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Gitavers frå kapittel 3

Arjuna said:

If it be thought by you that knowledge is superior to action, Krishna, why then, Kesava, ask me to engage in this terrible action? (3:1)

With these apparently perplexing words you confuse, as it were, my understanding; therefore, tell me that one way for certain by which I may attain bliss. (3:2)

The Blessed Lord said:

In this world there is a twofold path, as I said before, sinless one, – the path of knowledge of the Sankhyas and the path of action of the yogis! (3:3)

Not by the non-performance of actions does man reach actionlessness, nor by mere renunciation does he attain to perfection. (3:4)

Verily none can ever remain for even a moment without performing action; for, everyone is made to act helplessly by the qualities born of Nature. (3:5)

He who, restraining the organs of action, sits thinking of the sense-objects in mind, he, of deluded understanding, is called a hypocrite. (3:6)

But whoever, controlling the senses by the mind, Arjuna, engages himself in Karma Yoga with the organs of action, without attachment, he excels! (3:7)

Perform your bounden duty, for action is superior to inaction and even the maintenance of the body would not be possible for you by inaction. (3:8)

The world is bound by actions other than those performed for the sake of sacrifice; do you, therefore, son of Kunti, perform action for that sake (for sacrifice) alone, free from attachment! (3:9)

He who does not follow the wheel thus set revolving, who is of sinful life, rejoicing in the senses, he lives in vain, Arjuna! (3:16)

But for that man who rejoices only in the Self, who is satisfied in the Self, who is content in the Self alone, verily there is nothing to do. (3:17)

For him there is no interest whatever in what is done or what is not done; nor does he depend on any being for any object. (3:18)

Therefore, without attachment, always perform action which should be done; for, by performing action without attachment, man reaches the Supreme. (3:19)

Janaka and others attained perfection verily by action only; even with a view to the protection of the masses you should perform action. (3:20)

Whatever a great man does, that other men also do; whatever he sets up as the standard, that the world follows. (3:21)

For, should I not ever engage myself in action, unwearied, men would in every way follow my path, Arjuna! (3:23)

These worlds would perish if I did not perform action; I should be the author of confusion of castes and destruction of these beings. (3:24)

As the ignorant men act from attachment to action, Bharata (Arjuna), so should the wise act without attachment, wishing the welfare of the world! (3:25)

Let no wise man unsettle the minds of ignorant people who are attached to action; he should engage them in all actions, himself fulfilling them with devotion. (3:26)

All actions are wrought in all cases by the qualities of Nature only. He whose mind is deluded by egoism thinks: "I am the doer". (3:27)

But he who knows the truth, mighty-armed Arjuna, about the divisions of the qualities and their functions, knowing that the Gunas as senses move in the middle of the Gunas as the sense-objects, is not attached. (3:28)

Those deluded by the qualities of Nature are attached to the functions of the qualities. A man of perfect knowledge should not unsettle the foolish one of imperfect knowledge. (3:29)

But those who carp at my teaching and do not practise it, deluded in all knowledge and devoid of discrimination, know them to be doomed to destruction. (3:32)

Even a wise man acts in accordance with his own nature; beings will follow nature; what can restraint do? (3:33)

Attachment and aversion for the objects of the senses abide in the senses; let none come under their sway, for they are his foes. (3:34)

Better is one's own duty, though devoid of merit, than the duty of another well discharged. Better is death in one's own duty; the duty of another is fraught with fear. (3:35)

As fire is enveloped by smoke, as a mirror by dust, and as an embryo by the amnion, so is this enveloped by that. (3:38)

Arjuna, wisdom is enveloped by this constant enemy of the wise in the form of desire, which is unappeasable as fire! (3:39)

The senses, mind and intellect are said to be its seat; through these it deludes the embodied by veiling his wisdom. (3:40)

They say that the senses are superior (to the body); superior to the senses is the mind; superior to the mind is the intellect; and one who is superior even to the intellect is he – the Self. (3:42)

Thus, knowing him who is superior to the intellect and restraining the self by the Self, slay you, mighty-armed Arjuna, the enemy in the form of desire, hard to conquer! (3:43)

Dr Sinha translates the verse thus: "Thus, knowing the purusha which is higher than the buddhi and controlling the self by the self, O mighty-armed, destroy this enemy which, like passion (kama rupam), is difficult to conquer."

His comment: In this concluding verse Vyasa combines the teachings of Samkhya philosophy and Yoga discipline both by referring to the 25 elements (of Kapila) and the samyama process (of Patanjali). Based on this understanding of the process of the senses and internal-external faculties, Krishna advises Arjuna to fight the war and conquer the enemy, who, like passion, is obscuring his knowledge and deceiving his wisdom. [Highlighting added here]


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