsels you to think way ahead and into another side to existence, and act accordingly.
Extrication, solid work and delightful meditation
What are good solutions? If you have to be told what they are, maybe you have not found from within the ones that fit you one hundred percent. You could try some first-hand self-searching for it, in addition to being carefully prepared, as judged from present and former dominant trends of life. Many a little might help: much could be needed, and helpful neighbours too.
Also bring into the considerations that there are upcoming events and conditions not reckoned with so far. The rise of television-conformised living, the Internet and the massive use of PCs were such dominant, half-enslaving things. Today we witness the rise of apps and much else that are marketed as "making life or work more enjoyable", but which helps others to make use of its users in many ways. If a thing is tiresome, it could be good to extricate yourself from it by-and-by so long as it is something foolish and not all right - something that demands quality time, energy, and money to the end that you get used somehow, even better than ever before - but where all other options are worse and you don't find better options and ways into better options opened up, what can you do? Maybe it is time to do more than intoning "Sesame, sesame", and instead sit still and meditate for twenty minutes or so a few times a day. The results may surprise you. I'd say, "Take up meditation in good time, even if there is much else you can do, for work and meditation may go hand in hand and bring great results too." [◦ Meditation method]
If you don't like the trends that surround you or that you are immersed in, maybe you cannot change them all by yourself. If so, maybe there are good ways to lessen their dominant, harm-causing effects. Stress-mastery could be one way. Taking time to rest well is also into the great picture. In the West, millions meditate against being stressed out. Developing sound skilfulness may be possible too. It can help a lot. Getting one's private garden may be found to be another boon, and so on. If you can adjust to your profit - or your benefit - without risking your moral, life and health and the good moral, life and health of others, Buddha tells that may be OK.
Somewhere between teachings and practices you say 'yes' and 'no' to, there may be a large group of ideas and practices, skills and much else that you could profit from if you knew how.
Buddha speaks in favour of skilfulness.
Skilfulness and proficiency are well thought of in Buddhism. Being proficent in meditation comes first, and second come all the other proficiencies that make life fair, delightful, good. Opposite to that is doing away with being of sound mind and body and letting others suffer for it too, by bitching and worse. Ask: "Skilful in what, to what ends, and how far is it beneficial to go?" Adjust to the sensible, reasonable tokens.
Further, it may become good for yourself and many others that you make decent and good (appropriate) estimate and use of your sound opportunities. And opportunities need to be judged and handled properly in harmony with the essential moral nature, or with the Dharma teachings of Buddhism, to avoid marring, tough repercussions.
Still, it is well to consider Buddhist texts with some caution, quite as Buddha teaches in the Kalama Sutra. Sound skilfulness in such vital matters brings help, at least to some.
And go for keeping and maintaining a little 'room' or space in your mind for the yet unresolved sides to living, the still undiscovered, not reckoned with - or "something unexpected". Such calm openness could help. Many fall short in just that. The teaching of reserving muchmore room for something - perhaps underestimated, undervalued, or unfound yet, or novelties in life - can be good, as many resources may be won and very much effort may be saved by skilled forethought, which also includes "have more space (available) that you need today". Physically and mentally, as the case may be.
Buddha's Great Teachings
You are not supposed to forego successes, including money, wealth, friends, family and privacy to be a lay Buddhist. Lay follower may get enlightened too, says Buddha.
"Plant pears for your heirs (Proverb)." It is essential to know what is good for you and your nearest ones. The skilful man's accommodation strategies also include artful and skilful ways and norms transmitted to children and young ones, for example: "Don't do it if it harms yourself, or happy and fair others, or proper things of value." These and similar, well instilled attitudes can help, but not always enough, for there is more that goes into living along than good counsels, allowances, prohibitions and punishments. At times initiative is needed. At other times withdrawal and rest. And at still other times a bold. fit perspective on things of vital interests. And so on. Encouragement and feeding the inner life of developing skills, talents and interests may also help, and a good example. One does well to encourage positive outlets and truths, and a little leeway as the case may be. What is agreed on and allowed in the "enclave" also plays a great part in life.
You could come to wonder if singing while taking a shower is OK, or doing some quick dance steps in your kitchen. The question is "Does it matter?" If it does not matter, it should not be much dangerous. So one needed, extra question for the discerning lay person is "Does it matter?" It matters to adhere to the spirit of Buddha's teachings, and maybe not always to all the letter of what has been handed over - Not if that letter is questionable in the first place, is hashed over, and wont to kills good and higher outlets of our nature.
❋ More goes into life than singing in the shower.
Temple Dancing in Buddhism
That leads us to belly dance and similar outlets. Most things may be more complicated than what meets the eye of the beginner. The setting has to follow suit too. For example, moving your body by belly dancing or other outlets could be very, very good for you healthwise. It is exercise to music, among other things. But if the setting drags you down for it, refrain. It is the same with tanning without a bikini and other garments. In your private garden it could be nice and fit for yourself, and in some other settings too. It depends. Bare breasts in public is a hot potato in some cultures and some places. Thus, consider, and as long as you are not a corpse in mind, you have a say yourself. Let it be a pretty valuable and welcome say, accordingly.
A temple that moves rhytmically to music, isn't that impressive in its way? Consider how "A temple of bones is more than a temple of stones." Temple dancing is OK in India, and one of the arts. Dancing is a primal art. Bees dance too. Dancing may be used to express tales, legends, mythology, rituals and ceremonies too. So there is dancing and singing on the major Buddhist festival, All Souls Day, in China and Japan. In the largest sect of Buddhism in Japan, music, dance, and drama are important forms of expression. However, Buddha teaches that monks and nuns must do without dancing, and instead value self-effort along his Way. as seen in his expanded ethics for monastics. "Singing and dancing, the playing of musical instruments and the watching of entertainments . . . are stumbling blocks to that which is wholesome." [see the seventh precept of the Uposatha Sila: The Eight-Precept Observance].
One may still leap and dance for joy, a Buddhist parables says.
[EB "bharata-natya" [More for householders]
❋ Dance may serve to express legends and rituals, also religious rituals, but spirituality is a more fit thing to go for.
What Is Your Long-term Burden or Privilege instead of Decent or Updated Following?
Buddha grants freedom to discern and choose a lot, in the Kalama Sutta. Bear in mind how "Good things and teachings are excellent in the beginning, in the middle, and in the end," as Buddha is into. It is pretty counsel.
A Buddhist council was held at Vaishali (in the Bihar state) a little more than a century after Buddha's death. It was called to settle a dispute about the relaxed rules of discipline followed by the monks of Vaishali. What became a matter of dispute was the storing of salt, among other things. Disagreements about storing of salt etc. led to the first schism of ancient Buddhism. The "mahasangha, "great order of monks" and the Theravadins split up. "They seem to have had little to disagree on, and disagree the did."
The Great Order spread to southern India too. Its texts were written in Prakrit. The school was a precursor of Mahayana ("Greater Vehicle") Buddhism, widely adhered to in China, Korea, Japan, and Tibet as in its Indian "home culture".
Mahayana Buddhism emerged in about the first century CE from the ancient Buddhist schools as a more liberal and innovative interpretation of the Buddha's teachings, while the Buddhist conservatives or today are known as Theravadins of Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. In Japan, Mahayana Buddhism has a significant modern following in Zen Buddhism, Nichiren Buddhism, and Tendai.
The Mahayana scriptures were composed mainly in Sanskrit. Where original Sanskrit versions seem to be lost, there are translations of some of them, for example in Tibetan and Chinese.
❋ What is excellent in modern times is fit for life today and not always what was written down in India in Sanskrit or related languages very long ago, when conditions were in part widely different. Besides, nearly all that is ordained for monks and nuns is not required of lay Buddhists.
Buddhism and Stringed Instruments
Many kinds of stringed instruments are plucked with the fingers. Hindu goddesses may or may not be represented as playing on vinas. A vina is a stringed instrument too. One version of it has two resonating gourds. One gourd rests on the left shoulder and the other gourd restson the right knee or hip. Another version of the vina is a lute with a long neck.
Playing musical instruments does not seem to be included in the Buddhist rules for householders. However, attending vain, pompous or macabre shows and performances that a parent has a right to think and say "think twice" to is not welcome,, as inexperienced young ones and older ones may be abused in several ways.
Some hurts are subtle. Some harm is subtle, and experience is a costly teacher, maybe too expensive. One should mind the sincere efforts of elders to protect and care for tender children and adolescents and other young ones and progress along such a vein as Buddha lays bare in the Kalama Sutta, where he says such as:
He ends his sermon of counsels to outsiders (not-yet-followers) on a positive note also, namely to aim for well-being, prosperity and happiness. Young ones are blameworthy if they should give way over and over and not back up themselves and going for wealth and progress enough, at least mentally-inwardly. [More].
These things are relevant to consider - even at length - in a Buddhist life - in any life:
EB: Encyclopaedia Britannica, the same as Britannica Online.
Evans-Wentz, Walter Y., ed. The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation or the Method of Realizing Nirvana through Knowing the Mind. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Fergusson, Rosalind. The Penguin Dictionary of Proverbs. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983.
Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd enlarged ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1970.
Masunaga, Reiho tr: A Primer of Soto Zen. A Translation of Dogen's Shobogenzo Zuimonki. University Press. Honolulu, 1975.
Nishijima, Gudo Wafo and Cross, Chodo, trs.: Master Dogen's Shobogenzo. Book 2. Windbell Publications. London, 1996.
Zukav, Gary. The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics. London: Rider, 1979.
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